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1.
Value Health ; 22(6): 693-703, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals are successful in curing hepatitis C virus infection in more than 95% of patients treated for 12 weeks, but they are expensive. Shortened treatment durations, which may have lower cure rates, have been proposed to reduce costs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the lifetime cost-effectiveness of different shortened treatment durations for genotype 1 noncirrhotic treatment-naive patients. METHODS: Assuming a UK National Health Service perspective, we used a probabilistic decision tree and Markov model to compare 3 unstratified shortened treatment durations (8, 6, and 4 weeks) against a standard 12-week treatment duration. Patients failing shortened first-line treatment were re-treated with a 12-week treatment regimen. Parameter inputs were taken from published studies. RESULTS: The 8-week treatment duration had an expected incremental net monetary benefit of £7737 (95% confidence interval £3242-£11 819) versus the standard 12-week treatment, per 1000 patients. The 6-week treatment had a positive incremental net monetary benefit, although some uncertainty was observed. The probability that the 8- and 6-week treatments were the most cost-effective was 56% and 25%, respectively, whereas that for the 4-week treatment was 17%. Results were generally robust to sensitivity analyses, including a threshold analysis that showed that the 8-week treatment was the most cost-effective at all drug prices lower than £40 000 per 12-week course. CONCLUSIONS: Shortening treatments licensed for 12 weeks to 8 weeks is cost-effective in genotype 1 noncirrhotic treatment-naive patients. There was considerable uncertainty in the estimates for 6- and 4-week treatments, with some indication that the 6-week treatment may be cost-effective.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Árvores de Decisões , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/economia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Cadeias de Markov , Sofosbuvir/economia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Medicina Estatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Reino Unido
2.
J Med Econ ; 19(12): 1144-1156, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27348464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the cost-effectiveness of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (GT1b) therapy ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) vs daclatasvir + asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) and no treatment in patients without cirrhosis. Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) that compared OBV/PTV/r against DCV/ASV and sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) in Y93H mutation-negative, GT1b patients with and without cirrhosis were also included. METHODS: A health state transition model was developed to capture the natural history of HCV. A CEA over a lifetime horizon was performed from the perspective of the public healthcare payer in Japan. Costs, health utilities, and rates of disease progression were derived from published studies. Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of OBV/PTV/r and DCV/ASV were extracted from Japanese clinical trials. Analyses were performed for treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Alternative scenarios and input parameter uncertainty on the results were tested. RESULTS: OBV/PTV/r exhibited superior clinical outcomes vs comparators. For OBV/PTV/r, DCV/ASV, and no treatment, the lifetime risk of decompensated cirrhosis in treatment-naïve patients without cirrhosis was 0.4%, 1.4%, and 9.2%, and hepatocellular carcinoma was 6.5%, 11.4%, and 49.9%, respectively. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were higher in treatment-naïve and -experienced patients without cirrhosis treated with OBV/PTV/r (16.41 and 16.22) vs DCV/ASV (15.83 and 15.66) or no treatment (11.34 and 11.23). In treatment-naïve and -experienced patients without cirrhosis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of OBV/PTV/r vs DCV/ASV were JPY 1,684,751/QALY and JPY 1,836,596/QALY, respectively; OBV/PTV/r was dominant compared with no treatment. In scenario analysis, including GT1b patients with and without cirrhosis who were Y93H mutation-negative, the ICER of OBV/PTV/r vs DCV/ASV was below the Japanese willingness-to-pay threshold of JPY 5 million/QALY, while the ICER of SOF/LDV vs OBV/PTV/r was above this threshold; thus, OBV/PTV/r was cost-effective. CONCLUSION: OBV/PTV/r appears to be a cost-effective treatment for chronic HCV GT1b infection against DCV/ASV. OBV/PTV/r dominates no treatment in patients without cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/economia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos
3.
Adv Ther ; 33(8): 1316-30, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342742

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: New treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are highly effective in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of treatments for genotype 1 (GT1) HCV in HIV-coinfected patients. METHODS: A Markov model based on HCV natural history was used. The base-case analysis included both treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Alternatives were ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir with or without ribavirin (3D ± R) for 12 or 24 weeks, sofosbuvir plus peginterferon and R (SOF + PR) for 12 weeks, SOF + R for 24 weeks, and no treatment (NT). A subgroup analysis restricted to treatment-naïve, non-cirrhotic patients compared 3D ± R for 12 weeks to SOF plus ledipasvir (LDV) for 12 weeks and NT. Transition probabilities, utilities, and costs were obtained from the published literature. Outcomes were measured over a lifetime horizon and included rates of compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death, total costs, life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). RESULTS: In the base-case, SOF + R was dominated by both SOF + PR and 3D ± R. Compared to SOF + PR, 3D ± R had an ICER of $45,581. The lifetime rates of liver morbidity and mortality were lower among those treated with 3D ± R compared to SOF + PR, SOF + R, or NT. In the subgroup analysis, 3D ± R was cost-effective compared to NT at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY (ICER $27,496). SOF/LDV had an ICER of $104,489 per QALY gained compared to 3D ± R. CONCLUSION: In the GT1 HCV population coinfected with HIV, 3D ± R was cost-effective compared to NT, SOF + R, and SOF + PR. In the treatment-naïve sub-population, 3D ± R was cost-effective compared to NT and SOF/LDV.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/economia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fluorenos/economia , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/economia , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/economia , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Recombinantes/economia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/economia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/economia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico
4.
Value Health ; 19(4): 326-34, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interferon-free hepatitis C treatment regimens are effective but very costly. The cost-effectiveness, budget, and public health impacts of current Medicaid treatment policies restricting treatment to patients with advanced disease remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of current Medicaid policies restricting hepatitis C treatment to patients with advanced disease compared with a strategy providing unrestricted access to hepatitis C treatment, assess the budget and public health impact of each strategy, and estimate the feasibility and long-term effects of increased access to treatment for patients with hepatitis C. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we compared two strategies for 45- to 55-year-old Medicaid beneficiaries: 1) Current Practice-only advanced disease is treated before Medicare eligibility and 2) Full Access-both early-stage and advanced disease are treated before Medicare eligibility. Patients could develop progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma, undergo transplantation, or die each year. Morbidity was reduced after successful treatment. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and compared the costs and public health effects of each strategy from the perspective of Medicare alone as well as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services perspective. We varied model inputs in one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Full Access was less costly and more effective than Current Practice for all cohorts and perspectives, with differences in cost ranging from $5,369 to $11,960 and in effectiveness from 0.82 to 3.01 quality-adjusted life-years. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, Full Access was cost saving in 93% of model iterations. Compared with Current Practice, Full Access averted 5,994 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 121 liver transplants per 100,000 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Current Medicaid policies restricting hepatitis C treatment to patients with advanced disease are more costly and less effective than unrestricted, full-access strategies. Collaboration between state and federal payers may be needed to realize the full public health impact of recent innovations in hepatitis C treatment.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hepatite C/economia , Medicaid/economia , Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/economia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/economia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritonavir/economia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Uridina Monofosfato/economia , Uridina Monofosfato/uso terapêutico
6.
J Med Econ ; 19(10): 983-94, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27172133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OMB/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV) compared with treatment regimens including pegylated interferon (PegIFN) for patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: An Excel spreadsheet Markov model tracking progression through stages of liver disease was developed. Costs and patient utilities for liver disease stages were taken from published studies. Rates of disease progression were based on studies of untreated HCV infection and long-term follow-up of those achieving sustained virologic response (SVR) after drug treatment. Impact of OMB/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV and other drug regimens on progression was estimated through SVR rates from clinical trials. Analyses were performed for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients. Impact of alternative scenarios and input parameter uncertainty on the results were tested. RESULTS: For genotype 1 treatment-naive HCV patients, for OMB/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV, PegIFN + ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV), sofosbuvir + PegIFN/RBV, telaprevir + PegIFN/RBV, boceprevir + PegIFN/RBV, lifetime risk of decompensated liver disease was 5.6%, 18.9%, 7.4%, 11.7%, and 14.9%; hepatocellular carcinoma was 5.4%, 9.2%, 5.7%, 7.0%, and 7.4%; and death from liver disease was 8.7%, 22.2%, 10.4%, 14.8%, and 17.6%, respectively. Estimates of the cost-effectiveness of OMB/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients indicated that it dominated all other regimens except PegIFN/RBV. Compared with PegIFN/RBV, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were £13,864 and £10,258 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, respectively. The results were similar for alternative scenarios and uncertainty analyses. LIMITATIONS: A mixed-treatment comparison for SVR rates for the different treatment regimens was not feasible, because many regimens did not have comparator arms; instead SVR rates were based on those from recent trials. CONCLUSIONS: OMB/PTV/r + DSV ± RBV is a cost-effective oral treatment regimen for chronic genotype 1 HCV infection compared with standard treatment regimens and is estimated to reduce the lifetime risks of advanced liver disease.


Assuntos
Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ritonavir , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico
7.
J Med Econ ; 19(8): 795-805, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27063573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the cost-effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral therapies currently recommended for treating genotypes (GT) 1 and 4 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in the US. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for CHC from a US payer's perspective over a lifelong time horizon was performed. A Markov model based on the natural history of CHC was used for a population that included treatment-naïve and -experienced patients. Treatment alternatives considered for GT1 included ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir ± ribavirin (3D ± R), sofosbuvir + ledipasvir (SOF/LDV), sofosbuvir + simeprevir (SOF + SMV), simeprevir + pegylated interferon/ribavirin (SMV + PR) and no treatment (NT). For GT4 treatments, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + ribavirin (2D + R), SOF/LDV and NT were compared. Transition probabilities, utilities and costs were obtained from published literature. Outcomes included rates of compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DCC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related death (LrD), total costs, life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs and QALYs were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS: In GT1 patients, 3D ± R and SOF-containing regimens have similar long-term outcomes; 3D ± R had the lowest lifetime risks of all liver disease outcomes: CC = 30.2%, DCC = 5.0 %, HCC = 6.8%, LT = 1.9% and LrD = 9.2%. In GT1 patients, 3D ± R had the lowest cost and the highest QALYs. As a result, 3D ± R dominated these treatment options. In GT4 patients, 2D + R had lower rates of liver morbidity and mortality, lower cost and more QALYs than SOF/LDV and NT. LIMITATIONS: While the results are based on input values, which were obtained from a variety of heterogeneous sources-including clinical trials, the findings were robust across a plausible range of input values, as demonstrated in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Among currently recommended treatments for GT1 and GT4 in the US, 3D ± R (for GT1) and 2D + R (for GT4) have a favorable cost-effectiveness profile.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/economia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/economia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fibrose/economia , Fibrose/epidemiologia , Fluorenos/economia , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/economia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econométricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ribavirina/economia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Simeprevir , Sofosbuvir/economia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico
8.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 29(6): 1011-9, 2016 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27104767

RESUMO

The complex of cobalt(II) with the ligand 2,12-dimethyl-3,7,11,17-tetraazabicyclo-[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17)2,11,13,15-pentaene (CoN4[11.3.1]) has been shown to bind two molecules of cyanide in a cooperative fashion with an association constant of 2.7 (±0.2) × 10(5). In vivo, irrespective of whether it is initially administered as the Co(II) or Co(III) cation, EPR spectroscopic measurements on blood samples show that at physiological levels of reductant (principally ascorbate) CoN4[11.3.1] becomes quantitatively reduced to the Co(II) form. However, following addition of sodium cyanide, a dicyano Co(III) species is formed, both in blood and in buffered aqueous solution at neutral pH. In keeping with other cobalt-containing cyanide-scavenging macrocycles like cobinamide and cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine, we found that CoN4[11.3.1] exhibits rapid oxygen turnover in the presence of the physiological reductant ascorbate. This behavior could potentially render CoN4[11.3.1] cytotoxic and/or interfere with evaluations of the antidotal capability of the complex toward cyanide through respirometric measurements, particularly since cyanide rapidly inhibits this process, adding further complexity. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of CoN4[11.3.1] as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of CoN4[11.3.1] prophylactically to sodium cyanide-intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving animals to recover from "knockdown" (unconsciousness) being significantly decreased (3 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (22 ± 5 min). All observations are consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of CoN4[11.3.1] operating through a cyanide-scavenging mechanism, which is associated with a Co(II) → Co(III) oxidation of the cation. To test for postintoxication neuromuscular sequelae, the ability of mice to remain in position on a rotating cylinder (RotaRod test) was assessed during and after recovery. While intoxicated animals given CoN4[11.3.1] did recover ∼30 min more quickly than controls given only toxicant, there were no indications of longer-term problems in either group, as determined by continuing the RotaRod testing up to 24 h after the intoxications and routine behavioral observations for a further week.


Assuntos
Antídotos/farmacologia , Cobalto/farmacologia , Corrinoides/economia , Corrinoides/farmacologia , Cianetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antídotos/química , Antídotos/economia , Cobalto/química , Cobalto/economia , Corrinoides/química , Cianetos/química , Cianetos/toxicidade , Compostos Macrocíclicos/síntese química , Compostos Macrocíclicos/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Bases de Schiff/síntese química , Bases de Schiff/química , Bases de Schiff/economia , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia
9.
Liver Int ; 36(4): 515-21, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26610059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Orthotopic liver transplant patients with recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) historically have had limited treatment options. Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir and ribavirin (3D+R) was approved by the FDA in December 2014 for liver transplant recipients with recurrent genotype 1 HCV, in whom it is effective and well-tolerated. METHODS: Using a two-phase Markov model, we analysed the cost-effectiveness of 3D+R in liver transplant recipients, the only HCV treatment with FDA approval in this population. As a sensitivity analysis, we also considered the cost-effectiveness of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, the only other therapy with data from Phase III trials in this population. Patients were given one of three options: 3D+R for 24 weeks, pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (PR48) or no treatment (NT). Patients were then followed through subsequent disease progression until death. Outcome measures analysed were: lifetime risks of liver morbidity and mortality, treatment costs, non-treatment medical expenditures, and quality-adjusted life years. RESULTS: Treatment with 3D+R was associated with a significantly lower lifetime risk of liver-related morbidity and mortality than treatment with PR48 or NT. 3D+R also was associated with a higher gain in quality-adjusted life years (11.3 compared to 8.25 with NT) and lower discounted overall costs ($423,585 compared to $724,757 with NT). CONCLUSIONS: The use of 3D+R for liver transplant recipients with recurrent HCV is an outcome-improving and cost-effective regimen for this population with limited treatment options and large unmet need.


Assuntos
Anilidas , Antivirais , Carbamatos , Custos de Medicamentos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/economia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos , Ribavirina , Ritonavir , Sulfonamidas , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Anilidas/economia , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carbamatos/economia , Carbamatos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Humanos , Transplante de Fígado/mortalidade , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Fenótipo , Recidiva , Ribavirina/economia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir/economia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral , Ativação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 15: 98, 2015 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26239358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard care of treatment of interferon plus ribavirin (plus protease inhibitor for genotype 1) are effective in 50 % to 70 % of patients with CHC. Several new treatments including Harvoni, Olysio + Sovaldi, Viekira Pak, Sofosbuvir-based regimens characterized with potent inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) providing more options for CHC patients. Trials have shown that the new treatments increased the rate to 80% to 95%, though with a substantial increase in cost. In particular, current market pricing of a 12-week course of sofosbuvir is approximately US$84,000. We determine the cost-effectiveness of new treatments in comparison with the standard care of treatments. METHODS: A Markov simulation model of CHC disease progression is used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment strategies based on genotype. The model calculates the expected lifetime medical costs and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) of hypothetical cohorts of identical patients receiving certain treatments. For genotype 1, we compare: (1) peginterferon + ribavirin + telaprevir for 12 weeks, followed by 12 or 24 weeks treatment of peginterferon + ribavirin dependent on HCV RNA level at week 12; (2) Harvoni treatment, 12 weeks; (3) Olysio + Sovaldi, 12 weeks for patients without cirrhosis, 24 weeks for patients with cirrhosis; (4) Viekira Pak + ribavirin, 12 weeks for patients without cirrhosis, 24 weeks for patients with cirrhosis; (5) sofosbuvir + peginterferon + ribavirin, 12 weeks for patients with or without cirrhosis. For genotypes 2 and 3, treatment strategies include: (1) peginterferon + ribavirin, 24 weeks for treatment-naïve patients; (2) sofosbuvir + ribavirin, 12 weeks for patients with genotype 2, 24 weeks for genotype 3; (3) peginterferon + ribavirin as initial treatment, 24 weeks for patients with genotype 2/3, follow-up treatment with sofosbuvir + ribavirin for 12/16 weeks are performed on non-responders and relapsers. RESULTS: Viekira Pak is cost-effective for genotype 1 patients without cirrhosis, whereas Harvoni is cost-effective for genotype 1 patients with cirrhosis. Sofosbuvir-based treatments for genotype 1 in general are not cost-effective due to its substantial high costs. Two-phase treatments with 12-week and 16-week follow-ups are cost-effective for genotype 3 patients and for genotype 2 patients with cirrhosis. The results were shown to be robust over a broad range of parameter values through sensitivity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: For genotype 1, sofosbuvir-based treatments are not cost-effective compared to Viekira Pak and Harvoni, although a 30% reduction in sofosbuvir price would change this result. Sofosbuvir + ribavirin are cost-effective as second-phase treatments following peginterferon + ribavirin initial treatment for genotypes 2 and 3. However, there is limited data on sofosbuvir-involved treatment, and the results obtained in this study must be interpreted within the model assumptions.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sofosbuvir/economia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/economia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada/economia , Feminino , Fluorenos/economia , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferons/economia , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Compostos Macrocíclicos/economia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ribavirina/economia , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/economia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Simeprevir/economia , Simeprevir/uso terapêutico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Uracila/economia , Uracila/uso terapêutico , Uridina Monofosfato/análogos & derivados , Uridina Monofosfato/economia , Uridina Monofosfato/uso terapêutico
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