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1.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(1): 1-13, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992076

RESUMO

Saltpetre (KNO3; potassium nitrate) is one of the major ingredients of gunpowder. Simplex saltpetre (total 126 samples) together with gunpowder (total 93 samples) commodities which are currently prevailing in local markets as used for wildlife hunting and rocket festivals (local name in Lao: Boun Ban Fai) were collected from throughout Lao PDR. Dual isotopic composition of nitrates (δ15N, δ18O) was analyzed by the microbial denitrification method. Binary plotting of the data was conducted to characterize the mode of formation. In Lao PDR, almost all the commodities were imported from neighbouring Thailand, and to a lesser extent from Israel. Binary plotting of δ15N vs. δ18O of nitrates shows their intrinsic origin manufactured by Haber-Bosch and subsequently Ostwald processes. We observed an inverse correlation (δ15Nnitrate: up to + 12 ‰; δ18Onitrate: down to + 15 ‰), deviating from the reservoir values (free air) of δ15N (dinitrogen; up to 0 ‰) and δ18O (oxygen; +23.5 ‰), interpreted this as an indication of isotope fractionation during manufacture. The most plausible interpretation for this is the fractionation associated with formation of NO following NO2 and finally NO3 products. A nearly comparable inverse relationship is also observed for nitrates in pyrotechnics manufactured in China.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Fracionamento Químico , China , Desnitrificação , Laos
2.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124953, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574435

RESUMO

Chemical characterization of PM2.5 and PM10 is important to identify potential compounds that induce biological responses that translate into cardio-respiratory health problems. This study shows the reliability of the use of crystalline phases, identified in samples from receptor sites, as source markers, helping researchers to infer the main sources of air pollution, even without the use of receptor models. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at two sites in an urban industrialized region located at southeast of Brazil and analyzed by Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction to identify crystalline compounds. Results show 5 PM10 and PM2.5 species not previously reported in the literature. We propose reaction mechanisms for these species and identify specific sources for each crystalline phase found: BaTiO3 was found in PM10 receptor samples and proved to be a vehicular marker formed during brake action; maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), pyracmonite [(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3], ammonium perchlorate (NH3OHClO4) and potassium ferrate (K2Fe2O4) were found in PM2.5 proved to be markers of industrial activities. The crystalline phases found in PM samples from receptor sites and the mechanisms of reactions showed the reliability of the use of crystalline phases as source markers in the identification of potential sources of air pollution without misinterpretation of the likely source.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química , Sulfato de Amônio/análise , Compostos de Bário/análise , Brasil , Compostos Férricos/análise , Indústrias , Compostos de Ferro/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Percloratos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síncrotrons , Titânio/análise , Difração de Raios X/métodos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(36): 35990-36001, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808401

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to determine and evaluate the chemical properties of drilling waste from five well sites in Central and Eastern Poland. It was found that spent drilling fluids can contain high values of nickel and mercury (270 and 8.77 mg kg-1, respectively) and can exceed the maximum permissible limits recommended by the EC regulations for safety of soils (75 mg kg-1 for nickel and 1.5 mg kg-1 for mercury). The heavy metal concentrations in the studied drill cuttings did not exceed the maximum permissible limits recommended by the EC regulation. Drilling wastes contain macroelements (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) as well as trace elements (e.g., copper, iron, zinc, and manganese) that are essential for the plant growth. It was stated that water extracts of drilling fluids and drill cuttings, according to anions presence, had not any specific constituents of concern based on FAO irrigation guidelines, the USEPA WQC, and toxicity values. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to understand the structure and texture of waste drilling fluid solids and drill cuttings. Analysis of the mineralogical character of drilling fluid solids revealed that they contained calcite, quartz, muscovite, sylvite, barite, dolomite, and orthoclase. Drill cuttings contained calcite quartz, muscovite, barite, dolomite, and barium chloride.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Irrigação Agrícola , Compostos de Alumínio/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais/análise , Gás Natural , Polônia , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Silicatos/análise , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Águas Residuárias/química , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Qualidade da Água , Difração de Raios X
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 699-704, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29680760

RESUMO

Sludge disintegration by ultrasound is a promising sludge treatment method. In order to enhance the efficiency of the sludge reduction and hydrolysis, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) (PF) was used. A novel method was developed to improve the sludge disintegration-sludge pretreatment by using PF in combination with an ultrasonic treatment (PF + ULT). After a short-term PF + ULT treatment, 17.23% of the volatile suspended solids (VSS) were reduced after a 900-min reaction time, which is 61.3% higher than the VSS reduction for the raw sludge. The supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), total nitrogen (TN), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble protein and polysaccharides increased by 522.5%, 1029.4%, 878.4%, 2996.6% and 801.9%, respectively. The constituent parts of the dissolved organic matter of the sludge products were released efficiently, which demonstrated the positive effect caused by the PF + ULT. The enhanced sludge disintegration process further alleviates environmental risk and offers a more efficient and convenient method for utilizing sludge.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Esgotos/química , Ultrassom , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Hidrólise
6.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(13): 2482-2484, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Iodine-deficiency disorders, due to insufficiency of iodine in the diet, are a global public health problem. The Kenyan Food, Drugs and Chemical Substances Act stipulates that processed retail-available edible salts contain 50-84 mg of potassium iodate (KIO3) per kilogram of salt. The present study determined the status of KIO3 levels in commercial salts, for public health action.Design/Setting/SubjectsAs part of the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2013, field workers collected salt samples from seven different local manufacturers/packers across eight regions of the country and sent them to the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) for KIO3 titration analysis. RESULTS: A total of 539 samples were collected and analysed at NPHL. The samples had a mean KIO3 of 62 mg/kg. Thirty-three (6 %) samples had KIO3 of 84 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that 62 % of salts sampled met the Kenyan standards, 24 % were below the required limits and 13 % were above the recommended range. Continuous monitoring of edible salts at the retail level is important to detect brands not adhering to standards and trace them for remedy. However, governmental efforts should be directed to the quality control and quality assurance of the salt-manufacturing industries.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Iodatos/provisão & distribução , Compostos de Potássio/provisão & distribução , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/provisão & distribução , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Iodatos/análise , Iodo/deficiência , Quênia , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Recomendações Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 156: 420-427, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597059

RESUMO

Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models.


Assuntos
Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Água , Benzoatos/análise , Brometos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Eutrofização , Fertilizantes/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Solo/química , Tolueno/análogos & derivados , Tolueno/análise , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 16(1): 78-84, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate a combined effect of active ingredients contained in new toothpaste in reducing dentine hypersensitivity. METHODS: The tested toothpaste contained active ingredients potassium nitrate (5.00%) and zinc citrate (0.50%). Pain to water stimulus and blowing air was reported on hypersensitive teeth and measured using the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale). The degree of pain to water stimulus was detected after each subject drank a few sips of water which was boiled to the room temperature. Data were collected on each subject's dental history. RESULTS: A significant reduction in dentine hypersensitivity (26-29% after 2 weeks versus 40% after 4 weeks) was detected in the tested group. The controls also showed significant reduction to both stimuli, but at lower rate. A statistically significant difference to blowing air and water stimuli showed the highest impact for the tested group after 4 weeks (P = 0.033, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: This study supports the efficacy of the tested toothpaste in reducing the phenomenon of dentine hypersensitivity after 4 weeks of usage.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/prevenção & controle , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Citratos/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitratos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Cremes Dentais/química , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem , Compostos de Zinco/análise
9.
Chemosphere ; 190: 454-462, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29028600

RESUMO

Dust is a mixture of natural and anthropogenic particles originated from multiple sources, which can represent an hazard for human health. Playgrounds are a site of particularly concern, due to sand dust ingestion by toddlers and inhalation. In this study, 37 sands used in public playgrounds in the city of Barcelona were physico-chemically characterized also in relation to routine maintenance activities such as disinfection and sand renewal. The analyzed sands show a felsic mineralogy dominated by Na-feldspar, quartz, and, to a lesser extent, K-feldspar, with minor amounts of clay minerals, carbonates and hematite. Particle fractions below 10, 2.5 and 1 µm represent, on average, 0.65%, 0.17% and 0.07% of bulk volume, respectively, although, due to the human grinding, these initial fractions increased every year by a 18%, 5% and 2% respectively. Disinfection of sands effectively reduced only the NH4+ concentration, among inorganic species. The average metal content was anthropogenically enriched, with respect to the upper continental crust, only for Sb and As. Both elements show high spatial variation indicating local sources such as road traffic for Sb (contributing mostly to the total concentration), and industry for As (also contributing with highly bioaccessible Sb, Cu and Zn). A clear inverse relationship between total concentrations of some elements and their leachable (Sb) and bioaccessible (Sb and Cr) fractions is observed. The most bioaccessible elements were Ca > Ni > Cu > Sr > Cd > Pb, all above the 25% of the total concentration. Bioaccessibility was higher for the carbonate-bearing particles and for the anthropic emitted metals (>50% of Ba, Cu, K, Pb and Zn).


Assuntos
Cidades , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado/análise , Silicatos de Alumínio/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Metais/análise , Minerais/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Dióxido de Silício/análise
10.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(4): 1245-1249, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29039321

RESUMO

This case study is conducted to investigate the thyroid hormone levels and relevant disorders including evaluation of dietary conditions in the rural area of Gujranwala and its surrounding districts. Thyroid disorders are clinically prevalent and their manifestation differs considerably with geographical variations. A randomized study of 177 subjects was carried out, with a questionnaire about their dietary habits/life style and acquisition of blood samples for thyroid hormone level assessment using radioimmunoassay technique. This study was permitted by the local ethics committee and an informed consent was obtained from the patients. Study of normally distributed population with p value less than <0.005 and mean age 32.67±13 years demonstrated that 37% female and 43% males were hyperthyroid with elevated levels of FT3and FT4. Amongst the diagnosed cases of hyperthyroidism 47% females and 33% of males were using Iodized salt with 50ug/ppm increased concentration of KIO3 in their diet without any prescription. Furthermore, 60% of diagnosed hypothyroid cases were having no iodine supplementation in their diet. Thyroid function problems are more common in females (N=137) than males (N=40) but the severity of this disease was found to be more pronounced in males as the TSH level (33.13±22.73) was twice that as compared to females (17.63±18.15). Despite a high prevalence of recognized thyroid disease in the population a considerable number of inhabitants have undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction. These findings necessities wider scale studies for the mapping of thyroid behavior and the contributing factors for this region with a population of more than 20 million.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Iodatos/análise , Iodo/análise , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Compostos de Potássio/análise , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Adulto Jovem
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 145(6): 1183-1192, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091341

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between epidemics and soil radiation through an exploratory study using sentinel surveillance data (individuals aged <20 years) during the last three epidemic seasons of influenza and norovirus in Japan. We used a spatial analysis method of a geographical information system (GIS). We mapped the epidemic spreading patterns from sentinel incidence rates. We calculated the average soil radiation [dm (µGy/h)] for each sentinel site using data on uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide in the soil and examined the incidence rate in units of 0·01 µGy/h. The correlations between the incidence rate and the average soil radiation were assessed. Epidemic clusters of influenza and norovirus infections were observed in areas with relatively high radiation exposure. A positive correlation was detected between the average incidence rate and radiation dose, at r = 0·61-0·84 (P < 0·01) for influenza infections and r = 0·61-0·72 (P < 0·01) for norovirus infections. An increase in the incidence rate was found between areas with radiation exposure of 0 < dm < 0·01 and 0·15 ⩽ dm < 0·16, at 1·80 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·47-2·12] times higher for influenza infection and 2·07 (95% CI 1·53-2·61) times higher for norovirus infection. Our results suggest a potential association between decreased immunity and irradiation because of soil radiation. Further studies on immunity in these epidemic-prone areas are desirable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Radiação , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Solo/química , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Óxidos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Tório/análise , Topografia Médica , Urânio/análise , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 17(4): 2302-304, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29638293

RESUMO

This study examined the microbial precipitations of Cr(III)-hydroxide and Se(0) nanoparticles during anoxic bioreductions of Cr(VI) and Se(VI) using metal-reducing bacteria enriched from groundwater. Metal-reducing bacteria enriched from groundwater at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) Underground Research Tunnel (KURT), Daejeon, S. Korea were used. Metal reduction and precipitation experiments with the metal-reducing bacteria were conducted using Cr(VI)- and Se(VI)-contaminated water and glucose as a carbon source under an anaerobic environment at room temperature. XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX analyses were used to characterize the mineralogy, crystal structure, chemistry, shape, and size distribution of the precipitates. The metal-reducing bacteria reduced Cr(VI) of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) to Cr(III) of chromium hydroxide [Cr(OH)3], and Se(VI) of sodium selenate (Na2SeO4) to selenium Se(0), with changes of color and turbidity. XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX analyses revealed that the chromium hydroxide [Cr(OH)3] was formed extracellularly with nanoparticles of 20­30 nm in size, and elemental selenium Se(0) nanoparticles had a sphere shape of 50­250 nm in size. These results show that metal-reducing bacteria in groundwater can aid or accelerate precipitation of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) via bioreduction processes under anoxic environments. These results may also be useful for the recovery of Cr and Se nanoparticles in natural environments.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo , Água Subterrânea/microbiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cromatos/análise , Cromatos/química , Cromatos/metabolismo , Cromo/análise , Cromo/química , Cromo/metabolismo , Hidróxidos , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Compostos de Potássio/química , Compostos de Potássio/metabolismo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(22): 22980-22992, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27581045

RESUMO

Previous studies have documented the occurrence of veterinary sulfonamide antibiotics in groundwater and rivers located far from pollution sources, although their transport and fate is relatively unknown. In mountainous agricultural fields, the transport behaviour can be influenced by climate, slope and physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides. The objective of this research is to describe the transport behaviour of three sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethazine) in sloped agricultural fields located in the Haean catchment, South Korea. During dry and monsoon seasons, a solute transport experiment was conducted in two typical sandy loam agricultural fields after application of antibiotics and potassium bromide as conservative tracers. Field measurement and modelling revealed that frequency and amount of runoff generation indicate a relation between slope and rain intensity during monsoon season. Since the steepness of slope influenced partitioning of precipitation between runoff and subsurface flow, higher loss of sulfonamide antibiotics and bromide by runoff was observed at the steeper sloped field. Bromide on topsoil rapidly infiltrated at high infiltration rates. On the contrary, the sulfonamides were relatively retarded in the upper soil layer due to adsorption onto soil particles. Presence of furrows and ridges affected the distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in the subsurface due to gradient from wetter furrows to drier ridges induced by topography. Modelling results with HydroGeoSphere matched with background studies that describe physico-chemical properties of the sulfonamides interaction between soil and the antibiotic group, solute transport through vadose zone and runoff generation by storm events.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Sulfonamidas/análise , Adsorção , Brometos/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Chuva/química , Rios/química , Estações do Ano
14.
J AOAC Int ; 99(4): 914-922, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27455933

RESUMO

A previously validated method for the determination of both citrate-EDTA-soluble P and K and acid-soluble P and K in commercial inorganic fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was submitted to the expert review panel (ERP) for fertilizers for consideration of First Action Official Method(SM) status. The ERP evaluated the single-laboratory validation results and recommended the method for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action. Validation materials ranging from 4.4 to 52.4% P2O5 (1.7-22.7% P) and 3-62% K2O (2.5-51.1% K) were used for the validation. Recoveries from validation materials for citrate-soluble P and K ranged from 99.3 to 124.9% P and from 98.4 to 100.7% K. Recoveries from validation materials for acid-soluble "total" P and K ranged from 95.53 to 99.40% P and from 98.36 to 107.28% K. Values of r for citrate-soluble P and K, expressed as RSD, ranged from 0.28 to 1.30% for P and from 0.41 to 1.52% for K. Values of r for total P and K, expressed as RSD, ranged from 0.71 to 1.13% for P and from 0.39 to 1.18% for K. Based on the validation data, the ERP recommended the method (with alternatives for the citrate-soluble and the acid-soluble extractions) for First Action Official Method status and provided recommendations for achieving Final Action status.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Calibragem , Ácido Cítrico/química , Ácido Edético/química , Óxidos/análise , Compostos de Fósforo/análise , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Espectrofotometria Atômica/normas , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28091488

RESUMO

Salt therapy (halotherapy) as a non-traditional method for the treatment of various pathological conditions has become an increasingly popular therapeutic modality in Russia and abroad. The Perm region houses one of the largest sylvinite-bearing potash deposits in the world. These salts are possessed of special physical and chemical properties of great value for the treatment of different diseases. The objective of the present work was to develop novel approaches to the application of sylvinite for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects of investigations were the modern sylvinite constructions of different types. The study included a total of 195 patients who were randomly divided into two groups. The main group consisted of 50 patients presenting with allergic respiratory diseases, 20 ones with atopic dermatitis, and 21 with vulgar psoriasis. 31 patients had undergone aortocoronary bypass surgery in the preceding period. 49 pregnant women presented with a complicated course of pregnancy. 24 patients suffered from chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis. The control group was comprised of 188 persons presenting with the same diseases (46, 30, 18, 20, 49, 25 patients in each of the above groups respectively) who received only the traditional pharmacotherapeutic treatment. All the patients underwent evaluation of the respiratory and cardiovascular functions. The clinical manifestations and the skin damage areas were estimated in the patients with atopic dermatitis and vulgar psoriasis. Blood circulation in placenta, the state of the periodontal tissues, and local immunity in the oral cavity mucosa, as well as the subjective psychological status were evaluated. The physical and chemical characteristics of the internal environment of the salt constructions (microclimatic factors, radiation, air ionization, salt aerosol content) were estimated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The data obtained provided a basis for the development and patenting of the methods for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, vulgar psoriasis, placental insufficiency, and chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis based on the halotherapeutic modalities. CONCLUSION: The results of the long-term hygienic, physical and clinical investigations made it possible to identify the complex of curative factors inherent in the natural mineral sylvinite constructions. These factors are believed to create the optimal conditions for the efficient management of the patients presenting with dermatological, cardiological, obstetrical, and stomatological problems.


Assuntos
Abietanos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Insuficiência Placentária/terapia , Compostos de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Psoríase/terapia , Doenças Respiratórias/terapia , Abietanos/análise , Administração por Inalação , Cavernas/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Gravidez
16.
J Environ Manage ; 169: 1-7, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26716571

RESUMO

The flocculation efficiency of a cationic polyelectrolyte with quaternary ammonium salt groups in the backbone, namely PCA5 was evaluated on zirconium silicate (kreutzonit), kaolin, K- feldspar and zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions prepared either with each pollutant or with their mixture. The effect of several parameters such as settling time, polymer dose and the pollutant type on the separation efficacy was evaluated and followed by optical density and zeta potential measurements. Except for ZnO, the interactions between PCA5 and suspended particles led to low residual turbidity values (around 4% for kreutzonit, 5% for kaolin and 8% for K-feldspar) as well as to the reduction of flocs settling time (from 1200 min to 30 min and 120 min in case of kaolinit and K-feldspar, respectively), that meant a high efficiency in their separation. The negative value of the zeta potential and flocs size measurements, at the optimum polymer dose, point to contribution from charge patch mechanism for the particles flocculation. A good efficiency of PCA5 in separation of paraffin oil (a minimum residual turbidity of 9.8%) has been also found.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água/química , Silicatos de Alumínio/análise , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Floculação , Caulim/análise , Caulim/química , Óleos/análise , Óleos/química , Parafina/análise , Parafina/química , Poliaminas/química , Polímeros/química , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Compostos de Potássio/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Silicatos/análise , Silicatos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Óxido de Zinco/análise , Óxido de Zinco/química , Zircônio/análise , Zircônio/química
17.
Yakushigaku Zasshi ; 50(1): 13-32, 2015.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26427096

RESUMO

In mental clinics, bromide agents such as potassium bromide were often once used as therapeutic drugs to treat psychiatric disorders. They were also given as hypnotic, sedative and antiepileptic medicines. However, the appearance of new medicines has resulted in them not being used for these purposes in recent years. Potassium bromide is still continuously listed in today's JP and BP. This suggests that it maintains value as a basic medicine for treating mental disorders in the history of psychotropic medicines. However, regarding the standards and test methods for potassium bromide in the present JP, as a result of a comparison between the USP of the same age, BP and EP, a gap is seen, and this is very regrettable. The exchange of art and scientific information related to medical sciences with foreign countries is becoming more active today. Therefore, scholarly information overseas should be collected and reflected in the standards and test methods for potassium bromide adopted in the JP of Japan. The author believes that the standards and test methods comparable to those at the international level should introduced. On the other hand, potassium bromide was recetnly relisted by USP29 (2006) for the first time in approximately 50 years. Moreover, instrumental analysis was introduced as part of the test methods in BP2013; that is, an epoch-making revision was made in terms of test methods. It is assumed from this that there is a sign of new change regarding the existence of potassium bromide as hypnotic, sedative and antiepileptic medicines, and its utility value. It is believed that the sign of change in view of the utility value and pharmacological evaluation probably arose with the new clinical knowledge that potassium bromide was used to treat a baby seriously ill with myoclony epilepsy, as well as to treat a dog with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Brometos/normas , Farmacopeias como Assunto , Compostos de Potássio/normas , Psicotrópicos/normas , Brometos/análise , Humanos , Japão , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Psicotrópicos/análise , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
18.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 32: 1-6, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302905

RESUMO

Potassium iodate (KIO3) and potassium iodide (KI) are the major salt iodization agents used worldwide. Unlike iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)) should be reduced to I(-) before it can be effectively used by the thyroid. In this study, we developed a new method for analyzing IO3(-) and I(-) in tissue homogenates using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). We further applied the method to demonstrate the KIO3 reduction process by tissues in vitro. The effects of KIO3 on the total antioxidative activity (TAA) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) were also investigated here. Finally, we found that IO3(-) can be reduced to I(-) by tissue homogenates and IO3(-) irreversibly decreases the antioxidant capability of tissues. Our studies suggest that KIO3 might have a big effect on the redox balance of tissue and would further result in oxidative stress of organisms.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Iodatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Feminino , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , NADP/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Padrões de Referência , Soluções , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25985122

RESUMO

In this work, a flow injection analysis (FIA) method was introduced for the determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water. This method is based upon the inhibition effect of thiourea on the reaction between meta-cresol purple (MCP) and potassium bromate catalyzed by bromide ions in a sulfuric acid medium. In the presence of thiourea, an induction period appears in the reaction system, and as a result, the absorbance of MCP increases at 525 nm in the FIA manifold. The chemical and FIA variables are studied and optimized using the univariate and Simplex optimization methods. Under the optimum conditions, thiourea can be determined in the range of 0.100-13.0 µg mL(-1). The limit of detection (3σ) for thiourea was found to be 0.0310 µg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate determinations of 0.500, 5.00, and 12.0 µg mL(-1) of thiourea were 4.0%, 1.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of thiourea in orange juice and orange peel samples with recoveries in the range of 98.0-101%. The analytical speed of the method was calculated to be about 120 sample per hour.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Citrus sinensis/química , Análise de Injeção de Fluxo/métodos , Sistemas On-Line , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Tioureia/análise , Água/química , Bromatos/análise , Brometos/análise , Indicadores e Reagentes , Concentração Osmolar , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Reologia , Ácidos Sulfúricos/análise , Temperatura
20.
Water Res ; 68: 616-26, 2015 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462767

RESUMO

The radioactive fallout cesium (¹³7Cs) in the sewage sludge ashes (SSAs) produced in Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident was tested. Five samples of SSAs produced in 2011 and 2012 were tested. Two of the samples contained ¹³7Cs (23 and 9.6 kBq/kg, respectively) above the radioactivity criterion (8 kBq of radioactive Cs/kg of solid) for controlled landfill disposal in Japan. The mineral components of SSA are roughly divided into two groups: an HCl-soluble phase mainly composed of phosphates and oxides; and silicates, including quartz, feldspar, and clay. Both phases contained ¹³7Cs. The majority (up to 90%) of ¹³7Cs was contained in the HCl-soluble phase. Among the HCl-soluble subphases, Fe-bearing phases that were probably iron oxides were mainly responsible for ¹³7Cs retention. No positive evidence was obtained that showed that phosphate-bearing phases, which were included most in SSAs along with the silicate phase, retained ¹³7Cs. Pre-pulverizing SSAs and heating them at 95 °C in a 6 M or a concentrated aqueous HCl was the most effective method of dissolving the HCl-soluble phase. The radioactivity concentrations of ¹³7Cs in all the HCl-treatment residues were below the radioactivity criterion. This residue was mostly composed of silicates. After static leaching tests of the residue at 60 °C for 28 days, no ¹³7Cs was detected in simulated environmental water leachates (pure water and synthetic seawater), demonstrating that 137Cs in the residue is very stably immobilized in the silicates.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Cinza Radioativa/análise , Esgotos/química , Silicatos de Alumínio/análise , Argila , Geografia , Temperatura Alta , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Incineração , Japão , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/química , Fosfatos/análise , Fosfatos/química , Compostos de Potássio/análise , Água do Mar/análise , Água do Mar/química , Silicatos/análise , Solubilidade , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
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