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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11444-11453, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592644

RESUMO

Innovative approaches to develop flavors with high sensory appeal are critical in encouraging increased consumer preference and adoption of low sodium foods. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, coupled with stable isotope dilution assays and sensory experiments, led to the identification of the odorants responsible for an enhancement in saltiness perception of chicken broth prepared with thermally treated enzymatically hydrolyzed mushroom protein and cysteine, then reacted under kitchen-like cooking conditions. Comparative aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 36 odorants with flavor dilution factors between a range of 1 and 256. Sixteen odorants were quantitated and odor activity values (OAVs) calculated. Important odorants included 2-furfurylthiol (coffee, OAV 610), 1-(2-furyl)ethanethiol (meaty, OAV 78), 3-sulfanylpentan-2-one (catty, OAV 42), sotolon (maple, OAV 20), indole (animal, OAV 8), 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan (meaty, OAV 3), and p-cresol (barnyard, OAV 1). An odor simulation model was evaluated in two consumer sensory studies. These studies confirmed that the addition of the aroma model increased the perceived saltiness of low sodium chicken broth (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Cisteína/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Gustatória , Agaricus/metabolismo , Cloretos/análise , Cloretos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Culinária , Cisteína/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Hidrólise , Olfatometria , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
2.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1107-1115, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561301

RESUMO

Two analytical techniques - online Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionization Detector (often used method for VOCs monitoring) versus Selected Ion Flow Tube coupled with Mass Spectrometry (a more recent technique based on direct mass spectrometry) - were compared in association to an ozone-based gas treatment. Selecting aldehydes as the representative VOCs, their concentrations were monitored during ozonation experiments by both techniques in parallel. Contradictory results were obtained in the presence of ozone. Aldehydes were up to 90% removed due to a reaction with ozone according to GC/FID analysis, whereas with SIFT/MS, aldehydes concentration remained at the same level during the experiments regardless of the ozone presence. In addition, it was demonstrated that the apparent aldehydes removal was affected by GC injector temperature, varying from 90% (when it was at 250 °C) to 60% (at 100 °C). Meanwhile, even when the ozonation reactor was heated to 100 °C, no aldehydes conversion was evidenced by SIFT/MS, suggesting that the GC injector temperature was not the only interference-causing parameter. The ozone-aldehyde reaction is probably catalyzed by some material of GC injector and/or column. An ozone-GC interference was therefore confirmed, making unsuitable the use of GC/FID with silicone stationary phase to monitor aldehydes in presence of high concentrations of ozone (at least 50 ppmv). On the other hand, SIFT/MS was validated as a reliable technique, which can be employed in order to measure VOCs concentrations in ozonation processes.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Ionização de Chama/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Ozônio/química , Aldeídos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11454-11463, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529950

RESUMO

Commercial fragrant rapeseed oil (CFRO), from roasted and hot-pressed seeds, is enjoyed in China for its unique aroma. However, the characteristic of aroma-active compounds in CFRO is still unclear. In this study, a new odor monolithic material sorptive extraction method was established to trap volatiles from rapeseed oil. Thirty CFROs were investigated using this method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 29 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry including pyrazines, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Further, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (peanut-like), 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethylpyrazine (roasted nut-like), dimethyl trisulfide (cabbage-like), 4-isothiocyanato-1-butene (pungent and pickle-like), butyrolactone (caramel-like), and benzyl nitrile (pungent and sulfur-like) are affirmed as the key odorants for the overall aroma of CFRO, owing to their odor activity values ≥1. This work provides a new insight on acquiring aroma-active compounds from rapeseed oil in a more time-effective process compared to conventional methods. Futhermore, this novel approach is applicable in the field of food flavor.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adsorção , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olfatometria , Óleo de Brassica napus/economia , Sementes/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11187-11197, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552744

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effect of glucosinolate (GSL) degradation on the volatile odor of rapeseed oil (RO) during roasting. Volatile compounds of RO and individual GSL contents in the seeds were identified and measured during roasting, separately. Total GSL content decreased by 30.47-84.44%. Nitriles were the key volatile compounds that were negatively correlated with GSLs for all samples. Results indicate that GSL degradation significantly affects the volatile odor of RO and tends to produce low-carbon nitriles. Furthermore, the thermal degradation pathways of GSLs were explored according to the structure of individual GSLs and nitriles. These results provide information for the thermal degradation pathways of GSLs and the formation mechanism of nitriles during seed roasting.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Brassica rapa/química , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 492-503, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008286

RESUMO

The aim of the present work was to optimize the main experimental variables of a procedure using HS-SPME/GC-MS as the analytical methodology to establish the profile of the volatile compounds present in aerial parts of Hedeoma multiflorum Benth. The influence of the type of fiber, equilibrium time, extraction time and extraction temperature on the composition of the volatile compounds was determined using response surface methodology (RSM), and the parameters of the models were corroborated by multiple linear regressions. The results showed that the regression models generated adequately explained the data variation and represented the relationships between the parameters and their responses. The optimal analysis conditions from the contour plots were established (DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber, with a 10 min equilibrium time, 10 min extraction time, and 40°C). Under these conditions, 41 volatile components in the whole plant were determined, which represents more than those reported using hydrodistillation.


El objetivo del presente trabajo fue optimizar las principales variables experimentales de un procedimiento HS-SPME/GC para establecer el perfil de compuestos volátiles presentes en la parte aérea de Hedeoma multiflorum Benth. Se determinó la influencia de las variables tipo de fibra, tiempo de equilibrio, tiempo de extracción y temperatura de extracción sobre la composición de los volátiles, utilizando una met odología de superficie de respuesta (RSM) y los parámetros del modelo se corroboraron por regresión lineal múltiple. Los resultados demostraron que los modelos de regresión generados explican adecuadamente la variación de los datos y representaron significativamente las relaciones reales entre los parámetros y sus respuestas. Las condiciones óptimas de análisis fueron establecidas (DVB/CAR/PDMS, con un tiempo de equilibrio de 10 minutos, un tiempo de extracción de 10 minutos y trabajando a 40°C). Utilizando esta metodología, se determinaron 41 componentes volátiles en planta entera, más que los reportados mediante hidrodestilación.


Assuntos
Hedeoma , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121857, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377511

RESUMO

In the present work, a complete study of the sewage sludge (SS) biodrying technology was conducted at bench-scale, aiming at assessing its performance and providing a valuable insight into the different gaseous emission patterns found for greenhouse gases (GHG) and odorant pollutants. As process key parameters, temperature, specific airflow, dynamic respiration index, final moisture content and Lower Calorific Value (LCV) were evaluated. At the end of the biodrying, a product with a 35.9% moisture content and a LCV of 7.1 MJ·kg-1product was obtained. GHGs emission factor was 28.22 kgCO2eq per Mg of initial mass of dry matter in the SS (DM0-SS). During the biodrying process, maximum odour concentration measured was 3043 ou·m-3 and the estimated odour emission factor of the biological treatment was 3.10E + 07 ou per Mg DM0-SS. Finally, VOCs were completely identified and quantified. The most abundant VOCs found in the biodrying gaseous emissions were terpenes, sulphur-compounds and ketones.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa/química , Odorantes , Esgotos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 657-666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407199

RESUMO

The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, is an invasive pest in Europe causing damage on Buxus species. In this study, we aimed to develop a "bisexual" lure to attract both female and male moths. Based on a previous screening bioassay we tested methyl salicylate, phenylacetaldehyde and eugenol as potential attractants in different combinations. The trapping results showed that both binary and ternary blends attracted male and female moths. Catches with these blends were comparable to catches with the synthetic pheromone. Subsequently we carried out single sensillum recordings, which proved the peripheral detection of the above-mentioned compounds on male and female antennae. To identify synergistic flower volatiles, which can be also attractive and can increase the trap capture, we collected flower headspace volatiles from 12 different flowering plant species. Several components of the floral scents evoked good responses from antennae of both females and males in gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection. The most active components were tentatively identified by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry as benzaldehyde, cis-ß-ocimene, (±)-linalool and phenethyl alcohol. These selected compounds in combination did not increase significantly the trap capture compared to the methyl salicylate- phenyacetaldehyde blend. Based on these results we discovered the first attractive blend, which was able to attract both adult male and female C. perspectalis in field conditions. These results will yield a good basis for the optimization and development of a practically usable bisexual lure against this invasive pest.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/fisiologia , Feromônios/farmacologia , Animais , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Feminino , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Feromônios/análise , Robinia/química , Robinia/metabolismo , Rosa/química , Rosa/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10273-10284, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418566

RESUMO

Shiraz wine volatomes from two Australian geographical indications (GIs), that is, Orange and Riverina, were compared using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Shiraz wines were made in triplicate from grapes harvested at two harvest dates from six vineyards in the two GIs. A total of 133 compounds showed a significant trend between wines from the cooler Orange GI and warmer Riverina. Compounds associated with wines from the cooler climate were grape-derived volatiles, such as monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, green leaf volatiles, and some norisoprenoids. Fermentation-derived compounds, such as esters and S-containing compounds, showed no specific trend related to grape origin. In addition, wines could be also clearly separated according to the harvest date, irrespective of the climate, with C6 compounds, higher alcohol acetates, and other esters contributing utmost to the differentiation of samples, whereas terpenoids and norisoprenoids did not have an influence. This study demonstrated the plasticity of wine volatome related to grape origin and also the maturity level (harvest date), irrespective of climate.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vinho/análise , Austrália , Clima , Análise Discriminante , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Terpenos/química
9.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 693-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367970

RESUMO

Crop domestication and selective breeding have altered plant defense mechanisms, influencing insect-plant interactions. A reduction in plant resistance/tolerance against herbivory is generally expected in domesticated species, however, limited efforts have been made to compare inducibility of plant defenses between wild and domesticated genotypes. In the present study, the inducibility of several plant defense mechanisms (e.g. defensive chemicals, trichomes, plant volatiles) were investigated, and the performance and preference of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea were measured in three different tomato genotypes; a) wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (accession LA 2093), b) cherry tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (accession Matts Wild Cherry), and c) cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. Better Boy). Enhanced inducibility of defensive chemicals, trichomes, and plant volatiles in the cultivated tomato, and a higher level of constitutive plant resistance against herbivory in the wild genotype was observed. When comparing the responses of damaged vs. undamaged leaves, the percent reduction in larval growth was higher on damaged leaves from cultivated tomato, suggesting a higher induced resistance compared to other two genotypes. While all tomato genotypes exhibited increased volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions in response to herbivory, the cultivated variety responded with generally higher levels of VOCs. Differences in VOC patterns may have influenced the ovipositional preferences, as H. zea female moths significantly preferred laying eggs on the cultivated versus the wild tomato genotypes. Selection of traits during domestication and selective breeding could alter allocation of resources, where plants selected for higher yield performance would allocate resources to defense only when attacked.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Solanum/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
10.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 715-724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385154

RESUMO

Plants emit a specific blend of volatiles in response to herbivory and these volatiles, which often attract predators and parasitoids function as an indirect plant defense. The impact of plant volatiles in shaping herbivore defenses is unclear. Here, we report that specific plant volatiles induce immune responses in the polyphagous herbivore, Spodoptera litura. We characterized the hemocyte profile and established their functional significance with respect to ontogeny and exposure to specific plant volatiles. Fifth instar larvae showed the highest number and hemocytes diversity. We characterized seven different types of hemocytes, of which granulocytes performed phagocytosis, oenocytoids showed melanization activity, and plasmatocytes along with granulocytes and oenocytoids were found to be involved in encapsulation. Among the six volatiles tested, exposure to (E)-ß-ocimene caused the highest increase in total hemocytes number (THC) followed by linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate exposure. Although THC did not differ between these three volatile treatments, circulating hemocytes diversity varied significantly. (E)-ß-ocimene exposure showed higher number of plasmatocytes and phenol oxidase activity. The interaction of the parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis with (E)-ß-ocimene exposed larvae was poor in terms of delayed paralysis and lower egg deposition. In choice assays, the wasp showed clear preference towards control larvae indicating (E)-ß-ocimene treatment renders the host unattractive. Hemocyte profiles post-parasitoid exposure and (E)-ß-ocimene treatment were similar indicating cue-based priming. When challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis, linalool exposure resulted in the highest survival as compared to other volatiles. Our results show that specific HIPVs can modulate cellular immunity of S. litura, revealing a new role for HIPVs in tri-trophic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vespas/imunologia
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6868-6881, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papaya, as one of the most important tropical fruits in the world, is easily subjected to chilling injury (CI). Research on the effect of chilling temperature storage on the metabolic changes of papaya peel is limited. RESULTS: Chilling temperature (4 °C) inhibited fruit ripening and induced CI on papaya fruit. Additionally, low temperature altered the concentrations of 45 primary metabolites and 52 aroma volatile compounds in the papaya peel. Papaya fruit stored at different temperatures could be separated using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with primary metabolites and volatile compounds as variables. In total, 18 primary metabolites and 22 volatiles with variable importance in projection (VIP) score higher than one might be considered as potential markers in papaya peel in response to chilling stress. Metabolites related to aroma, such as organic acid, amino acids, hexanal, carbonic acid, pentadecyl propyl ester and methyl geranate, caryophyllene accounted for major part of the metabolism changes of papaya peel and contributed a lot in response to cold stress. CONCLUSION: This study added new insights regarding effect of chilling stress on metabolites in papaya peel. Some important metabolites might be indicator for chilling stress and detection of these metabolites will guide us to regulate the storage temperature to avoid chilling and to prolong storage of papaya fruit. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Carica/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Carica/química , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2432-2440, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408216

RESUMO

Volatile profiles of oat-based foods are mainly analyzed on the oat flakes and porridge as snack or breakfast, whereas the volatile characteristics of the traditional Chinese oat meal (TCOM), a popular main food in some regions of northern China, with special strong aroma, are not known. Here, we compared the volatile profiles from headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of oat porridge (OP) and TCOM, which were of different processing and cooking methods, from those of different cultivars, and analyzed the effect of cultivation locations on oat volatile features. Apart from the 35 volatiles shared by OP and TCOM, there were 23 and 24 volatiles specific to OP and TCOM, respectively, with the later showing more toasting and frying-related volatiles due to the dry frying process of the grains before milling. Principle component analysis of the volatiles of OP and TCOM from 16 cultivars showed that they were clustered into two groups, and four cultivars were clustered together, independent of processing and cooking methods. The oat volatile profiles of cultivars grown in three regions of north China were dependent on the cultivation locations rather than cultivars, regardless of OP or TCOM, with those from Datong of Shanxi Province and Zhangjiakou of Hebei Province clustered together. The location effect could be due to significant less precipitation in the two regions above than the other region Ulanqab of Inner Mongolia. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The volatile compounds in oat are closely related to cultivation regions, which could be applied as a key factor by oat producers for marketing. The four cultivars showed similar and stable volatile profiles, which could be used as reference cultivars for breeding of high-quality oat with better flavor.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Avena/classificação , China , Alimentos Especializados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sementes/química , Sementes/classificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2441-2448, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429494

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the volatile profile of Kedong sufu, which is a typical bacteria-fermented soybean product in China, using solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and to reveal the evolution and diversity of flavor substances for this specialty. A total of 75 compounds were identified, including 35 esters, 4 alcohols, 4 phenols, 4 aldehydes, 7 acids, 10 ketones, and 11 other compounds from sufu samples during ripening. Some volatile compounds increased with ripening time, especially hexadecenoic acid ethyl ester, methoxy acetic acid pentyl ester, benzene propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl 9-hexadecenoate, ethyl oleate, ethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 5-methoxy-1-pentanol, and eugenol; these compounds enriched the flavors and provided the typical savory taste of Kedong sufu. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This research elucidated the formation of flavor substances in sufu. For traditional fermented foods, this study provides a scientific basis for promoting the generation of typical flavor substances and for the precise determination of maturity time.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia , Paladar
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 307: 108276, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408741

RESUMO

A nonpathogenic endophytic bacterial isolate, recovered from Fragaria × ananassa stolon, and its antifungal activity against Colletotrichum nymphaeae was evaluated under in vitro, in vivo, and greenhouse conditions. Bacterial isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sciuri MarR44 (Strain ID: WDCM 891 = CCSM-B 00640) using phenotypic and biochemical properties and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA gene sequences. The living cells of strain MarR44 inhibited mycelial growth of C. nymphaeae (52.46%) using dual-culture method. The volatile compounds (VOCs) produced by MarR44 inhibited mycelial growth and conidial germination of C. nymphaeae by 34.52% and 82.81%, respectively. However, inhibition percentage of mycelial growth of pathogen by culture filtrates of the strain MarR44 was lower (23.07%) than that for the two dual culture and volatile compounds assay tests. Moreover, the cell-free-culture filtrates of this strain reduced the biomass and conidial germination of pathogen by 91.89% and 41.10%, respectively. Also, the strain MarR44 was capable of producing protease, chitinase, HCN, siderophore, IAA, gibberellin, and biofilm. The living cells and volatile compounds of the strain MarR44 reduced anthracnose disease at post-harvest on fruit by 52.45% and 72.17%, respectively. Furthermore, disease severity of strawberry anthracnose was reduced using drenching soil and inoculated plants methods by 77.77 and 72.22%, respectively, 60 days after inoculation. The VOCs released by strain MarR44 were analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Out of 24 identified VOCs, Mesityl oxide (81.436%), Acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester (3.442%), 4-Methyldecane (1.837%), 4-Penten-2-one,4-methyl- (1.739%), Toluene (1.248%), and o-Xylene (1.24%) were the major components. The mode of action of S. sciuri MarR44 on the C. nymphaeae was through the production of antifungal volatile compounds (Antibiosis), which inhibited mycelial growth and conidial germination of pathogen in vitro and fruit decay development in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. sciuri having antifungal activity against causal agent strawberry anthracnose. These results indicated that the VOCs of S. sciuri strain MarR44 are promising biofumigant for management of strawberry anthracnose.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9468-9476, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379158

RESUMO

The aroma quality of citrus fruit is determined by volatiles that are present at extremely low levels in the citrus fruit juice sacs; it can be greatly improved by increasing volatiles. In this study, we showed that the contents of cis- and trans-linalool oxides were significantly increased in the juice sacs of three pummelos artificially pollinated with the Citrus mangshanensis (MS) pollen. A novel cytochrome P450 78A7 gene (CitLO1) was significantly upregulated in the juice sacs of Huanong Red pummelo pollinated with MS pollen in comparison to that with open pollination. Compared to wild-type tobacco Bright-Yellow2 cells, transgenic cells overexpressing CitLO1 promoted a 3- to 4-fold more conversion of (-)-linalool to cis- and trans-linalool oxides. Overall, our results suggest that MS pollen has a xenia effect on pummelo fruit aroma quality, and CitLO1 is a linalool oxide synthase gene that played an important role in the xenia effect.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Cicloexanóis/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Compostos de Tritil/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Citrus/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 301: 125252, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374532

RESUMO

The efficacy of two sodium reduction strategies in preserving sensory profile and consumer liking of yeasted wheat bread was tested, by combining sensory data, aroma compounds and consumer investigations. The use of (i) a reduced-sodium salt substitute, Pansalt® (NaCl 57%, other salts and minor ingredients) at 1.5%, and (ii) the heterogeneous NaCl distribution (average level of 1%) leading to enhanced saltiness by taste contrast, were compared with standard (1.5%) and reduced (1.0%) addition of NaCl. The heterogeneous NaCl distribution was effective in preserving saltiness. Salt substitution with Pansalt® was less effective but preserved the overall flavour. Higher amount of Maillard reaction volatile products, associated with more intense toasted odour of the crust, was found in breads with higher NaCl content. The consumer survey highlighted satisfactory results of Pansalt® use for 58% of the respondents (equal or higher liking and purchase intention). Heterogeneous salt distribution was effective for 31% of consumers.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Paladar , Triticum/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Humanos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8926-8937, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352781

RESUMO

The volatile compounds found in mangoes (Mangifera indica L.) obtained from three cultivars (TN, Tainong no. 1; KT, Keitt; and ZL, Zill; grown in China) were comprehensively analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and GC-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) analyses. The results showed that 42, 35, and 45 compounds were identified in the TN, KT, and ZL samples, respectively. From these compounds, 19, 14, and 20 compounds were identified as important odorants with odor activity values (OAVs) greater than 1. Of these, 5, 7, and 5 sulfur compounds were respectively identified in the three samples by FPD. Importantly, methanethiol, ethanethiol, 1-propanethiol, methyl propyl disulfide, and 3-mercapto-1-hexanol were detected for the first time in mango. Five sulfur compounds were selected to study interactions using Feller's additive model, OAV, and Vector model. Among these mixtures, six mixtures exhibited a masking effect, three mixtures presented an additive effect, and one mixture showed a synergistic effect.


Assuntos
Mangifera/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , China , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mangifera/classificação , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 125064, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260954

RESUMO

Edible films based on gelatin and chitosan have high gas and aroma barrier properties. This study focused on their capability to sorbed/retain aroma compounds (1-hexanal, 2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, 3-hexanone and phenol) at three relative humidity level (≤2%, 53% or 84% RH). Whatever the relative humidity condition, the order of sorption is keton (3-hexanone) < aldehyde (1-hexanal) < aliphatic alcohols (2-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol) < phenol. This order could be related to the intrinsic chemical properties of aroma compounds. The increase in moisture enhanced the sorption at the highest RH for all the aroma compounds. However, a competition between water and aliphatic alcohols is observed at 53%RH. All compounds have an ideal sorption behaviour (logarithmic increase) except 1-hexanal. The sorption of 1-hexanal, 1-hexanol, 2-hexen-1-ol and 3-hexanone induced an antiplasticization of the network by increasing the film Tg by more than 5 °C. On the contrary, phenol was an efficient plasticizer at least as high as moisture.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Gelatina/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adsorção , Álcoois/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cromatografia Gasosa , Umidade , Cetonas/química , Cinética , Fenol/química , Temperatura Ambiente
19.
Food Chem ; 298: 125062, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280088

RESUMO

The industrial transformation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) produces processed foods, such as dried tomatoes. In this study two varieties (SaAb and PerBruzzo), grown in three cropping systems (one conventional and two organic ones), were processed by two types of small-scale drying (oven or sun drying), over two years of production. The dried samples were analyzed for their non-volatile and volatile composition, relating the results with sensory analysis. The multivariate analysis performed on collected data allowed a detailed comparison of the effects of processing, year-to year variation and cropping systems. Results indicated that drying methods mainly influenced the composition and flavor profile, also affected by the production year. The cropping system significantly influenced some quality indices, such as the acid and sugar amounts, and the aldehydes, respectively higher and lower in organic samples. The comprehensive PCA analysis allowed discrimination of drying methods and, to a lesser extent, cropping systems.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Agricultura Orgânica , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8599-8608, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287302

RESUMO

Because foods are perceived through combined inputs from taste and odor, which are determined by the concentration of the individual odor and taste molecules, the unified high-throughput quantitation of volatile odorants and non-volatile tastants with the very same instrumental setup has been a long-standing but yet unmet dream. The research presented here for the first time demonstrates, after only minimal sample workup, the highly accurate, rapid, and sensitive unified quantitation of odorants and tastants of key flavor molecules in apple juice on a single ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) platform over a large dynamic range of up to 6 orders of magnitude. While flavor-active aldehydes, ketones, and organic acids were analyzed after derivatization with 3-nitrophenylhydrazine, taste-active polyphenols and odor-active esters were directly analyzed by means of UHPLC-MS/MS with and without target analyte enrichment through stir-bar sorptive extraction. This "unified flavor quantitation" approach holds promise to accelerate the transition of today's labor and time-consuming, low-throughput analysis of odorants and tastants into a new era of high-performance quantitation of key flavor molecules.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Aromatizantes/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Malus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
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