Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 23
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Org Lett ; 21(8): 2851-2854, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945870

RESUMO

Luteolide is a 10-membered aliphatic macrolactone, (4 R,8 S,9 S)-4,8-dimethylundecan-9-olide ((-) -17), released by the femoral gland of males of the mantellid frog Gephyromantis luteus. Its structure was established using NMR, MS, and chiral GC and confirmed by stereoselective synthesis of different stereoisomers. Among the approximately 20 current macrolides known from the Mantellidae, luteolide is the first example of a volatile macrolide furnishing three stereogenic centers and an ethyl side chain.


Assuntos
Macrolídeos/síntese química , Macrolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Feromônios/síntese química , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anuros , Catálise , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 59-74, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598469

RESUMO

Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O3/OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.


Assuntos
Tensoativos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(15): 4342-4346, 2017 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276609

RESUMO

The analysis of volatiles from bacterial cultures revealed long-chain aliphatic nitriles, a new class of natural products. Such nitriles are produced by both Gram-positive Micromonospora echinospora and Gram-negative Pseudomonas veronii bacteria, although the structures differ. A variable sequence of chain elongation and dehydration in the fatty acid biosynthesis leads to either unbranched saturated or unsaturated nitriles with an ω-7 double bond, such as (Z)-11-octadecenenitrile, or methyl-branched unsaturated nitriles with the double bond located at C-3, such as (Z)-13-methyltetradec-3-enenitrile. The nitrile biosynthesis starts from fatty acids, which are converted into their amides and finally dehydrated. The structures and biosyntheses of the 19 naturally occurring compounds were elucidated by mass spectrometry, synthesis, and feeding experiments with deuterium-labeled precursors. Some of the nitriles showed antimicrobial activity, for example, against multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.


Assuntos
Micromonospora/química , Nitrilos/análise , Pseudomonas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrilos/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 65(9): 713-22, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477074

RESUMO

The effect of dihydrosphingosine (d18:0) on triacylglycerol (TAG) oxidation was examined with and without α-tocopherol. Three types of TAG from fish, linseed, and soybean oil were oxidized at 50°C to determine the effect of dihydrosphingosine (d18:0) with or without α-tocopherol on triacylglycerol (TAG) oxidation. The analysis of oxygen consumption and total volatile formation demonstrated a small effect of d18:0 on TAG oxidation in the absence of α-tocopherol. On the other hand, the combination of d18:0 with α-tocopherol showed strong antioxidant activity and completely inhibited volatile formation within 1400 h for soybean oil TAG, 650 h for linseed oil TAG, and 380 h for fish oil TAG.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Triglicerídeos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , alfa-Tocoferol/química , Conformação Molecular , Oxirredução , Esfingosina/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
5.
J Chem Ecol ; 42(4): 314-22, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27108451

RESUMO

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) play a role in indirect defense of plants under attack by root herbivores. Several investigations have shown that EPNs are attracted or repelled by various volatile compounds (VOCs) released from insect damaged plant roots. We hypothesized that the directional responses of EPNs to the VOCs would be affected by foraging strategy and would vary among species, VOC type, and VOC concentrations. We tested the chemotactic responses of four commercial EPN species (Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) to seven compounds released from insect (Melolontha hippocastani)-damaged (decanal, nonanal, octanal, undecane, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene) and undamaged (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) potato tubers. Our results suggest that EPNs are able to distinguish herbivore-induced VOCs from those that are typical for healthy potato tubers. In our investigation, nonanal, octanal, and decanal had a greater influence on the movement of EPNs than other tested synthetic volatiles. Decanal was an attractant for H. bacteriophora and S. kraussei at both tested concentrations (as a pure compound and at a concentration of 0.03 ppm). The results suggest that the susceptibility to perception of chemical stimuli from the environment is a species-specific characteristic that prevails over the influence of the foraging strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rabditídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Rabditídios/fisiologia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rabditídios/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
6.
Int J Pharm ; 496(2): 709-16, 2015 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26581772

RESUMO

Cross-linked calcium alginate gels are too viscous to be efficaciously incorporated into spray dried formulations. Thus, viscosity reduction is essential to ensure the processability of calcium alginate gels to be sprayed. Viscosity reduction by high pressure homogenization can open new formulation possibilities. Presently, testing of microcapsule integrity is also limited because either single particle tests neglect collective particle behaviours in bulk or bulk testing methods are often associated with single compressions which may not fully characterize individual particle strengths. The aim of this study was sub-divided into three objectives. First objective was to evaluate the impact of high pressure homogenization on gel viscosity. Second objective was to explore the use of the homogenized gels with modified starch for microencapsulation by spray drying. The final objective was to develop a stamping system as microcapsule strength tester that can assess microcapsules in bulk and evaluate the impact of multiple compressions. Collectively, this study would lead towards developing a pressure-activated patch of microcapsules with encapsulated volatiles and the method to assess the patch efficacy. The alginate gels largely experienced an exponential decay in viscosity when homogenized. Furthermore, the homogenized gels were successfully incorporated in spray drying formulations for microencapsulation. The custom-designed microcapsule strength tester was successfully used and shown to possess the required sensitivity to discern batches of microcapsules containing volatiles to have different release profiles. Addition of homogenized gels strengthened the microcapsules only at high wall to core ratios with low mass-load alginate gels. High mass-load gels weaken the microcapsules, exhibiting a higher release at low stamping pressures and wrinkling on the microcapsules surface.


Assuntos
Alginatos/síntese química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/síntese química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Ácido Glucurônico/síntese química , Ácidos Hexurônicos/síntese química , Viscosidade , Volatilização
7.
J Chem Ecol ; 41(7): 670-7, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26149425

RESUMO

We report the identification of a novel pheromone structure from males of the cerambycid beetle Tylonotus bimaculatus Haldeman (Cerambycinae: Hesperophanini), a species native to eastern North America. Volatiles collected from adult males contained (2S,4E)-2-hydroxyoct-4-en-3-one (71%), (3R,4E)-3-hydroxyoct-4-en-2-one (15%), (E)-4-octen-2,3-dione (13%), and 2,3-octanedione (1.5%). Four independent field bioassays with synthetic compounds confirmed that adults of both sexes were attracted by the racemate of the major component, (E)-2-hydroxyoct-4-en-3-one. No other cerambycid species were attracted in significant numbers. Attraction of both sexes is consistent with the male-produced pheromones of many other species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, but T. bimaculatus is unusual in having a pheromone chemistry that is so far unique among species in that subfamily.


Assuntos
Besouros/metabolismo , Cetonas/metabolismo , Octanóis/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Besouros/química , Feminino , Cetonas/análise , Cetonas/síntese química , Masculino , Octanóis/análise , Octanóis/síntese química , Atrativos Sexuais/análise , Atrativos Sexuais/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(23): 7123-8, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26015574

RESUMO

Oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have a major influence on the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden and the production of atmospheric nanoparticles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigate the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) from O3 and OH radical oxidation of several monoterpenes and isoprene in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that ELVOC from all precursors are formed within the first minute after the initial attack of an oxidant. We demonstrate that under atmospherically relevant concentrations, species with an endocyclic double bond efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis, whereas the yields from OH radical-initiated reactions are smaller. If the double bond is exocyclic or the compound itself is acyclic, ozonolysis produces less ELVOC and the role of the OH radical-initiated ELVOC formation is increased. Isoprene oxidation produces marginal quantities of ELVOC regardless of the oxidant. Implementing our laboratory findings into a global modeling framework shows that biogenic SOA formation in general, and ELVOC in particular, play crucial roles in atmospheric CCN production. Monoterpene oxidation products enhance atmospheric new particle formation and growth in most continental regions, thereby increasing CCN concentrations, especially at high values of cloud supersaturation. Isoprene-derived SOA tends to suppress atmospheric new particle formation, yet it assists the growth of sub-CCN-size primary particles to CCN. Taking into account compound specific monoterpene emissions has a moderate effect on the modeled global CCN budget.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Atmosfera , Modelos Teóricos , Ozônio/química
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 190: 211-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25958144

RESUMO

The pyrolysis mechanism of hemicellulose has been investigated using two minimally damaged hemicellulose polymers isolated from two agricultural straw samples. The obtained hemicelluloses have been characterized by multiple methods, and the results showed that they were mainly composed of l-arabino-4-O-methyl-d-glucurono-d-xylan. Their O-acetyl groups and high degrees of polymerization and branching were well preserved. Their pyrolyses were subsequently investigated by TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS. The evolutions of four typical volatile components and the distributions of eight product species were scrutinized. A DG-DAEM kinetic model was applied to quantify the contributions of two major pyrolytic routes for devolatilization during hemicellulose pyrolysis. A mean activation energy of 150kJ/mol for the formation of volatiles was derived. The thermal stability of each bond in four typical fragments of hemicellulose was assessed by DFT study, and the deduced decomposition pathways were in agreement with experimental analysis.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Calefação/métodos , Resíduos Industriais/prevenção & controle , Polissacarídeos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Xilanos/síntese química , Transferência de Energia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Polímeros
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(7): 1915-31, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25639384

RESUMO

Lemons (Citrus limon) are a desirable citrus fruit grown and used globally in a wide range of applications. The main constituents of this sour-tasting fruit have been well quantitated and characterized. However, additional research is still necessary to better understand the trace volatile compounds that may contribute to the overall aroma of the fruit. In this study, Lisbon lemons (C. limon L. Burm. f. cv. Lisbon) were purchased from a grove in California, USA, and extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Fractionation and multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were utilized to separate, focus, and enhance unidentified compounds. In addition, these methods were employed to more accurately assign flavor dilution factors by aroma extract dilution analysis. Numerous compounds were identified for the first time in lemons, including a series of branched aliphatic aldehydes and several novel sulfur-containing structures. Rarely reported in citrus peels, sulfur compounds are known to contribute significantly to the aroma profile of the fruit and were found to be aroma-active in this particular study on lemons. This paper discusses the identification, synthesis, and organoleptic properties of these novel volatile sulfur compounds.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Enxofre/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/síntese química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99142, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24911460

RESUMO

Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of ß-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of ß-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than ß-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than ß-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Controle de Pragas , Praguicidas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Praguicidas/síntese química , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 145: 796-801, 2014 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24128547

RESUMO

Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Aromatizantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Propanóis/química , Sulfetos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Manteiga/análise , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Esterificação , Eurotiales/enzimologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ionização de Chama , Aromatizantes/síntese química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/síntese química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indicadores e Reagentes/metabolismo , Lipase/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Propanóis/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
13.
J Chem Ecol ; 39(8): 1056-65, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23918548

RESUMO

Carrion beetles are part of the great diversity of insects collected on cadavers. In Brazil, beetles of the genus Oxelytrum have great forensic importance in post mortem interval (PMI) estimation. We investigated the system of chemical communication in the attraction of these necrophagous beetles. Gas chromatographic analysis (GC) of female and male aeration extracts revealed the presence of two male-specific compounds, produced in a ratio of 94:6. Bioassays showed that the combination of male produced volatiles and the odor of a food source (carcass volatiles) were attractive to females. Mass and infrared spectral analyses of the male-specific compounds suggested that they were both unsaturated hydrocarbons. Several micro-derivatizations were carried out with the natural products, and the target structures were identified as (Z)-1,8-heptadecadiene (major) and 1-heptadecene (minor). The structure of the minor component was assigned by co-injection with a commercial standard. A seven-step synthesis was developed to synthesize (Z)-1,8-heptadiene, which co-eluted with the major natural product on three different GC stationary phases. Y-tube olfactometer assays showed that the mixture of synthetic standards in the naturally occurring proportion was slightly attractive to females. The results contribute both to the understanding of the chemical ecology of O. discicolle and to its potential to improve the accuracy of PMI estimation.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Odorantes , Atrativos Sexuais/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
14.
J Chem Ecol ; 38(4): 378-88, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22477026

RESUMO

Aspects of the chemical ecology of the black-banded oak borer, (BBOB) Coroebus florentinus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were studied. Odors produced by males and females were similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Nonanal, decanal, and geranylacetone, identified in the headspace of both sexes, elicited strong electroantennographic responses from male antennae, but not from female antennae. In dual-choice olfactometer experiments, a blend of these three compounds was attractive to both sexes; males responded to decanal alone, while females responded to geranylacetone alone, suggesting that these compounds are responsible for activity of the blend to the respective sexes. Antennae of both sexes responded electroantennographically to the green leaf volatiles (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, 1-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and n-hexyl acetate, all identified from the host plant Quercus suber. In behavioral experiments, only females were attracted to host-plant odors, and in tests with synthetic compounds, females were attracted to (E)-2-hexenol, 1-hexanol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. It is likely that these compounds play a role in foraging and/or oviposition behavior of BBOB females.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Besouros/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Abdome , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bioensaio , Feminino , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química
15.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 402(2): 921-33, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22038660

RESUMO

The formation of volatile products during the reaction of As(III: ), As(V: ), MeAsO(OH)(2), and Me(2)AsO(OH) with aqueous NaBH(4) has been investigated, and the formation of arsanes, diarsanes, and triarsanes has been detected. The presence of triarsanes is reported here for the first time. Diarsanes and triarsanes are likely formed in condensation cascade reactions, whereas trimethylarsane arises via the transfer of a methyl group. The formation of volatile by-products is considerably reduced by increasing the acidity of the medium and the concentration of NaBH(4) or by the addition of thiols, such as cysteine. A reaction scheme is proposed which reconciles the evidence reported herein and elsewhere in the literature that is valid for both analytical (trace analysis) and non-analytical reaction conditions.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/química , Arsênico/análise , Boroidretos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Água/química
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(21): 11752-63, 2011 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21928784

RESUMO

Several chicken parts (skin, fat, juice) were cooked in different ways (roasting, simmering) and investigated separately for their volatile composition. In-depth GC/MS analysis of the separate fractions revealed several unknown molecules. Mass spectra interpretation allowed us to identify nine molecules for the first time in chicken, including cyclic aldehydes, cyclic ketones, and new δ-lactones containing an unsaturated linear chain. Identification was confirmed by chemical synthesis followed by comparison of the mass spectra and linear retention indices. The natural occurrence of five of these molecules is reported here for the first time in a natural product.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Carne/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Culinária , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(7): 2755-60, 2011 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21405079

RESUMO

Anthropogenic sources release into the troposphere a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aromatic hydrocarbons, whose major sources are believed to be combustion and the evaporation of fossil fuels. An important question is whether there are other sources of aromatics in air. We report here the formation of p-cymene [1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl) benzene, C6H4(CH3)(C3H7)] from the oxidation of α-pinene by OH, O3, and NO3 at 1 atm in air and 298 K at low (<5%) and high (70%) relative humidities (RH). Loss of α-pinene and the generation of p-cymene were measured using GC-MS. The fractional yields of p-cymene relative to the loss of α-pinene, Δ [p-cymeme]/Δ [α-pinene], were measured to range from (1.6±0.2)×10(-5) for the O3 reaction to (3.0±0.3)×10(-4) for the NO3 reaction in the absence of added water vapor. The yields for the OH and O3 reactions increased by a factor of 4-8 at 70% RH (uncertainties are ±2s). The highest yields at 70% RH for the OH and O3 reactions, ∼15 times higher than for dry conditions, were observed if the walls of the Teflon reaction chamber had been previously exposed to H2SO4 formed from the OH oxidation of SO2. Possible mechanisms of the conversion of α-pinene to p-cymene and the potential importance in the atmosphere are discussed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/síntese química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/síntese química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Ozônio/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Cimenos , Monoterpenos/análise , Oxidantes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(4): 1449-56, 2011 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21265545

RESUMO

The development of flavor and browning in thermally treated foods results mainly from the Maillard reaction and lipid degradation but also from the interactions between both reaction pathways. To study these interactions, we analyzed the volatile compounds resulting from model reactions of lysine or glycine with aldehydes originating from lipid oxidation [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, or (2E,4E)-decadienal] in the presence and absence of glucose. The main reaction products identified in these model mixtures were carbonyl compounds, resulting essentially from amino-acid-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions. Several 2-alkylfurans were detected as well. Only a few azaheterocyclic compounds were identified, in particular 5-butyl-2-propylpyridine from (E)-2-hexenal model systems and 2-pentylpyridine from (2E,4E)-decadienal model reactions. Although few reaction products were found resulting from the condensation of an amino acid with a lipid-derived aldehyde, the amino acid plays an important role in catalyzing the degradation and further reaction of these carbonyl compounds. These results suggest that amino-acid-induced degradations and further reactions of lipid oxidation products may be of considerable importance in thermally processed foods.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Aminoácidos/química , Glucose/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glicina/química , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard , Mucoproteínas/química
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(2): 554-60, 2011 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21121660

RESUMO

This contribution studies the decomposition of folpet fungicide under oxidative conditions and compares the product species with those of captan fungicide, which is structurally related to folpet. Toxic products arising from folpet comprised carbon disulfide (highest emission factor of 4.9 mg g(-1) folpet), thiophosgene (14.4), phosgene (34.1), hydrogen cyanide (2.6), tetrachloroethylene (111), hexachloroethane (167), and benzonitrile (4.5). Owing to their related molecular structures, folpet emitted similar products to captan but at different yields, under the same experimental conditions. It appears that the availability of easily abstractable H atoms, in the structure of captan but not in that of folpet, defines the product distribution. In conjunction with the quantum chemical calculations, these experimental measurements afford an enhanced explanation of the formation pathways of hazardous decomposition products of these two structurally related fungicides.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/síntese química , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Calefação/métodos , Ftalimidas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Captana/química , Dissulfeto de Carbono/análise , Dissulfeto de Carbono/síntese química , Etano/análogos & derivados , Etano/análise , Etano/síntese química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/síntese química , Incineração , Estrutura Molecular , Nitrilos/análise , Nitrilos/síntese química , Oxirredução , Tetracloroetileno/análise , Tetracloroetileno/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
J Chem Ecol ; 36(10): 1132-9, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20809143

RESUMO

We identified, synthesized, determined the diel periodicity of release, and tested the bioactivity of components of the male-produced sex pheromone of Hedypathes betulinus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of headspace volatiles from adult beetles showed three male-specific compounds, which were identified as (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (major component), (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one (geranylacetone), and (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol. Release of these chemicals was dependent on time of the photoperiod and presence of the host plant. Pheromone release took place primarily during the photophase, with maximum release occurring between 4 and 6 hr after the onset of photophase. The amount of pheromone released by males was much greater when they were in the presence of their host plant than when they were not. In Y-tube olfactometer tests, a ternary mixture of the compounds was attractive to female beetles, although the individual compounds were not attractive by themselves. Addition of volatiles from the host plant greatly increased the attractiveness of the ternary pheromone mixture and of the major pheromone component alone.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/fisiologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Feromônios/síntese química , Feromônios/química , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Fotoperíodo , Atrativos Sexuais/síntese química , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Atrativos Sexuais/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA