Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.465
Filtrar
1.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(21): 127571, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980515

RESUMO

NLRP3 inflammasome mediated release of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) has been implicated in various diseases, including COVID-19. In this study, rationally designed alkenyl sulfonylurea derivatives were identified as novel, potent and orally bioavailable NLRP3 inhibitors. Compound 7 was found to be potent (IL-1ß IC50 = 35 nM; IL-18 IC50 = 33 nM) and selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor with excellent pharmacokinetic profile having oral bioavailability of 99% in mice.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Coronavirus , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/síntese química , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/farmacocinética , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8/farmacologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/síntese química , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/farmacocinética , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/farmacologia , Cães , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacocinética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236603, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been suggested to have pancreatic beta-cell preserving effect according to studies using homeostatic model of assessment for beta-cell function (HOMA-ß). However, whether HOMA-ß is a suitable biomarker for comparisons between hypoglycemic drugs with different mechanisms of action remains unclear. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and other classes of hypoglycemic drugs on HOMA-ß and proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (PIR). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Ichushi-web for the period of 1966 to May 2020. We collected randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus comparing DPP-4 inhibitors and other classes of hypoglycemic agents [α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, metformin, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, sulfonylureas, or thiazolidinediones]. Weighted mean differences and 95% confidence intervals of changes in HOMA-ß or PIR during study periods were calculated for pairwise comparisons. RESULTS: Thirty-seven and 21 relevant trials were retrieved for comparisons of HOMA-ß and PIR, respectively. HOMA-ß and PIR consistently showed superiority of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with α-GIs. Both biomarkers consistently supported inferiority of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with GLP-1 analogues. However, PIR showed inferiority of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with metformin, and superiority compared with SGLT2 inhibitors, whereas HOMA-ß showed no significant differences between DPP-4 inhibitors and the two other agents. CONCLUSION: DPP-4 inhibitors appear to be superior to α-GIs but inferior to GLP-1 analogues in preservation of beta-cell function assessed by either HOMA-ß or PIR. DPP-4 inhibitors seem to be superior to SGLT2 inhibitors but inferior to metformin on islet function assessed only by PIR. Because HOMA-ß and PIR may indicate different aspects of beta-cell function, results of beta-cell function preserving effects of hypoglycemic agents should be interpreted with caution.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/citologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Proinsulina/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2127, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358544

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events in humans with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Activation of the NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and subsequent interleukin (IL)-1ß release induces atherosclerosis and heart failure. Here we show the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin on NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk receive SGLT2 inhibitor or sulfonylurea for 30 days, with NLRP3 inflammasome activation analyzed in macrophages. While the SGLT2 inhibitor's glucose-lowering capacity is similar to sulfonylurea, it shows a greater reduction in IL-1ß secretion compared to sulfonylurea accompanied by increased serum ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and decreased serum insulin. Ex vivo experiments with macrophages verify the inhibitory effects of high BHB and low insulin levels on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In conclusion, SGLT2 inhibitor attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which might help to explain its cardioprotective effects.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Cetonas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Metabolism ; 109: 154265, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is more prevalent among people with type 2 diabetes, but little is known regarding the influence of antidiabetic agents on this association. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the impact of various antidiabetic agents on the risk of dementia among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Relevant studies were retrieved from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. Nine antidiabetic agents were included in the search. Data were pooled via network meta-analysis and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Nine studies were selected for the network meta-analysis with 530,355 individuals and 17 studies for the meta-analysis with 1,258,879 individuals. The analysis excluded glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors due to the absence of relevant data. The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, metformin, thiazolidinedione, and sulfonylurea was associated with a decreased risk of dementia in comparison to no treatment with antidiabetic agents (hazard ratio [HR] for DPP-4 inhibitors, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.74, HR for metformin, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.86; HR for sulfonylurea, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.73-0.98 and HR for thiazolidinedione, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89, respectively). However, the node-splitting analysis showed the inconsistency of direct and indirect estimates in sulfonylurea (P = 0.042). DPP-4 inhibitors, metformin, thiazolidinedione, and sulfonylurea exhibited a significant impact on the risk of dementia in diabetics compared with insulin (HR, 0.35; 95%CI, 0.20-0.59, HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30-0.77, HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29-0.73 and HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.88, respectively). DPP-4 inhibitors also exhibited a protective effect on the risk of Alzheimer's dementia compared with the no treatment with antidiabetic agents (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.92). The meta-analysis demonstrated a protective effect of using metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors on the risk of dementia (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.00 and HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.76, respectively). Further analysis showed insulin was associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's dementia (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.13-2.26). Only two case-control studies mentioned GLP-1 analogs and SGLT-2 inhibitors, and the pooled ORs showed no evidence of an association with dementia (GLP-1 analogs: 0.71; 95% CI, 0.46-1.10 and SGLT-2 inhibitors: 0.74; 95% CI, 0.47-1.15). CONCLUSION: This analysis indicated that patients with type 2 diabetes under treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors presented with the lowest risk of dementia, followed by those treated with metformin and thiazolidinedione, while treatment with insulin was associated with the highest risk. For the increasing focus on the protective effect on dementia, further specific clinical studies are needed to evaluate the impact of GLP-1 analogs and SGLT-2 inhibitors on the risk of dementia.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Demência/etiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metanálise em Rede , Demência/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/farmacologia , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras , Risco , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Tiazolidinedionas/farmacologia , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
5.
Neurobiol Aging ; 89: 12-23, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143981

RESUMO

The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system (NDS) controls motor activity, and its impairment during type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression could increase Parkinson's disease risk in diabetics. If so, whether glycemia regulation prevents this impairment needs to be addressed. We investigated whether T2D impairs the NDS and whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition (DPP-4i; a clinical strategy against T2D but also neuroprotective in animal models) prevents this effect, in middle-aged mice. Neither T2D (induced by 12 months of high-fat diet) nor aging (14 months) changed striatal dopamine content assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. However, T2D reduced basal and amphetamine-stimulated striatal extracellular dopamine, assessed by microdialysis. Both the DPP-4i linagliptin and the sulfonylurea glimepiride (an antidiabetic comparator unrelated to DPP-4i) counteracted these effects. The functional T2D-induced effects did not correlate with NDS neuronal/glial alterations. However, aging itself affected striatal neurons/glia, and the glia effects were counteracted mainly by DPP-4i. These findings show NDS functional pathophysiology in T2D and suggest the preventive use of two unrelated anti-T2D drugs. Moreover, DPP-4i counteracted striatal age-related glial alterations suggesting striatal rejuvenation properties.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Linagliptina/farmacologia , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Risco
6.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(3-4): 103-112, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187019

RESUMO

The current study aimed to evaluate the in vivo hypoglycemic potential of Myristica fragrans seed extract co-administered with glimepiride in Swiss albino mice. Computational tools were used to further verify the in vivo findings and to help compare this combination to the glimepiride-pioglitazone combination in terms of the binding affinity of the ligands to their respective target protein receptors and the relative stability of the drug-protein complexes. The effect of the combined therapy was observed both in alloxan- and glucose-induced hyperglycemic Swiss albino mice. The mean fasting blood glucose level of the test groups was measured and statistically evaluated using Student's t test. The combined therapy significantly reduced the blood glucose level in a time-dependent manner compared to glimepiride alone. The binding affinity of glimepiride was found to be -7.6 kcal/mol with sulfonylurea receptor 1 in molecular docking. Conversely, macelignan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and macelignan-PPAR γ complexes were stabilized with -9.2 and -8.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Molecular dynamic simulation revealed that macelignan-PPAR α and γ complexes were more stable than pioglitazone complexes. The combination shows promise in animal and computer models and requires further trials to provide evidence of its activity in humans.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Myristica/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Aloxano/efeitos adversos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3017-3025, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059105

RESUMO

Chlorsulfuron has been applied in wheat fields as a recognized herbicide worldwide, yet it was officially banned in China since 2014 for its soil persistence problem. On the basis of our previous research that 5-dimethylamino distinctively accelerated degradation rate in soils, a modified amino moiety (Ia-c) and monosubstituted amino group (Id-e) were introduced onto the fifth position of the benzene ring in sulfonylurea structures, as well as heterocyclic amino substituents (If-g) to seek a suitable soil degradation rate during such an in situ crop rotation system. Referring to the biological data and ScAHAS inhibition and ScAHAS docking results, they turned out to be AHAS inhibitors with high potent herbicidal activities. The various influence on soil degradation rate along with crop safety indicated that different substituents on the fifth position have exerted an apparent impact. Their united study of structure-activity-safety-degradation relationship has great potential to provide valuable information for further development of eco-friendly agrochemicals.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/antagonistas & inibidores , Poluentes do Solo/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/enzimologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Herbicidas/química , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química
8.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 403-416, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898147

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CYP81A P450s armor Echinochloa phyllopogon against diverse and several herbicide chemistries. CYP81A substrate preferences can be a basis for cross-resistance prediction and management in E. phyllopogon and other related species. Metabolism-based herbicide resistance is a major threat to agriculture, as it is unpredictable and could extend resistance to different chemical groups and modes of action, encompassing existing, novel and to-be-discovered herbicides. Limited information on the enzymes involved in herbicide metabolism has hindered the prediction of cross-resistance in weeds. Members of CYP81A subfamily in multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) Echinochloa phyllopogon were previously identified for conferring cross-resistance to six unrelated herbicide classes. This suggests a critical role of CYP81As in endowing unpredictable cross-resistances in E. phyllopogon, thus the functions of all its nine putative functional CYP81A genes to 33 herbicides from 24 chemical groups were characterized. Ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana identified the CYP81As that can confer resistance to multiple and diverse herbicides. The CYP81As were further characterized for their enzymatic functions in Escherichia coli. CYP81A expression in E. coli was optimized via modification of the N-terminus, co-expression with HemA gene and culture at optimal temperature. CYP81As metabolized its herbicide substrates into hydroxylated, N-/O-demethylated or both products. The cross-resistance pattern conferred by CYP81As is geared towards all chemical groups of acetolactate synthase inhibitors and is expanded to herbicides inhibiting photosystem II, phytoene desaturase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. Cross-resistance to herbicides pyrimisulfan, propyrisulfuron, and mesotrione was predicted and confirmed in MHR E. phyllopogon. This study demonstrated that the functional characterization of the key enzymes for herbicide metabolism could disclose the cross-resistance pattern and identify appropriate chemical options to manage the existing and unexpected cross-resistances in E. phyllopogon.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/enzimologia , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Escherichia coli , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes , Especificidade por Substrato , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
9.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(1): 37-56, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex progressive endocrine disease characterized by hyperglycemia and life-threatening complications. It is the most common disorder of pancreatic cell function that causes insulin deficiency. Sulfonylurea is a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs. Over the past half century, these drugs, together with the subsequent non-sulfonylureas (glinides), have been the main oral drugs for insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: Through in-depth study, the medical profession considers it as an important drug for improving blood sugar control. METHODS: The mechanism, characteristics, efficacy and side effects of sulfonylureas and glinides were reviewed in detail. RESULTS: Sulfonylureas and glinides not only stimulated the release of insulin from pancreatic cells, but also had many extrapanular hypoglycemic effect, such as reducing the clearance rate of insulin in liver, reducing the secretion of glucagon, and enhancing the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: Sulfonylureas and glinides are effective first-line drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Although they have the risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain and cardiovascular disease, their clinical practicability and safety can be guaranteed as long as they are reasonably used.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 157: 107836, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479704

RESUMO

The place of Sulphonylurea based insulin secretagogues in the management of Type 2 diabetes appears as controversial today as it was fifty years ago. Newer therapies are associated with less hypoglycaemia and weight gain than Sulphonylureas but currently cost more and lack assurances which come with long-term exposure. Emergence of recent CVOT data for SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists is likely to influence therapeutic choices and guidance is now supportive of their earlier use in cases at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Meta-analyses of Sulphonylurea trials have failed to indicate a consistent effect (positive or negative) on cardiovascular disease or mortality, although are limited by the relative scarcity of studies directly reporting these outcomes. The CAROLINA trial is reassuring in demonstrating cardiovascular safety for the Sulphonylurea Glimepiride when compared directly with the DPP-4 inhibitor Linagliptin, suggesting either of these agents would be relatively safe second line options after Metformin in the majority of patients. This review provides a balanced assessment of available Sulphonylurea treatments in the context of current cardiovascular outcome trial data (CVOT) data and hopefully assists informed decision making about the place of these drugs in contemporary glucose lowering practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 92: 103290, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561109

RESUMO

Series of new sulfonylurea derivatives (gliclazide analogues) was synthesized and characterized. Thus, p-tolylsulfonylisocyanate was left to react with different amino derivatives under mild conditions to afford the desired sulfonylurea derivatives 1-5. The molecular structure of the compound N-(2,6-Dichlorophenylcarbamoyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide, 1c has been elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Anti-diabetic properties of the synthesized compounds relative to anti-diabetic drug (gliclazidem MR60) were carried out, where most of the tested compounds showed significant activity for reducing the blood glucose level. The results revealed that compounds 1c and 5 showed better anti-diabetic activities compared with gliclazide. Activity of the most potent derivatives of sulfonylurea compounds namely 1c and 5 were increased using coated nanostructure tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a modified release (MR) agent. The effect of the prepared sulfonylurea compounds against the diabetic condition was investigated using specific selected biomarkers as of liver enzyme activities as transaminases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lipids profiles; total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TG) and total lipid (TL). The antioxidants, oxidative stress biomarkers and histological examination were also examined and discussed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6287-6296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496686

RESUMO

Purpose: We aimed to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate, oral bioavailability, and α-glucosidase inhibition of glimepiride (Glm) by fabricating its nanosuspension using a precipitation-ultrasonication approach. Methods: Glm nanosuspensions were fabricated using optimized processing conditions. Characterization of Glm was performed using Malvern Zetasizer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction. Minimum particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) values were found to be 152.4±2.42 nm and 0.23±0.01, respectively, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose: 6 cPs, 1% w/v, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 1% w/v, and sodium lauryl sulfate 0.12% w/v, keeping ultrasonication power input at 400 W, with 15 minutes' processing at 3-second pauses. In vivo oral bioavailability was assessed using rabbits as a model. Results: The saturation solubility of the Glm nanosuspensions was substantially enhanced 3.14-fold and 5.77-fold compared to unprocessed drug in stabilizer solution and unprocessed active pharmaceutical ingredient. Also, the dissolution rate of the nanosuspensions ws substantially boosted when compared to the marketed formulation and unprocessed drug candidate. The results showed that >85% of Glm nanosuspensions dissolved in the first 10 minutes compared to 10.17% of unprocessed Glm), 42.19% of microsuspensions, and 19.94% of marketed tablets. In-vivo studies conducted in animals, i.e. rabbits, demonstrated that maximum concentration and AUC0-24 with oral dosing were twofold (5 mg/kg) and 1.74-fold (2.5 mg/kg) and 1.80-fold (5 mg/kg) and 1.63-fold (2.5 mg/kg), respectively, and compared with the unprocessed drug formulation. In-vitro α-glucosidase inhibition results showed that fabricated nanosuspensions had a pronounced effect compared to unprocessed drug. Conclusion: The optimized batch fabricated by ultrasonication-assisted precipitation can be useful in boosting oral bioavailability, which may be accredited to enhanced solubility and dissolution rate of Glm, ultimately resulting in its faster rate of absorption due to nanonization.


Assuntos
Precipitação Química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Ultrassom , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Derivados da Hipromelose/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Solubilidade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacocinética , Suspensões , Difração de Raios X
13.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 861: 172598, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408647

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a higher risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality. Increased blood glucose and insulin levels in T2DM patients may be, at least in part, responsible for this effect. Indeed, lowering glucose and/or insulin levels pharmacologically appears to reduce cancer risk and progression, as has been demonstrated for the biguanide metformin in observational studies. Studies investigating the influence of sulfonylurea derivatives (SUs) on cancer risk have provided conflicting results, partly due to comparisons with metformin. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to within-class differences in systemic and off-target effects of the SUs. The aim of this systematic review is to discuss the available preclinical and clinical evidence on how the different SUs influence cancer development and risk. Databases including PubMed, Cochrane, Database of Abstracts on Reviews and Effectiveness, and trial registries were systematically searched for available clinical and preclinical evidence on within-class differences of SUs and cancer risk. The overall preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that the influence of SUs on cancer risk in T2DM patients differs between the various SUs. Potential mechanisms include differing affinities for the sulfonylurea receptors and thus differential systemic insulin exposure and off-target anti-cancer effects mediated for example through potassium transporters and drug export pumps. Preclinical evidence supports potential anti-cancer effects of SUs, which are of interest for further studies and potentially repurposing of SUs. At this time, the evidence on differences in cancer risk between SUs is not strong enough to guide clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Animais , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Risco , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
14.
Bioorg Chem ; 91: 103115, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310882

RESUMO

New series of phthalimide-sulfonylurea hybrids were prepared and examined for their in vivo anti-hyperglycemic activities in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats using glibenclamide as a reference drug. Compounds 6c, 6d, 6g, 6h, 6j and 6k induced significant reduction in the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats ranging from 24.43 to 21.43%. Moreover, molecular docking and pharmacophore approaches were carried out to examine binding modes and fit values of the prepared compounds against PPARγ and SUR, respectively. Compounds 6c, 6d, 6j and 6m exhibited the highest binding free energies against PPARγ. Compounds 6c, 6j, 6k, 6l, and 6n showed the highest fit values against the generated pharmacophore model. Also, QSAR technique was carried out to estimate the proposed PPARγ binding affinities and insulin-secreting abilities. The synthesized compounds showed promising estimated activities. In-silico ADMET studies were performed to investigate pharmacokinetics of the synthesized compounds. They showed considerable human intestinal absorption with low BBB penetration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Receptores Sulfonilureia/agonistas , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Ftalimidas/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/administração & dosagem , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química
15.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(5): 5113-5121, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280423

RESUMO

Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides have been widely used for effective management and control of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) biotypes in Iran. The resistance of the ALS inhibitor to weeds is attributed to either target site alteration or enhanced herbicide degradation. Molecular and genetic characterization of the resistance mechanism is relevant to the evolution and management of herbicide resistance. The aims of this research were (a) to characterize the mechanism molecular suspected to Granstar (tribenuron methyl) and Atlantis (Mesosulfuron + Iodosulfuron) resistance in S. arvensis biotypes in the greenhouse and laboratory (b) to investigate the organization of the target-site loci in field selected S. arvensis populations and (c) instantly recognize the mutations that cause resistance to ALS inhibitors. Eighty resistant populations of S. arvensis were carefully collected from fields repeatedly treated with Granstar and Atlantis. The resistance level and pattern of the population were determined through a greenhouse dose-response experiment by applying the above-mentioned herbicides. Extraction of genomic DNA was carried out for PCR and ALS gene analysis. Our results showed that by greenhouse experiment across 80 biotypes suspected to resistance collected in the fields of whole Kermanshah Province, 30 biotypes (37.5%) conferred S. arvensis resistance species reported in the farm. Among 30 biotypes screened in a greenhouse experiment, six biotypes (20%), No. 9, 14, 17, 19, 23 and 28 revealed a mutation in the ALS gene that was detected by PCR-based method. Biotype No. 9 in the position 376 (Asp376-Gly, GAC to GGC), biotypes 14 and 19 in the position 197 (Pro197-Ala, CCT to GCT), biotypes 17, 23 and 28 in the position 574 (Trp574-Leu, TGG to TTG) and biotype No. 23 in the position 122 (Thr-122-Ala, ACA to GCA) showed herbicide resistance. The specific mutation in the position of 122 of the ALS gene in S. arvensis is the first report. Other biotypes showed resistance in the greenhouse but didn't indicate any mutation by PCR-based method. Most of the resistance to Granstar and Atlantis are genetic and are induced by mutations in the ALS gene. The resistance to herbicides may contain a non-mutagenic and non-genetic origin. The reason of herbicide resistance as non-target-site in some of the biotypes may relate to the activity of the herbicide-metabolizing enzyme(s) or transporter proteins that will naturally lead to an increase in herbicide degradation or compartmentation away from its active site.


Assuntos
Acetolactato Sintase/genética , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Mutação Puntual , Sinapis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sulfonatos de Arila/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sinapis/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapis/genética , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia
16.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 27(15): 3383-3389, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221611

RESUMO

Novel non-sulfonylureas derivatives bearing an acetamide linker between a spirohydantoin scaffold and a phenyl ring were prepared and their hypoglycemic activity was estimated in vivo. Their abilities to discriminate in vitro between aldehyde reductase (ALR1) and aldose reductase (ALR2) were determined. The molecular docking and the in silico prediction studies were performed to rationalize the obtained biological results and to predict the physicochemical properties and drug-likeness scores of the new compounds. N-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-(2',4'-dioxospiro[fluorene-9,5'-imidazolidine]-3'-yl)acetamide (3e) displayed an 84% reduction in blood glucose level superior to that of repaglinide 66% and showed an IC50 value of 0.37 µM against ALR2 that is superior to that of sorbinil 3.14 µM. Compound (3e) was selective 96 fold towards ALR2 which is closely related to serious diabetic complications. Based on the identification of this hit candidate, a new generation of safe and effective antidiabetic agents could be designed.


Assuntos
Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Animais , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/síntese química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3296-3302, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058962

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hypoglycemic drugs with proven cardiovascular (CV) benefits are recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes and CV disease. Whether the beneficial effects extend to those at lower risk remains unclear. AIM: We investigated the long-term CV effects of pioglitazone or sulfonylureas (SUs) across the spectrum of pretreatment CV risk. METHODS: Among 2820 participants of the TOSCA.IT trial, four subgroups with different risk of outcome-a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, urgent coronary revascularization-were identified by the RECursive Partitioning and AMalgamation (RECPAM) method. Within each group, the effect of SUs or pioglitazone on the outcome was evaluated. RESULTS: Sex was the first splitting variable, followed by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) (>9 mg/g or ≤9 mg/g) and body mass index (BMI) (>28.7 or ≤28.7 kg/m2). Female patients had the lowest risk (reference); male patients with UACR >9 mg/g and BMI >28.7 kg/m2 had the highest risk [hazard ratio (HR), 5.58; 95% CI, 3.32 to 9.69]. Patients in this group present a cluster of conditions suggestive of marked insulin resistance (higher BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, blood pressure, and UACR and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) than the other groups. Treatment with pioglitazone in this group was associated with a significantly lower occurrence of the outcome than SUs (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.76). No significant difference between study treatments was observed in the other RECPAM classes. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to identify patients with type 2 diabetes early in the stage of their disease and who are largely free from evident CV disease in whom add-on pioglitazone to metformin confers CV protection as compared with SUs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco
18.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(5): 713-720, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030451

RESUMO

Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype may cause a fatal brain infection known as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, and the vision-threatening eye infection Acanthamoeba keratitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiamoebic effects of three clinically available antidiabetic drugs, Glimepiride, Vildagliptin and Repaglinide, against A. castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, we attempted to conjugate these drugs with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to enhance their antiamoebic effects. Amoebicidal, encystation, excystation, and host cell cytotoxicity assays were performed to unravel any antiacanthamoebic effects. Vildagliptin conjugated silver nanoparticles (Vgt-AgNPs) characterized by spectroscopic techniques and atomic force microscopy were synthesized. All three drugs showed antiamoebic effects against A. castellanii and significantly blocked the encystation. These drugs also showed significant cysticidal effects and reduced host cell cytotoxicity caused by A. castellanii. Moreover, Vildagliptin-coated silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and are shown to enhance its antiacanthamoebic potency at significantly reduced concentration. The repurposed application of the tested antidiabetic drugs and their nanoparticles against free-living amoeba such as Acanthamoeba castellanii described here is a novel outcome that holds tremendous potential for future applications against devastating infection.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba castellanii/efeitos dos fármacos , Amebicidas/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Nanoconjugados/química , Amebicidas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Carbamatos/química , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Prata/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Vildagliptina/química , Vildagliptina/farmacologia
19.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 65-73, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954510

RESUMO

AIMS: To directly compare the effectiveness and safety between two distinct sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, empagliflozin and dapagliflozin, as part of a quadruple oral antidiabetic agents (OADs) in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This study was an open-labeled, prospective, 52-week study conducted in T2D patients with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ranging 7.5-12.0% with metformin, glimepiride and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Patients were divided into either empagliflozin (25 mg/day) or dapagliflozin (10 mg/day). The outcome measures included changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and cardiometabolic variables and the safety profiles. RESULTS: In total, 350 patients were enrolled with empagliflozin (n = 176) and dapagliflozin (n = 174), respectively. After 52 weeks, both groups showed significant reductions in HbA1c and FPG, but the reduction was greater in the empagliflozin group (P < 0.001). Both groups showed significantly decreased blood pressure and body weight and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased in the empagliflozin (between groups, P = 0.035). Both groups showed similar safety profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that SGLT2 inhibitors can be effectively used as a fourth OAD in T2D patients who are treated with three other OADs. More specifically, empagliflozin was more effective in reducing HbA1c and improving other cardiometabolic parameters than dapagliflozin. Clinical Trial Number NCT03748810 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Metformina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214458, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913269

RESUMO

Herbicide-resistant weeds, especially Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson), are problematic in row-crop producing areas of the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine if chlorimuron-ethyl, fomesafen, and glyphosate applied separately and in mixtures control A. palmeri and confirm the presence of various genotypes surviving two- and three-way herbicide mixtures. Fifteen percent of A. palmeri treated with the three-way herbicide mixture survived. Mixing fomesafen with chlorimuron-ethyl or fomesafen with glyphosate to create a two-way mixture reduced A. palmeri survival 22 to 24% and 60 to 62% more than glyphosate and chlorimuron-ethyl alone, respectively. Previously characterized mutations associated with A. palmeri survival to chlorimuron-ethyl, fomesafen, and glyphosate Trp574Leu, a missing glycine codon at position 210 of the PPX2L gene (ΔG210), and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphase synthase (EPSPS) gene amplification; respectively, were present in surviving plants. However, 37% of plants treated with chlorimuron-ethyl did not contain heterozygous or homozygous alleles for the Trp574Leu mutation, suggesting alternative genotypes contributed to plant survival. All surviving A. palmeri treated with fomesafen or glyphosate possessed genotypes previously documented to confer resistance. Indiana soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] fields infested with A. palmeri possessed diverse genotypes and herbicide surviving plants are likely to produce seed and spread if alternative control measures are not implemented.


Assuntos
3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/genética , Amaranthus/genética , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Amplificação de Genes , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/enzimologia , Códon/genética , Genótipo , Glicina/farmacologia , Mutação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...