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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111237, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905934

RESUMO

The presence of xenobiotic compounds especially organic micro-pollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) is a major concern worldwide. The occurrence and removal of trace organic pollutants in a MWWTP by a combined analysis using GC-MS with spectral analysis and acute toxicity were studied in this work. Non-target screening and toxicity analysis of organic compounds were conducted to understand the types of toxic and refractory pollutants in municipal wastewater and evaluated the toxicity removal efficiency of MWWTP. The results showed that most of the effects were significantly reduced or completely eliminated during the wastewater treatment process, while some compounds, such as antioxidants, drugs, and organic plasticizers, had detection rates of up to 100% at each site, indicating that these harmful substances remained throughout wastewater treatment process. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, paired correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between UV254, humification index, conventional parameters, and organic acute toxicity, while acute toxicity was negatively correlated with biological index and fluorescence index. The results indicated that the composition of MWWTP had a similar influence law in different locations, and the combination of spectral analysis provided a new insight to qualitatively and quantitatively showed the distribution of organic pollutants in the wastewater treatment system.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 265: 129056, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272664

RESUMO

Membrane fouling is a major challenge toward achieving direct nanofiltration (NF) treatment of surface water. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the novel submerged flat-sheet NF membrane module to achieve low fouling propensity and high separation performance during the direct filtration of surface water. Laboratory-scale NF tests showed that the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased only by 10 kPa over 24 d during the direct treatment of river and dam water. The NF system showed high (>80%) and stable rejection of color and organics, as well as low and variable conductivity rejection (28-47%). The rejection of negatively charged trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) was >50%, while that of uncharged or positively charged TOrCs was <50%. Another NF test that was conducted at a drinking water treatment plant showed negligible membrane fouling with a TMP increase of 3 kPa over 35 d. Separation performance of the NF system remained high: total organic carbon (TOC) removal was >70%, which was greater than the conventional rapid sand filtration system with powdered activated carbon and intermediate chlorine doses (TOC removal = 20-60%). Overall, this study demonstrated high water quality and stable system operation of the submerged flat-sheet NF system during direct treatment of surface water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Filtração , Membranas Artificiais , Compostos Orgânicos/análise
3.
J Chromatogr A ; 1635: 461717, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254004

RESUMO

In this study, we introduce a simple three-step workflow for a universally applicable RI system, to be used in GC×GC analysis of ignitable liquid residue (ILR) for arson investigations. The proposed RI system applies a combination of two well-established GC RI systems: non-isothermal Kovats (K) index in the first dimension and Lee (L) index in the second dimension. The proposed KLI RI system showed very good correlations when compared with predicted values and existing RI systems (r2 = 0.97 in first dimension, r2 = 0.99 in second dimension) and was valid for a wide range of analyte concentrations and operational settings (coefficient of variance (CV) < 1% in first dimension, < 10% in second dimension). Using the KLI RI, an ILR classification contour map was created to assist with the identification of ILR types within ASTM E1618. The contour map was successfully applied to neat fuels and a fire scene sample, highlighting the application to wildfire investigation. Standardizing the RI process and establishing acceptable error margins allows the exploration and comparison of comprehensive data generated from GC×GC analysis of ILRs regardless of location, time, or system, further enhancing comprehensive and tenable chemometric analyses of samples. Overall, the KLI workflow was inexpensive, quick to apply, and user-friendly with its simple 3-step design.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Piromania , Ciências Forenses/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Incêndios Florestais , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Tempo
4.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127941, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828057

RESUMO

Current methods of sampling pore water from soil columns to determine solute concentrations are slow and require relatively large volumes. Accordingly, an electromagnetically-vibrated (EMV) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device was evaluated for determining temporal and spatial distributions of solute pore-water concentrations (solute concentration profiles) for four organic compounds, two polar (2-hexanone, 2,4-dimethyl phenol) and two nonpolar (toluene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene), in columns packed with simulated aquifer sands with different fractions of organic carbon. In batch equilibrium extraction tests, the equilibrium extraction time of the organic compounds in aqueous mixtures decreased from 30 to less than 10 min as the frequency of electromagnetic vibration increased from zero to 250 Hz. Mixture effects were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) in the extraction process using EMV SPME. Comparisons of the solute concentration profiles within the soil columns at different elapsed times measured by pore-water samples and in situ EMV SPME extractions revealed both methods were equally effective. However, EMV SPME extraction removed no solution volume and only 0.6-14% of the solute mass removed by the pore-water sample collections, substantially minimizing disturbances to solute transport and fate. Thus, the equilibrium extraction-based calibration method using EMV SPME offers an effective approach for rapidly and accurately determining solute concentration profiles in column tests with negligible solute mass loss and minimal solution flow disturbance.


Assuntos
Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Solo/química , Vibração , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 339: 128063, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152865

RESUMO

Dicarbonyls are reactive precursors of advanced glycation endproducts. They are formed endogenously and during food processing. Currently, a comprehensive database on dicarbonyls in foods that covers the entire range of food groups is lacking, limiting knowledge about the amount of dicarbonyls that is ingested via food. The aim of this study was to analyze the dicarbonyls methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) in commonly-consumed products in a Western diet. We validated a UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify MGO, GO, and 3-DG. We present a dietary dicarbonyl database of 223 foods and drinks. Total dicarbonyl concentrations were highest in dried fruit, Dutch spiced cake, and candy bars (>400 mg/kg). Total dicarbonyl concentrations were lowest in tea, dairy, light soft drinks, and rice (<10 mg/kg). The presented database of MGO, GO, and 3-DG opens the possibility to accurately estimate dietary exposure to these dicarbonyls, and explore their physiological impact on human health.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Bases de Dados Factuais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(12): 4185-4195, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033848

RESUMO

Leishmania spp. parasites have a complex biological cycle presenting basically two different morphological stages, the amastigote and promastigote forms. In vitro cultivation allows a more complete study of the biological aspects of these parasites, indicating better conditions for infection, immunoassay tests, drug evaluations, and vaccines. Thus, we evaluated the three most used culture media for Leishmania spp., Grace's insect cell culture medium (Grace's), liver infusion tryptose (LIT), and Schneider's insect medium (Schneider's), without supplementation or supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS) and bovine serum albumin (Albumin) to evaluate the growth, viability, and infectivity of the L. infantum promastigotes. It was observed that promastigote forms have a better growth in LIT and Schneider's with or without FCS when compared to that in Grace's. The supplementation with albumin promoted greater viability of the parasites independent of the medium. For in vitro infection of J774.A1 macrophages using light microscopy and flow cytometry analyses, FCS-supplemented LIT and Grace's promoted higher percentage of infected macrophages and parasite load compared with Schneider's media. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the supplementation of LIT culture medium with FCS is the most suitable strategy to cultivate Leishmania infantum parasites enabling the maintenance of growth and infective parasites for research uses.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/enzimologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Camundongos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia
7.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 547-554, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026349

RESUMO

Biochemical diagnosis of hereditary metabolic diseases requires the detection and simultaneous identification of a large number of compounds, hence the interest in metabolic profiles. Organic acid chromatography allows the identification of several hundred compounds and the quantification of the main molecules of interest. As part of the accreditation process for medical biology examinations according to standard NF EN ISO 15189, the group from the French society for inborn errors of metabolism (SFEIM) recommends an approach to accredit organic acid chromatography. Validation parameters and recommendations are discussed in this specific framework.


Assuntos
Ácidos/urina , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/normas , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Compostos Orgânicos/urina , Urinálise/normas , Acreditação , Ácidos/análise , Adulto , Bioquímica/métodos , Bioquímica/normas , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Fase Pré-Analítica/métodos , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas , Gravidez , Urinálise/métodos , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Coleta de Urina/normas , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 572-581, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960333

RESUMO

In order to assess the environmental impacts caused by flood to the paddy field, 940 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were screened in paddy soil samples taken in central Vietnam before and after flooding. The concentration of 166 SVOCs in soil samples ranged from 0.031 to 2241 (mean 89.1) µg kg-1 dry wt. Chemicals originating from household sources showed the highest level, followed by chemicals originating from agriculture. Since untreated domestic wastewater used for agricultural irrigation, organic micro-pollutants in domestic wastewater is the main source of pollutants in paddy soil. However, contamination levels of pollutants in paddy soil after flooding were lower than those before flooding, possibly due to the removal of pollutants by floodwater. As a result, pollution characteristic of pollutants at sampling locations were different before flooding while they became similar after flooding due to the dispersion and elution of organic pollutants from soil into floodwaters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Inundações , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Vietnã
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3293-3302, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935874

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the physical properties of margarines prepared from oleogels with binary mixtures of candelilla wax (CDW) and beeswax (BW) in soybean oil. Some of the margarines made from oleogels with mixtures of CDW and BW had higher firmness than those made with one wax. For example, a 3% wax margarine made with 25% CDW and 75% BW had significantly higher firmness (0.97 N) than those with 100% CDW (0.59 N) and with 100% BW (0.11 N). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) analyses revealed eutectic melting properties for binary wax margarines, which may be desirable since wax oleogel-based margarines often have higher melting points than conventional margarines. For example, the major melting point of 3% wax margarine made with 50% CDW and 50% BW was 43.85 °C, while for margarines made with 100% CDW or 100% BW, the melting points were at 46.00% and 47.61 °C, respectively. SFC was lowest for margarines with 50 or 75% BW; for example, 3% wax margarine with 25% CDW and 75% BW had 0.72% SFC at 40 °C while those with 100% CDW and 100% BW had 1.19 and 1.13% SFC, respectively. However, dropping point constantly decreased with increasing BW ratios. This study demonstrated that by mixing two waxes, the firmness of oleogel-based margarines could be increased, and the melting point could be tailored by the ratio of two waxes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated that firmness and melting properties of margarines prepared from wax-oleogels can be improved by mixing two waxes, making their practical application more feasible. Firmness of margarines prepared with oleogels of binary mixtures of candelilla wax and beeswax were higher than those with pure waxes. The melting point of wax oleogel-based margarines was decreased by use of binary mixtures of candelilla wax and beeswax.


Assuntos
Margarina/análise , Óleo de Soja/química , Ceras/análise , Animais , Ascomicetos/química , Abelhas , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise
10.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127758, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736246

RESUMO

Cooking emissions are both indoor and outdoor sources for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) but their contributions are often ignored. The PM2.5-bound organic compounds, including alkanols, alkanes, monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the emissions from the most popular types of restaurants in the capital city of northwestern China. The mean concentration of total quantified organic compounds (ΣPM_O) ranged from 1112 to 32,016 ng m-3, with the maximum for the Chinese barbecue restaurants. The ΣPM_O accounted for an average of 11% of PM2.5 mass, demonstrating their significances in the cooking emissions. Hexadecanoic acid (C16) and 1-hexadecanol (C16) were considered as the tracers for stir-frying, steaming, and boiling which are usually applied in the traditional Chinese cuisines; 1-undecanol (C11), 9-fluorenone, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were found to be potential markers for grilling and deep-frying which are widely applied in the Western style cooking method. The PAH diagnostic ratios also illustrated their representatives to distinguish the emissions from traditional Chinese cuisines and the Western-style restaurants. The estimated carcinogenic risks for the restaurants that consumed a large amount of oils and employed high temperature cooking methods (e.g., barbecuing and deep-frying) were 2.6-4.2 times exceeded the international safety limit. The organic profiles obtained in this study could be contributed to refine PM2.5 source apportionment in urban areas in northwestern China. The estimations of potential cancer risks urge the establishment of more stringent legislations to protect the health of the catering staffs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China , Cidades , Culinária/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Material Particulado/química , Restaurantes , Medição de Risco
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461475, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822995

RESUMO

For successful profiling of aroma carriers in food samples, a highly efficient extraction method is mandatory. A two-step stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) approach, namely fractionated SBSE (Fr-SBSE), was developed to improve both the organoleptic and the chemical identification of aroma compounds in beverages. Fr-SBSE consists of two multi-SBSE procedures (mSBSE) performed sequentially on the same sample. The first extraction consists of a conventional mSBSE using three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stir bars (1stmSBSE). This is followed by a solvent-assisted mSBSE performed on the same sample using three solvent-swollen PDMS stir bars (2nd SA-mSBSE). The 1stmSBSE mainly extracts apolar/medium polar solutes with log Kow values >2, while the 2nd SA-mSBSE mainly extracts polar solutes with log Kow values <2. After this two-step fractionation procedure, either thermal desorption (TD) or liquid desorption - large volume injection (LD-LVI), followed by GC-MS is performed on each set of three stir bars. A real-life sample of roasted green tea was used for method development. The performance of the Fr-SBSE method is further illustrated with sensory evaluations and GC-MS analysis for a stout beer sample. Compared to an extraction procedure with SA-mSBSE only, Fr-SBSE including a 1stmSBSE and a 2nd SA-mSBSE reduced co-elution of aroma compounds in the chromatograms and was capable of providing improved mass spectral quality for identification of 17 additional compounds in roasted green tea, and 12 additional compounds in stout beer, respectively. Moreover, odor description and characterization were clearly improved.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Odorantes/análise , Solventes/química , Cerveja/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Chá/química
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461372, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823089

RESUMO

This paper demonstrated the non-validity of Schultz et al. method by proving that the surface areas of n-alkanes and polar molecules strongly depend of the temperature. Consequently, the results of surface properties obtained by this method are inaccurate. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution and the dynamic contact angle (DCA) technique were used on the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fibers. DCA measurements led to the determination of the surface energy γs(T) of PTFE fibers as a function of the temperature T (Relation 6). The variations of the surface areas of n-alkanes and polar molecules versus the temperature were determined by studying the same PTFE fibers by IGC at infinite dilution. We proved that the product of the surface area a(T, Cn) (in Å2) of an alkane by the dispersive component of the surface energyγsd(T)of the solid is constant at any temperature: [Formula: see text] , where b(Cn) is a constant only depending on the carbon atom number n of n-alkane Cn. An analytical relation of the surface area of n-alkanes as a function of the temperature was obtained (equation 18). Our results highlighted the failure of Dorris-Gray method that was largely used to determine γsd of solids. This method considered the surface area a-CH2- of methylene group equal to 6 Å2 and constant for any used temperature. The obtained results proved the non-validity of Dorris-Gray method and gave the expression of a-CH2- as a function of the temperature T (Equation 20) proved the non-validity of Dorris-Gray method. The calculations of the thermal expansion coefficients of the surface area a and radius R represented by the respective derivatives da/dT and dR/dT, showed their important variations as a function of the temperature. The general expression of the surface area aX(T) of polar molecules was given as a function of the temperature (Expression 48). The large effect of the temperature on surface areas and radii of molecules was highlighted, except for toluene. The surface area of toluene was proved to remain constant whatever the temperature. Our results showed, in general, non-linear variations of the radius rX(T) of polar molecules adsorbed on PTFE fibers. However, except for chloroform, dichloromethane and diethyl ether where their thermal expansion coefficient depends on the temperature, the linearity of rX(T) was verified in the temperature interval [293 K, 353 K].


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Temperatura , Adsorção , Alcanos/análise , Politetrafluoretileno/análise , Dióxido de Silício/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Nature ; 583(7815): 253-258, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612230

RESUMO

The cortex organizes sensory information to enable discrimination and generalization1-4. As systematic representations of chemical odour space have not yet been described in the olfactory cortex, it remains unclear how odour relationships are encoded to place chemically distinct but similar odours, such as lemon and orange, into perceptual categories, such as citrus5-7. Here, by combining chemoinformatics and multiphoton imaging in the mouse, we show that both the piriform cortex and its sensory inputs from the olfactory bulb represent chemical odour relationships through correlated patterns of activity. However, cortical odour codes differ from those in the bulb: cortex more strongly clusters together representations for related odours, selectively rewrites pairwise odour relationships, and better matches odour perception. The bulb-to-cortex transformation depends on the associative network originating within the piriform cortex, and can be reshaped by passive odour experience. Thus, cortex actively builds a structured representation of chemical odour space that highlights odour relationships; this representation is similar across individuals but remains plastic, suggesting a means through which the olfactory system can assign related odour cues to common and yet personalized percepts.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Córtex Olfatório/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Olfatório/fisiologia , Condutos Olfatórios , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório/citologia , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Córtex Olfatório/citologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461336, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709360

RESUMO

Thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography mass spectrometry is capable of online measuring speciated organics in atmospheric aerosols. Compared to the one-dimensional gas chromatography, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography increases the resolution and the sensitivity, mitigates the unresolved complex mixture and co-elution occurred in one-dimensional gas chromatography. In this study, we report a quartz filter-based thermal desorption aerosol comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-Q-TAG). It combines a solid-state thermal modulator with a quartz filter-based thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The solid-state thermal modulator conducts modulation independently from the chromatographic oven without using cryogens or compressed air, which makes the system readily adaptive for field measurement. The 2D-Q-TAG was evaluated using C7-C40 n-alkanes and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It has low limits of detection from 0.001 to 0.104 ng. The instrument was then deployed to measure atmospheric PM2.5 (particulate matter with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter  ≤  2.5 µm) in urban Beijing. It allows in-situ detection of speciated organics in atmospheric aerosols with hourly time resolution. Organic classes including alkanes, furanones, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, PAHs, oxy-PAHs, and alkyl-naphthalenes were well separated and detected. The total mass concentration of n-alkanes ranged from 122.1 to 629.9 ng/m3. Diurnal variation of n-alkanes was captured due to the high time resolution of the instrument.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Temperatura , Aerossóis/química , Alcanos/análise , Atmosfera/química , Limite de Detecção , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114360, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443206

RESUMO

Kütahya city, a thermal power plant (TPPs) affected region of Turkey, has serious air quality problems like similar industrial regions of the world due to the emissions from three closely-located coal-fired TPPs, residential coal combustion along with the contribution of several industrial stacks. The organic chemical speciation of ambient size-segregated particulate matter (PM) was investigated during two seasons at two sites with different pollution characteristics (urban and rural). The ambient PM was collected using a high volume cascade impactor, with 6 stages: PM>10.2, PM10.2-4.2, PM4.2-2.1, PM2.1-1.3, PM1.3-0.69 and PM<0.69. Collected PM samples were extracted with organic solvents and the organic composition (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and carboxylic acids) was determined by GC-MS. Sources of the organic species were assessed using molecular PAH diagnostic ratios, carbon preference index and wax percentages. More than 70% of the PM-bound PAHs were quantified in submicron particles. Similarly, 34-42% of n-alkanes and approximately 30% of the carboxylic acids were found on the smallest particles. The main sources of the PM-bound organic species were considered as the anthropogenic emissions such as coal and biomass combustion and also vehicular emissions rather than the biogenic sources. Considerably high cancer risk levels were obtained through inhalation of PAHs. Seasonal variations and size distributions of the carboxylic acids and levoglucosan were also evaluated. Polar organic compound concentrations were higher in the summer period at both locations probably due to the higher sunlight intensity and temperature favoring their photochemical formation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Processos Fotoquímicos , Centrais Elétricas , Estações do Ano , Turquia
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 377, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424801

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) especially anthropogenic compounds in sewage systems affects their ultimate fate in the environment which is challenging to ascertain the heterogenic nature of the compound and causes co-occurring effects in most aquatic samples. So, our study have focused on current approaches to the chemical and structural characterization of DOM with the detailed classification of individual compounds such as the molecular levels of volatile organic, inorganic materials, drugs and endocrine disrupting compounds. Analytical techniques for example high performance gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) with high-resolution liquid chromatography (HR-LCMS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and three-dimensional fluorescence excitation emission matrix (3D-EEM) has resulted in advancing the parametric studies. In addition, the toxicological assessment of an aquatic organism (zebrafish as a model) has ensued in enlightening the risk of contaminated sources. The result of the research highlighted the efficacy of high-throughput approaches to assess the environmental impact of sewage water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Esgotos/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(7): 1334-1342, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408378

RESUMO

Field-based atrazine sampling rates (Rs ) obtained by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) method were measured in 9 headwater streams over 3 yr covering 5 to 6 exposure periods of 2 to 3 wk/site/yr. Rates were best in line with the model Rs = 148 mL/d, with a standard deviation of 0.17 log units (factor 1.5). The POCIS canisters reduced mass transfer coefficients of the water boundary layer by a factor of 2 as measured by alabaster dissolution rates. A mechanistic model that accounts for flow and temperature effects yielded a fair estimate of the effective exchange surface area (12.5 ± 0.8 cm2 ). This model could only be tested for higher flow velocities because of uncertainties associated with the measurement of flow velocities <1 cm/s. Pictures of sorbent distributions in POCIS devices showed that the effective exchange surface area varied with time during the exposures. Error analysis indicated that sorbent distributions and chemical analysis were minor error sources. Our main conclusion is that an atrazine sampling rate of 148 mL/d yielded consistent results for all 3 yr across 9 headwater streams. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1334-1342. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Rios/química , Atrazina/análise , Calibragem , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1621: 461080, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307106

RESUMO

This paper describes a procedure for the isolation of 20 organic micro-pollutants among pesticides, drugs, recreational drugs, flame retardants from river sediments. After a solid-liquid extraction with a methanol:water (50:50, v/v) solution, the supernatant was diluted with water and cleaned up by stir-disc solid-phase extraction (SPE). The disc was made of buckypaper, a self-supporting entangled assembly of carbon nanotubes, which was used as a highly porous, two-sided, sorbent membrane. In the preliminary activation step, the membrane was oxidised for 2-hours with nitric acid to extend its extraction capability also to more polar compounds. All extracts were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A comparative investigation with commercial Strata-X Polymeric Reversed Phase SPE cartridges proved the effectiveness of the lab-made device. On the average, the analytes were recovered with yields around 69% (low spike level) and 80% (medium and high spike level), while only a couple of analytes exhibited values less than 50%. The relative standard deviation was always less than 20%. Limits of detections were in the range 0.02-9.9 ng g-1. The validated method was then applied for the analysis of sediment samples from different sites of the River Turia basin in the area of Valencia (Spain), finding tris(2-chloroisopropyl)-phosphate in all sediments at a level ranging from 6.9 to 387.9 ng g-1. Other compounds, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals were more sporadically in these samples.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Rios/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Oxirredução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha
19.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126800, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334255

RESUMO

The root soil interaction affects metal bioavailability in the rhizosphere, thus impacting the uptake and accumulation of metals by plants. In this study, a greenhouse experiment using a root-bag technique for castor bean plants was conducted to determine the i) rhizosphere effect on the fractions of Cu, and ii) the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere soil. Results showed that the Cu concentration in the leaves, stems, and roots was 15.41, 6.71, and 47.85 mg kg-1, respectively, in the control and reached up to 96.5, 254.9, and 3204 mg kg-1 in Cu400 treatment, respectively. After cultivating castor bean plants, the concentration of acid exchangeable Cu in rhizosphere soil was higher than that in the bulk soil for the same Cu addition, whereas the concentrations of reducible Cu, oxidizable Cu, and residual Cu in the rhizosphere soil were all lower than those in the bulk soil, respectively. In comparison to the bulk soil, the pH decreased while the total nitrogen and total carbon concentrations both increased in the rhizosphere soil. Moreover, the concentrations of total low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and total amino acids in the rhizosphere soil of the Cu treatments increased by between 15.18% to 47.17% and 36.35%-200%, respectively with respect to the control. The less complex DOM with a high LMWOAs concentration in the rhizosphere soil shifted the soil Cu from a relative stable fraction to available fractions.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Semente de Rícino , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Ricinus/metabolismo , Solo/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230750, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339172

RESUMO

Despite the large number of studies devoted to organic matter dynamics in fluvial ecosystems, the detrital pathways of spring headwater systems remain neglected. In particular, spring wetlands (helocrenes or seepages) might have considerable influence on downstream headwater stream systems due to the alteration of the nutrient and organic matter content of the water. In this study, we examined fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) drained from helocrenic springs to describe its downstream transport. We studied the quantity, nutrient content and physical components of FPOM gathered from the outflowing water using continuous sediment samplers. The nutrient content of local leaf litter deposits, residence time of water in the springs and concentration of dissolved nutrients in spring sources and outflows were also measured to characterize the inputs and outputs of the studied system. The results show that headwater spring wetlands represent a significant source of high-quality FPOM for downstream river networks. The estimated concentration of FPOM (<1000 µm) in the 11 investigated springs was 3.1 ± 2.5 mg.L-1. In general, the FPOM was relatively nutrient-rich (N = 19.25 ± 4.73 mg.L-1; P = 2.04 ± 0.78 mg.L-1; Ca = 9.65 ± 2.63 mg.L-1; S = 4.07 ± 1.16 mg.L-1; C = 278.68 ± 80.81 mg.L-1). The C:N and C:P ratios in the local leaf litter deposits were higher than in FPOM (41.04 ± 14.32 vs. 14.70 ± 2.46 and 591.7 ± 168.83 vs. 154,77 ± 64,73, respectively), indicating that suspended FPOM is more nutritious for consumers. A significant trend in terms of size fractions of FPOM was identified: with decreasing C:N and C:P ratios particle size decreases as well. Overall, the data suggest that the relatively small helocrenes can serve as an organic matter transformers, receiving primary particles and dissolved organic matter, transforming them and favouring their transport downstream. These biotopes may represent a substantial discontinuity of the river continuum at its origin, important for nutrient dynamics and food supply of associated biotic communities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Nascentes Naturais/química , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Movimentos da Água
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