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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790731

RESUMO

Seventeen glass vessels and twenty glass beads recovered from the excavations at the ancient city of Malindi and the archaeological site of Mambrui in Kenya, east Africa were analysed using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results show that all of the glass samples are soda-lime-silica glass. They belong to the high alumina -plant ash glass type, characterised by high alumina and relatively low calcium contents, widely distributed in eastern (10th- 16th centuries AD) and southern Africa (13th - 15th centuries AD), Central Asia (9th- 14th centuries AD) and southeast Asia (12th- 13th centuries AD), made with plant ashes and sands. This is an understudied glass type for which previous research has indicated there were three types. When compared with published research on such glasses using Zr, Ti, Ba, Cr, La, Li, Cs, Na2O, MgO and CaO we have identified at least four different compositional groups of v-Na-Al glass: Types A, B, C and D. By comparing the results with contemporary v-Na-Al glass vessels and beads from Central Asia, Africa, and southeast Asia we show that most of the Malindi and Mambrui glass share similar characteristics to the compositions of Mapungubwe Oblate and some of the Madagascar glass beads from southern Africa. They belong to Type A v-Na-Al glass which is characterised by an elevated level of Ti and Ba and a relatively high ratios of Cr/La, relatively low Zr concentrations and low ratios of Zr/Ti. Differences in Zr, Li, MgO and Na2O concentrations in Type A glass indicates that there are subgroups which might derive from different glass workshop(s) specialising in Type A v-Na-Al glass production. Comparison with the chemical compositions of glass from Ghazni, Afghanistan and Termez, Uzbekistan, and by using lead isotope analysis, we suggest v-Na-Al glass was manufactured in Central Asia and possibly worked into vessels and beads there.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Vidro/química , Óxidos/química , Plantas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Oligoelementos/história , África Oriental , Óxido de Alumínio , Arqueologia , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , Oceano Índico , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Quênia , Espectrometria de Massas
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1068-1072, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788483

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the influence of operators on the microhardness and compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and Methods: Forty dental specialists were asked to prepare a series of MTA samples. The tested material was ProRoot MTA (DentsplyMaillefer, Switzerland). Each participant prepared one sample to a consistency they considered acceptable for use in practice (improvised group) and another one according to the manufacturer's recommended water-to-powder (WP) ratio (pre-weighed group). The samples were incubated at 37°C and 95% humidity for 4 days. Parameters evaluated in this study were microhardness and compressive strength. Results: Operators mixed MTA samples with varying WP ratios. However, there was no significant difference between the microhardness and compressive strength values of MTA samples between the improvised, the pre-weighed and the control groups. MTA was mixed in a thicker consistency than the manufacturers recommended ratio (0.33) by 62.5% of the operators. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, even though the WP ratios that were utilized in the clinical setting vary, microhardness and compressive strength values of MTA was not significantly affected.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Força Compressiva , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Óxidos/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Silicatos/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dureza , Humanos , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797052

RESUMO

High-flow low-expansion backfill materials have been developed to improve difficult slurry pipeline transport and poor roof-contact effect of many filling materials. The fly ash content was fixed at 80%, with 8.5% - 9.5% mineral powder content, 8.5% - 9.5% lime, 2% - 3% desulfurized gypsum, 0.9% - 1.2% sodium carbonate, and 0.01% - 0.02% aluminum powder content. The prepared backfill material processed good fluidity, with the expansion rate of the hardened material reaching 2% - 3%, and compressive strength on 90 d reaching 4 MPa-5.5 MPa. SEM observations indicated that as the aluminum content increased, ettringite on bubble walls transformed from a fine-needle to needle-rod shape. Secondly, the hydration products of the system were mainly hydrated calcium silicate gel and ettringite, which interconnected and promoted the formation of the structure. The backfill material has extensive sources of raw materials, low cost, simple filling process, and good filling effect.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/química , Mineração , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Óxidos/química , Água/química
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3921-3936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581537

RESUMO

Background: Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles (MCSNs) have good prospects in the medical field due to their great physicochemical characteristics, antibacterial activity and drug delivery capacity. This study was to analyze the antibiofilm activity and mechanisms of silver (Ag) and zinc (Zn) incorporated MCSNs (Ag/Zn-MCSNs) with different percentages of Ag and Zn. Methods: Ag/Zn(1:9, molar ratio)-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(9:1, molar ratio)-MCSNs were prepared and characterized. Endocytosis of nanoparticles by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) treated with Ag/Zn-MCSNs was observed using TEM to explore the antibacterial mechanisms. The antibiofilm activity of Ag/Zn-MCSNs with different ratios of Ag and Zn was tested by E. faecalis biofilm model in human roots. The human roots pretreated by different Ag/Zn-MCSNs were cultured with E. faecalis. Then, SEM and CLSM were used to observe the survival of E. faecalis on the root canal wall. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles was tested by CCK8 kits. Results: The Ag/Zn-MCSNs release Ag+ and destroy the cell membranes to kill bacteria. The MCSNs containing Ag showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis biofilms in different degrees, and they can adhere to dentin surfaces to get a continuous antibacterial effect. However, MTA, MCSNs and Zn-MCSNs could not disrupt the bacterial biofilms obviously. MCSNs, Ag/Zn(1:1, molar ratio)-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(1:9)-MCSNs showed no obvious cytotoxicity, while Ag-MCSNs and Ag/Zn(9:1)-MCSNs showed cytotoxicity. Zn-MCSNs can slightly promote cell proliferation. Conclusion: Ag/Zn-MCSNs have good antibiofilm activity. They might achieve an appropriate balance between the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity by adjusting the ratio of Ag and Zn. Ag/Zn-MCSNs are expected to be a new type of root canal disinfectant or sealer for root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Prata/química , Zinco/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Silicatos/química , Prata/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353673

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of foliar sprays containing boron (B) nano-fertilizer (NF) on the growth and physiology of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 60 days on a modified Hoagland solution with the presence and absence of boron (+B or -B). A synthesized B-NF foliar spray and a commercial B foliar fertilizer (Bortrac™ 150, BT) was applied at a concentration of 30 mg B L-1 at 10-d intervals throughout the experiment. The B-NF treatment increased the growth of lettuce 2.7- and 1.9-fold for shoots and roots, respectively, with an average production of lettuce biomass by ~58%. Similarly, the NF increased the growth of zucchini by 18 and 66% compared with Control-B (the absence of B), and 13 and 36% compared with BT, both for shoots and roots, respectively. Nevertheless, NF + B mostly decreased lettuce growth with symptoms of B toxicity in leaves. In lettuce, addition of B did not affect concentrations of phenols; however, in zucchini, Control-B induced a higher production of phenolic compounds possibly related to B deficiency. The B addition in lettuce reduced the DPPH activity by 32 and 21% in NF and BT, respectively, compared to Control-B. These responses were similar in zucchini; however, the effect of B was product of its presence in mineral solution rather than due the foliar product applied. This suggests that a NF-based delivery system for B may be highly effective at boosting plant productivity on B-limited soils.


Assuntos
Boratos , Compostos de Cálcio , Cucurbita , Fertilizantes , Alface , Nanopartículas , Boratos/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126936, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417511

RESUMO

Transforming gypsum into α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate (α-HH) provides a promising utilization pathway for the abundant amount of chemical gypsum. The transformation follows the route of "dissolution-recrystallization", during which the arsenic pollutant in gypsum is released into the solution, and hence raises the possibility of being distributed into the product of α-HH, a potential harm that has always been neglected. Investigation of the transformation process at neutral pH revealed that the arsenate ions in solution were distributed into α-HH and generated an enrichment of arsenic by 4-6 times. Arsenate ions distributed into α-HH by substitution for lattice sulfate, adsorption on α-HH facets and occupation for surface sulfate sites. While at higher concentrations, calcium arsenate coprecipitated with α-HH or even crystallized independently. Increasing temperature accelerated the phase transformation and restrained arsenate migration into α-HH due to the lag of distribution balance. The pH of solution modulated the dominant arsenate species and decreasing pH weakened arsenate substitution capacity for sulfate in α-HH. This work uncovers arsenate distribution mechanism during the transformation of gypsum into α-HH and provides a feasible method to restrain arsenate distribution into product, which helps to understand arsenate behavior in hydrothermal solution with high concentration of sulfate minerals and provides a guidance for controlling pollutants distribution into product.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Modelos Químicos , Adsorção , Arseniatos/química , Arsênico , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sulfatos
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110490, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276161

RESUMO

Immobilization is widely used to decrease the availability of heavy metals, such as Cd and Pb, in contaminated soils. However, the spatial and temporal changes in the immobilization of soil by amendments combined with planting effects have not been studied well. In this study, unplanted and planted (with rice plants) pot experiments were used to assess the spatial and temporal changes in water-soluble Cd, Fe, Mn, and Ca. Soil properties, such as pH, redox potential (Eh), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), were continuously recorded in both the rhizosphere and bulk soil using non-invasive rhizon samplers and a microelectrode system (Unisense). In unplanted soil, pH and Eh varied with time, but showed little radial variation from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil. The addition of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) sharply increased the pH, DOC, and Ca content; decreased the Eh, Fe content, and Mn content; and gradually decreased the water-soluble Cd content in the soil profile. Hydroxyapatite showed no obvious effects in reducing Cd concentrations in different soil zones. The water-soluble Fe, Mn, Ca, and DOC content did not differ significantly between soil zones over time and a non-significant correlation with water-soluble Cd was shown. In planted soil, the pH increased while the Eh value decreased with an increase in the distance from the roots, regardless of the soil amendments used during the rice growth period. Hydroxyapatite gradually increased but hydrated lime decreased the water-soluble Cd in the rhizosphere. The concentration of water-soluble Cd in the rhizosphere was higher than that of the other soil zones during rice growth. These changes lead to more Cd uptake by roots and induced Cd accumulation in rice tissues. In addition, Cd and Fe concentration in iron plaque showed a significant positive correlation with Cd in rice, indicating that iron plaque promotes the uptake and accumulation of Cd in rice with soil amendments. Compared with the control, hydroxyapatite did not significantly affect the Cd content, while Ca(OH)2 significantly reduced the Cd content in iron plaque and rice tissues. In conclusion, the application of hydrated lime can significantly reduce the risk of Cd accumulation by rice in Cd-contaminated soils under flooding conditions.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxidos/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1735, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269223

RESUMO

The therapeutic effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-involved cancer therapies is significantly limited by shortage of oxy-substrates, such as hypoxia in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and insufficient hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in chemodynamic therapy (CDT). Here, we report a H2O2/O2 self-supplying nanoagent, (MSNs@CaO2-ICG)@LA, which consists of manganese silicate (MSN)-supported calcium peroxide (CaO2) and indocyanine green (ICG) with further surface modification of phase-change material lauric acid (LA). Under laser irradiation, ICG simultaneously generates singlet oxygen and emits heat to melt the LA. The exposed CaO2 reacts with water to produce O2 and H2O2 for hypoxia-relieved ICG-mediated PDT and H2O2-supplying MSN-based CDT, acting as an open source strategy for ROS production. Additionally, the MSNs-induced glutathione depletion protects ROS from scavenging, termed reduce expenditure. This open source and reduce expenditure strategy is effective in inhibiting tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, and significantly improves ROS generation efficiency from multi-level for ROS-involved cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Circulação Sanguínea , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Verde de Indocianina/química , Ácidos Láuricos/sangue , Ácidos Láuricos/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Manganês/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óxidos/química , Silicatos/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110539, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247959

RESUMO

Contamination of arable land with trace metals is a global environmental issue which has serious consequences on human health and food security. Present study evaluates the adsorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by using different quantities of composite of sepiolite, organic manure and lime (SOL) at field and laboratory scale (batch experiments). Characterization of SOL by SEM, EDS and FTIR spectroscopy revealed the presence of elemental and functional groups (hydroxyl, C⋯H and -COOH groups) on its surface. The field experiment was performed in a paddy field of gleysol having moderate contamination of Cd and Pb (0.64 mg kg-1 and 53.44 mg kg-1). Here, different rates of SOL (0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w) were applied by growing low and high Cd accumulator rice cultivars. Application of SOL at 2% w/w showed considerable efficiency to increase soil pH (up to 19%) and to reduce available Cd (42-66%) and Pb (22-55%) as compared to the control. Moreover, its application reduced metal contents in roots, shoots and grains of rice by 31%, 36% and 72% (for Cd) and 41%, 81% and 84% (for Pb), respectively in low accumulator cultivar. Further, the batch sorption experiment was performed to evaluate the adsorption capacity of SOL in a wide range of contamination. Obtained sorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir equation. Our results highlight the strong efficiency of composite treatment for an enhanced in-situ metal immobilization under field and lab conditions. Further, applied treatments greatly reduced the metal contents in rice grains. In a nut shell, application of SOL in a contaminated gleysol should be considered for soil remediation and safe food production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Chumbo/química , Silicatos de Magnésio/química , Esterco , Óxidos/química , Adsorção , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética
10.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126564, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213389

RESUMO

Pb-based perovskite nanoparticles (PbPNPs) are amongst others used within highly efficient solar cells. PbPNPs can be released into the environment during their production, recycling or waste processing. In this study we investigated the fate and toxicity of PbPNPs on soil bacterial community under simulated natural environmental conditions across a range of pH, humic acid, and divalent cation concentrations. Increasing pH decreased PbPNPs-particle aggregation as well as Pb-ion release. The presence of only humic acid (HA) prevented the aggregation of PbPNPs-particles, whereas the presence of only divalent cations promoted the aggregation of PbPNPs-particles. The amount of Pb-ions released from the PbPNPs-particles was reduced in the presence of either HA or the divalent cations. Results of toxicity testing of PbPNPs by determining the metabolic potential of a bacterial community indicated that increasing pH alleviated particle toxicity. The presence of only HA reduced the toxicity of PbPNPs, while the presence of only divalent cations enhanced the particle toxicity. The coexistence of HA and divalent cations enhanced PbPNPs aggregation and reduced toxicity, with both Pb-ions and the interaction between the PbPNPs-particles and bacterial cells contributing to the toxic effects. Our study emphasized that environmental conditions play important roles that influencing the fate and toxicity of PbPNPs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxidos/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Titânio/química , Cátions Bivalentes , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons , Chumbo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Testes de Toxicidade
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110384, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126412

RESUMO

Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) contains a large amount of NH4+-N and Mn2+ and can negatively impact the environment. A stabilization treatment of soluble contaminants in the EMR is necessary for its reuse and safe stacking. This study presents experimental results for the stabilization of NH4+-N and Mn2+ in the EMR using phosphogypsum leachate as a low-cost phosphate source and MgO/CaO (PLMC) process. The results demonstrated that the stabilization efficiency of NH4+-N and Mn2+ was 93.65% and 99.99%, respectively, under the following conditions: a phosphogypsum leachate dose of 1.5 mL g-1, an added MgO dose of 0.036 g g-1, an added CaO dose of 0.1 g g-1 and a reaction time of 2 h. The stabilization effect of the PLMC process was higher and more cost effective than that of using Na3PO4·12H2O and MgO/CaO. The concentration of NH4+-N and Mn2+ in the leaching liquor decreased to 80 mg L-1 and 0.5 mg L-1, respectively, after the stabilization under the optimum conditions. The stabilization characteristics indicated that NH4+-N was stabilized to form NH4MgPO4·6H2O (struvite) and that Mn2+ was stabilized to form Mn5(PO4)2(OH)4, Mn3(PO4)2·3H2O and Mn(OH)2. PO43--P, F-, and heavy metal ions of the phosphogypsum leachate were removed from the leaching liquor and stabilized in the treated EMR.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/química , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Manganês/análise , Óxidos/química , Fósforo/química , Amônia/análise , Amônia/química , Eletrólise , Eletrólitos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Manganês/química , Solubilidade , Estruvita/análise , Estruvita/química
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230299, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191735

RESUMO

In this review, we highlight the current advancements in the field of triplet sensitization by three-dimensional (3D) perovskite nanocrystals and bulk films. First introduced in 2017, 3D perovskite sensitized upconversion (UC) is a young fast-evolving field due to the tunability of the underlying perovskite material. By tuning the perovskite bandgap, visible-to-ultraviolet, near-infrared-to-visible or green-to-blue UC has been realized, which depicts the broad applicability of this material. As this research field is still in its infancy, we hope to stimulate the field by highlighting the advantages of these perovskite nanocrystals and bulk films, as well as shedding light onto the current drawbacks. In particular, the keywords toxicity, reproducibility and stability must be addressed prior to commercialization of the technology. If successful, photon interconversion is a means to increase the achievable efficiency of photovoltaic cells beyond its current limits by increasing the window of useable wavelengths.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Engenharia , Óxidos/química , Fótons , Titânio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/toxicidade , Óxidos/toxicidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Titânio/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230540, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182285

RESUMO

Halide vacancies and associated metallic lead (Pb°) observed at the surface and deep inside macroscopic organolead trihalide perovskite crystals is removed through a facile and noninvasive treatment. Indeed, Br2 vapor is shown to passivate Br-vacancies and associated Pb° in the bulk of macroscopic crystals. Controlling the exposure time can markedly improve the overall stoichiometry for moderate exposures or introduce excessive bromide for long exposures, resulting in p-doping of the crystals. In the low dose passivation regime, Hall effect measurements reveal a ca. 3-fold increase in carrier mobility to ca. 15 cm2V-1s-1, while the p-doping increases the electrical conductivity ca. 10000-fold, including a 50-fold increase in carrier mobility to ca. 150 cm2V-1s-1. The ease of diffusion of Br2 vapor into macroscopic crystals is ascribed to the porosity allowed in rapidly grown crystals through aggregative processes of the colloidal sol during growth of films and macroscopic crystals. This process is believed to form significant growth defects, including open voids, which may be remnants of the escaping solvent at the solidification front. These results suggest that due to the sol-gel-like nature of the growth process, macroscopic perovskite crystals reported in this study are far from perfect and point to possible pathways to improving the optoelectronic properties of these materials. Nevertheless, the ability of the vapor-phase approach to access and tune the bulk chemistry and properties of nominally macroscopic perovskite crystals provides interesting new opportunities to precisely manipulate and functionalize the bulk properties of hybrid perovskite crystals in a noninvasive manner.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química , Brometos/química , Doping nos Esportes , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos
14.
Chemosphere ; 248: 126123, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059334

RESUMO

The immobilization of selenate (SeO42-) using metal oxides (CaO and MgO) and ferrous salt as the immobilization reagents were examined by the leaching test and solid-phase analysis via XRD, XAFS, TGA, and XPS. The results indicated that nearly all of SeO42- was reduced to SeO32- in the CaO-based reaction within 7 days. Then, the generated SeO32- was mainly sorbed onto the iron-based minerals (Fe2O3 and FeOOH) through the formation of both bidentate mononuclear edge-sharing (1E) and monodentate mononuclear corner-sharing (1V) inner-sphere surface complexes, suggested by PHREEQC simulation and EXAFS analysis. Differently, less amount of SeO42- (approximately 45.50%) was reduced to SeO32- for the MgO-based reaction. However, if the curing time increases to a longer time (more than 7 days), the further reduction could occur because there are still Fe(II) species in the matrix. As for the associations of Se in the solid residue, most of the selenium (SeO32- and SeO42-) was preferentially distributed onto the Mg(OH)2 through outer-sphere adsorption. Definitely, this research can provide a deep understanding of the immobilization of selenium using alkaline-earth metal oxide related materials and ferrous substances.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Óxidos/química , Ácido Selênico/análise , Adsorção , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Modelos Teóricos , Ácido Selênico/química , Purificação da Água/métodos
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 90: 110-118, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081308

RESUMO

This work investigates the effect of cerium substation into strontium cobalt perovskites (CeSrCoO) for the oxidative degradation of Orange II (OII) in dark ambient conditions without the aid of any external stimulants such as light, heating or chemical additives. The OII degradation rate by CeSrCoO reached 65% in the first hour, whilst for the blank sample without cerium (SrCoO) took over 2 hr to reach the same level of OII degradation. Hence, the cerium substitution improved the catalytic activity of the perovskite material, mainly associated with the Ce0.1Sr0.9CoO3 perovskite phase. Upon contacting CeSrCoO, the -NN- azo bonds of the OII molecules broke down resulting in electron donation and the formation of by-products. The electrons are injected into the CeSrCoO and resulted in a redox pair of Co3+/Co2+, establishing a bridge for the electron transfer between OII and the catalysts. Concomitantly, the electrons also formed reactive species (·OH) responsible for OII degradation as evidenced by radical trapping experiment. Reactive species were formed via the reaction between O2 and donated electrons from OII with the aid of cobalt redox pair. As the prepared materials dispensed with the need for light irradiation and additional oxidants, it opens a window of environmental applications for treating contaminated wastewaters.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cério/química , Poluentes Ambientais , Óxidos/química , Estrôncio/química , Titânio/química , Catálise , Cobalto
16.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(10): 105008, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101809

RESUMO

Low-energy x-ray imaging of secondary electron bremsstrahlung x-rays emitted during carbon-ion irradiation is a promising method for range estimation and could be used for imaging with almost clinical dose levels of carbon ion. However, the number of counts in images with clinical dose levels is relatively small, making it difficult to obtain precise range estimations. Since improving the sensitivity of the x-ray camera may solve this issue, we developed two new types of x-ray cameras. One uses a 1 mm thick, 40 mm × 40 mm cerium-doped yttrium aluminum perovskite (YA1O3: YAP(Ce)) scintillator plate combined with a 2 inch square flat panel photomultiplier tube (FP-PMT) contained in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield with a pinhole collimator positioned 50 mm from the scintillator; the other uses a 0.5 mm thick, 20 mm × 20 mm YAP(Ce) scintillator plate combined with a 1 inch square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) contained in the same tungsten shield with a pinhole collimator, but with the scintillator positioned closer (30 mm) to the pinhole collimator to obtain a similar field of view. For both cameras, we used a wider angle (∼55°) pinhole collimator to measure the phantom closer to improve sensitivity. Although the 40 mm × 40 mm YAP(Ce) camera had high system spatial resolution, the background count fractions were high and produced a high count area at the center of the images due to the pulse pileup of the signals. With the 20 mm × 20 mm YAP(Ce) camera, we obtained x-ray images with low background counts without a high count area at the image center. By smoothing the measured images, we were able to estimate the ranges even for clinical dose levels. We therefore confirmed that one of our newly developed YAP(Ce) cameras had high sensitivity and is promising for the imaging of secondary electron bremsstrahlung x-rays during irradiation of carbon ions in clinical conditions.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cério/química , Elétrons , Radioterapia com Íons Pesados , Óxidos/química , Radiografia/instrumentação , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Titânio/química , Ítrio/química , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Contagem de Cintilação , Raios X
17.
Talanta ; 211: 120705, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070571

RESUMO

Barium sulfate-coated CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbBr3 NCs@BaSO4) was successfully synthesized that exhibited stable and intense fluorescence property in aqueous buffer. With the CsPbBr3 NCs@BaSO4 as signal readout, an ultrasensitive fluorescence nanosensor was developed for turn-on determination of melamine by the manipulation of inner filter effect of citrate-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The fluorescence of the CsPbBr3 NCs@BaSO4 was remarkably quenched by the AuNPs due to inner filter effect. This inner filter effect could be weakened by the addition of melamine as a result of melamine-triggering aggregation of the AuNPs and subsequently led to a recovery in the fluorescence of the CsPbBr3 NCs@BaSO4. The recovery ratio was proportional to the concentration of melamine in the range of 5.0-500.0 nmol/L. The limit of detection was 0.42 nmol/L and the relative standard deviation was 4.0% for the repetitive determination of 500.0 nmol/L melamine solution (n = 11). The nanosensor was successfully applied to analysis of melamine in dairy product samples.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Laticínios/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química , Titânio/química , Triazinas/análise , Animais , Sulfato de Bário/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Fluorescência , Limite de Detecção , Triazinas/química
18.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 37, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study compares the apical microleakage of three different root-end filling materials in which the retrograde cavity is prepared by two different burs. METHODS: Eighty extracted single rooted maxillary and mandibular premolars were taken. Root canal treatment was completed. Apical 3 mm of all the teeth were resected with diamond disk. The tooth were divided into four groups with two subgroups for each group containing 10 tooth (N = 10) as: Group IA (Negative Control and IB (Positive Control); Group IIA and IIB: Prepared with round carbide bur and round diamond bur respectively, filled with GIC; Group IIIA and IIIB: Prepared with round carbide bur and round diamond bur respectively, filled with MTA; Group IVA and IVB: Prepared with round carbide bur and round diamond bur, filled with Biodentine. After applying two coats of nail varnish leaving apical 3 mm (except for negative control group) all teeth were immersed in 2% methylene blue for 3 days and again in 65% nitric acid for next 3 days for extraction of dye. The obtained solution was then transferred to eppendorf tube and centrifuged in microcentrifuges at 14,000 revolution per minutes (RPM) for 5 min. Optical density or absorbance of the supernatant solution was measured with UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. RESULTS: The absorbance of the supernatant solution after dye extraction is decreasing in the order of positive control> GIC > MTA > Biodentine> negative control group. The significant difference was observed between GIC and MTA (p = 0.0001) and GIC and Biodentine (p = 0.0001) with two different burs but statistically non-significant difference was observed between MTA and Biodentine with Carbide bur (p = 0.127) and Diamond bur (p = 0.496) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that Biodentine and MTA showed less microleakage as compared to GIC. There is no significant difference between mean microleakage of MTA and Biodentine. However, the mean OD of the Biodentine was least of all evaluated materials. Preparation of the root-end using round carbide bur as well as round diamond burs showed comparable microleakage for all three filling materials.


Assuntos
Compostos de Alumínio/farmacologia , Apicectomia/métodos , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cimentos Dentários/química , Infiltração Dentária/prevenção & controle , Óxidos/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Silicatos/farmacologia , Ápice Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Alumínio/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Infiltração Dentária/diagnóstico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pemetrexede , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Silicatos/química , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 20(1): 57, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracanal medicaments can be used in various endodontic conditions including multiple visit endodontics after trauma or in regenerative endodontics. These medicaments should be removed from the root canal before the placement of the filling or repair material. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and modified triple antibiotic paste (mTAP) placement on the push-out bond strength of TotalFill BC fast set putty (BC fast set putty) to root dentin when compared to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). METHODS: The root canals of 45 extracted mandibular premolars were prepared to a standardized internal diameter (1.5 mm). The specimens were randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the intracanal medicament used: mTAP (a mixture of metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and cefaclor), Ca(OH)2, and no intracanal medicament. After 1 week, the medicaments were removed, and the middle third of the roots were cut into two transverse sections (2.0 ± 0.05) (n = 90 slices). Thereafter, the specimens were divided into two subgroups (n = 45 each): MTA or BC putty. After 1 week, the push-out test was performed and failure mode was evaluated. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc. RESULTS: The application of the intracanal medicament did not significantly affect the bond strength of BC putty (p > .05). For MTA, the prior application of Ca(OH)2 or mTAP significantly decreased the dislocation resistance (p < .05). Specimens in the MTA subgroups showed an almost equal number of cohesive and mixed types of failure while the majority of the specimens in the BC putty subgroups revealed the cohesive type. CONCLUSIONS: Ca(OH)2 and mTAP promoted lower bond strength of MTA to root dentin compared to the control group. However, the BC fast set putty bond strength to dentin was not affected by prior medication with Ca(OH)2 or mTAP.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Colagem Dentária , Endodontia/métodos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/química , Silicatos/química , Cálcio , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cefaclor , Ciprofloxacino , Humanos , Metronidazol , Silicatos/farmacologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046273

RESUMO

The solidification/stabilization (S/S) method is the usual technique for the remediation of soils polluted by heavy metal in recent years. However, freeze-thaw cycles, an important physical process producing weathering of materials, will affect the long-term stability of engineering characteristics in solidified contaminated soil. In addition, it is still questionable whether using large dosages of binders can enhance the engineering properties of solidified/stabilized contaminated soils. In this study, the three most commonly used binders (i.e., cement, quicklime, and fly ash), alone and mixed in different ratios, were thus added to lead-contaminated soil in various dosages, making a series of cured lead-contaminated soils with different dosages of binders. Afterward, unconfined compression strength tests, direct shear tests, and permeability tests were employed on the resulting samples to find the unconfined compressive strength (UCS), secant modulus ( E 50 ), internal friction angle ( φ ), cohesion ( c ), and permeability coefficient ( k ) of each solidified/stabilized lead-contaminated soil after 0, 3, 7, and 14 days of freeze-thaw cycles. This procedure was aimed at evaluating the influence of freeze-thaw cycle and binder dosage on engineering properties of solidified/stabilized lead-contaminated soils. Results of our experiments showed that cement/quicklime/fly ash could remediate lead-contaminated soils. However, it did not mean that the more the dosage of binder, the better the curing effect. There was a critical dosage. Excessive cementation of contaminated soils caused by too much binder would result in loss of strength and an increase in permeability. Furthermore, it was found that UCS,   E 50 , φ , c , and k values generally decreased with the increase in freeze-thaw cycle time-a deterioration effect on the engineering characteristics of solidified lead-contaminated soils. Avoiding excessive cementation, 2.5% cement or quicklime was favorable for the value of E 50 while a 2.5% fly ash additive was beneficial for the k value. It is also suggested that if the freeze-thaw cycle continues beyond the period supported by excessive cementation, such a cycle will rapidly destroy the original structure of the soil and create large cracks, leading to an increase in permeability. The results also showed that the contaminated soils with a larger dosage of binders exhibited more significant deterioration during freeze-thaw cycles.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Engenharia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Chumbo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cinza de Carvão/química , Materiais de Construção , Chumbo/análise , Óxidos/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
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