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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 41-54, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1125730

RESUMO

A teoria do estresse de minoria (EM) defende que minorias sociais vivenciam estressores específicos adicionais aos estressores cotidianos. Fatores individuais e do meio podem funcionar como fatores de risco e/ou de proteção no comprometimento da saúde mental de pessoas LGB. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir a teoria do EM em indivíduos LGB por meio de uma revisão narrativa. Compreender a ocorrência do EM em pessoas LGB pode auxiliar na elaboração de planos interventivos, de ordem clínica ou social, com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos do preconceito nestes indivíduos.


The minority stress (MS) theory argues that social minorities experience specific stressors added to everyday stressors. Individual and contextual factors can function as risk and/or protective factors without compromising the mental health of LGB people. This study aims to present and discuss the theory of MS in LGB individuals through a narrative review. Understanding the occurrence of MS in LGB people can assist in the elaboration of intervention plans, of a clinical or social nature to minimize the effects of prejudice in these situations.


La teoría del estrés de minoría (EM) argumenta que las minorías sociales experimentan factores estresantes que se agregan a los factores estresantes cotidianos. Los factores individuales y contextuales pueden funcionar como factores de riesgo o protectores sin comprometer la salud mental de las personas LGB. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y discutir la teoría de EM en individuos LGB a través de una revisión narrativa. Comprender el EM en personas LGB puede ayudar en la elaboración de planes de intervención, de naturaleza clínica o social, con el objetivo de minimizar los efectos de los prejuicios en estas situaciones.


Assuntos
Preconceito , Estresse Psicológico , Saúde Mental , Risco , Vulnerabilidade Social , Narração , Compreensão , Fatores de Proteção , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Angústia Psicológica , Grupos Minoritários
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45918, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117684

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a compreensão de estudantes de graduação em enfermagem sobre as Redes de Atenção à Saúde. Método: estudo descritivo e exploratório, qualitativo, realizado com 27 estudantes em Enfermagem de uma universidade federal do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas entre agosto e setembro de 2018. Resultados: foi evidenciado o conhecimento dos estudantes em relação ao conceito e objetivo das Redes de Atenção à Saúde, a identificação de fragilidades na comunicação e a falta de conhecimento do usuário como obstáculos na efetivação das mesmas, a dificuldade em ver a atuação do enfermeiro dentro dos variados serviços das redes e a percepção sobre a fragmentação do processo de formação. Conclusão: o estudo contribui para a discussão sobre a inclusão dos estudantes nas Redes de Atenção à Saúde, com intuito de superar as exigências educacionais que buscam favorecer a efetivação do Sistema Único de Saúde e das Redes de Atenção à Saúde.


Objective: to examine undergraduate nursing students' understanding of Health Care Networks (HCNs). Method: in this exploratory, qualitative descriptive study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 Nursing students at a federal University in southern Brazil between August and September 2018. Results: the interviews revealed that the students' knowledge related to the HCNs' concept and purpose, beyond the communication weaknesses and users' lack knowledge as obstacles to effective HCNs, the difficulty in seeing nurses' roles in the various network services, and perceived fragmentation in the training process. Conclusion: the study contributed to discussion of inclusion of students in HCRs, with a view to meeting the educational requirements designed to favor implementation of the national health system (SUS) and the HCNs.


Objetivo: analizar la comprensión de los estudiantes de enfermería de pregrado sobre las redes de atención de la salud (HCN). Método: en este estudio exploratorio, cualitativo descriptivo, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 27 estudiantes de Enfermería de una Universidad federal del sur de Brasil entre agosto y septiembre de 2018. Resultados: las entrevistas revelaron que los conocimientos de los estudiantes relacionados con el concepto y propósito, más allá de las debilidades de comunicación y la falta de conocimiento de los usuarios como obstáculos para una HCN eficaz, la dificultad para ver el rol de las enfermeras en los distintos servicios de la red y la fragmentación percibida en el proceso de formación. Conclusión: el estudio contribuyó a la discusión de la inclusión de los estudiantes en las HCR, con miras a cumplir con los requisitos educativos diseñados para favorecer la implementación del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SUS) y las HCN.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Sistema Único de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Compreensão , Brasil , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem
3.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(11): 1389-1396, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132275

RESUMO

A questionnaire survey was conducted with pharmacy students to obtain useful information for preparing teaching materials in the field of pharmaceutical laws. We conducted a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis by asking pharmacy students to evaluate whether the teaching materials used in the Pharmaceutical Laws class at Kitasato University were effective in promoting learning and understanding. In addition, we asked them about their impressions of attending the Pharmaceutical Laws class and analyzed their freely described answers. The CS analysis suggested teaching materials that included case studies of pharmaceutical law judgments and violations may have been useful for learning this subject. Furthermore, the text analysis showed many of the participants believed the contents of the teaching materials were difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to redesign the contents so that learning can progress step by step from the basic items. In addition, since some students recognized that the subject could be memorized, it is possible they can convey only what they remember and not what they had learned or what knowledge they could use in other contexts and situations. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly present the learning objectives for each item in lesson's teaching materials.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Legislação Farmacêutica , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Materiais de Ensino , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1635, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The internet is now the first line source of health information for many people worldwide. In the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, health information is being produced, revised, updated and disseminated at an increasingly rapid rate. The general public are faced with a plethora of misinformation regarding COVID-19 and the readability of online information has an impact on their understanding of the disease. The accessibility of online healthcare information relating to COVID-19 is unknown. We sought to evaluate the readability of online information relating to COVID-19 in four English speaking regions: Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States, and compare readability of website source provenance and regional origin. METHODS: The Google® search engine was used to collate the first 20 webpage URLs for three individual searches for 'COVID', 'COVID-19', and 'coronavirus' from Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. The Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch-Kincaid Grade (FKG) Score, Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) score were calculated to assess the readability. RESULTS: There were poor levels of readability webpages reviewed, with only 17.2% of webpages at a universally readable level. There was a significant difference in readability between the different webpages based on their information source (p < 0.01). Public Health organisations and Government organisations provided the most readable COVID-19 material, while digital media sources were significantly less readable. There were no significant differences in readability between regions. CONCLUSION: Much of the general public have relied on online information during the pandemic. Information on COVID-19 should be made more readable, and those writing webpages and information tools should ensure universal accessibility is considered in their production. Governments and healthcare practitioners should have an awareness of the online sources of information available, and ensure that readability of our own productions is at a universally readable level which will increase understanding and adherence to health guidelines.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021985

RESUMO

COVID-19 has highlighted an opportunity for medical professionals to engage in online Public Engagement with Science (PES). Currently a popular platform for PES is Reddit. Reddit provides an Ask Me Anything (AMA) format for subject matter experts to answer questions asked by the public. On March 11, 2020, from 2:00 to 4:00pm EST, two Emergency Department physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital hosted an AMA session on coronavirus. We retroactively conducted an analysis of the questions and answers from this AMA session in order to better understand the public's concerns around coronavirus and identify future opportunities for medical experts to leverage the Reddit AMA format in communicating with the general public. Results suggested that participants sought not only to obtain information, but to engage in discussion, and did so with each other in the absence of expert responses. The majority of bi-directional discussion occurred between participants. Due to the volume of questions and ratio of experts to participants, not all questions were answered. More posts provided facts or opinions, than posts that providing resources or requesting resources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pandemias , Médicos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profissionalismo , Opinião Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 679-683, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079561

RESUMO

As a result of the installation of the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) pandemic, online education has become an important teaching alternative, and new challenges about how to teach were found. Here we report our experience in offering an online course to review Human Physiology. We proposed synchronous and asynchronous activities using different online tools to address topics considered key to understanding the different systems of human physiology. The students considered important the use of this type of methodology, which uses different online tools to help understand the Human Physiology contents. The students highlighted the use of the Lt platform, Zoom, Mentimeter, and YouTube as the preferred online tools to use in physiology learning.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fisiologia/educação , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Distância Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Currículo , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 44(4): 706-708, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079564

RESUMO

Understanding and interpretation of acid-base disorders is an important clinical skill that is applicable to the majority of physicians. Although this topic is taught early in medical school, acid-base disturbances have been described as challenging by postgraduate trainees. We describe the use of Twitter, an online microblogging platform, to augment education in acid-base disturbances by using polls in which the user is shown laboratory values and then asked to select the most likely etiology of the disorder. The answer and a brief explanation are then shared in a subsequent tweet. Both polling questions and answers are shared from the account for the online, mobile-optimized, nephrology teaching tool NephSIM (https://www.nephsim.com/). An anonymous survey was administered to assess attitudes toward these polls. Using Twitter as an approach to enhance teaching of acid-base disturbances was both feasible and an engaging way to teach a challenging topic for trainees and physicians. Moreover, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated the importance of incorporating virtual learning opportunities in all levels of medical education.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/etiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Instrução por Computador , Educação a Distância , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Fisiologia/educação , Mídias Sociais , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/diagnóstico , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiopatologia , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Currículo , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Distância Social
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 85-90, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087595

RESUMO

In healthcare settings, questionnaires are used to collect information from a patient. A standard method for this are paper-based questionnaires, but they are often complex to understand or long and frustrating to fill. To increase motivation, we developed a chatbot-based system Ana that asks questions that are normally asked using paper forms or in face-to-face encounters. Ana has been developed for the specific use case of collecting the music biography in the context of music therapy. In this paper, we compare user motivation, relevance of answers and time needed to answer the questions depending on the data entry method (i.e. app Ana versus paper-based questionnaire). A randomised trial was performed with 26 students of music therapy. The results show that the chatbot is more motivating and answers are given faster than on paper. No differences in answer relevance could be determined between the two means. We conclude that a chatbot could become an additional data entry method for collecting personal health information.


Assuntos
Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Musicoterapia , Compreensão , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1295-1298, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999207

RESUMO

Health professionals should adopt best practices that are cognizant of the communication skills of their patients. Pharmacists should be knowledgeable about hearing disabilities to effectively provide medication education to deaf and hard-of-hearing (HH) patients. The Act for Eliminating Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities requires pharmacists to take the appropriate actions to their patients. However, awareness about the appropriate actions for eliminate discrimination has not increased among medical professionals. This survey examined the knowledge about hearing disabilities, practice of appropriate actions and confidence in medication education to deaf and HH patients on 216 pharmacists in Yahata Pharmaceutical Association in November 2019. Pharmacists had poor awareness about hearing disabilities and about 30% of participants misunderstood appropriate actions in communication to deaf and HH patients. Practice of appropriate action in medication education were taken by only about half of the participants. In particular, placing Ear symbol had not be taken at all. Participants felt that they could provide medication education sufficiently by written materials in spite of poor understanding about the literacy of deaf individuals. On the other hand, they felt unconfident due to lack of understanding about hearing disabilities and how to communicate with their patients. This survey suggests that pharmacists need to learn about hearing disabilities for effective communication and practice of appropriate action in medication education to patients with hearing disabilities. Learning hearing disabilities may enable them to take the actions that are necessary to eliminate discrimination and enhance their confidence in providing medication education.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Competência Clínica , Compreensão , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941471

RESUMO

It has been shown that readers spend a great deal of time skim reading on the Web and that this type of reading can affect lexical processing of words. Across two experiments, we utilised eye tracking methodology to explore how hyperlinks and navigating webpages affect reading behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants read static Webpages either for comprehension or whilst skim reading, while in Experiment 2, participants additionally read through a navigable Web environment. Embedded target words were either hyperlinks or not and were either high-frequency or low-frequency words. Results from Experiment 1 show that while readers lexically process both linked and unlinked words when reading for comprehension, readers only fully lexically process linked words when skim reading, as was evidenced by a frequency effect that was absent for the unlinked words. They did fully lexically process both linked and unlinked words when reading for comprehension. In Experiment 2, which allowed for navigating, readers only fully lexically processed linked words compared to unlinked words, regardless of whether they were skim reading or reading for comprehension. We suggest that readers engage in an efficient reading strategy where they attempt to minimise comprehension loss while maintaining a high reading speed. Readers use hyperlinks as markers to suggest important information and use them to navigate through the text in an efficient and effective way. The task of reading on the Web causes readers to lexically process words in a markedly different way from typical reading experiments.


Assuntos
Internet , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Compreensão , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), restoration of binaural function via cochlear implant (CI) has been shown to improve speech understanding in noise. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in behavioral performance and cortical auditory responses following cochlear implantation. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. METHODS: Six adults with SSD were tested before and 12 months post-activation of the CI. Six normal hearing (NH) participants served as experimental controls. Speech understanding in noise was evaluated for various spatial conditions. Cortical auditory evoked potentials were recorded with /ba/ stimuli in quiet and in noise. Global field power and responses at Cz were analyzed. RESULTS: Speech understanding in noise significantly improved with the CI when speech was presented to the CI ear and noise to the normal ear (p<0.05), but remained poorer than that of NH controls (p<0.05). N1 peak amplitude measure in noise significantly increased after CI activation (p<0.05), but remained lower than that of NH controls (p<0.05) at 12 months. After 12 months of CI experience, cortical responses in noise became more comparable between groups. CONCLUSION: Binaural restoration in SSD patients via cochlear implantation improved speech performance noise and cortical responses. While behavioral performance and cortical auditory responses improved, SSD-CI outcomes remained poorer than that of NH controls in most cases, suggesting only partial restoration of binaural hearing.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Compreensão/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Estudos Prospectivos , Localização de Som/fisiologia
13.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20200900. 64 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1121804

RESUMO

El documento contiene cuatro partes: en el primero se trata de la comprensión en la adolescencia, en el segundo de pensar en la salud adolescente, en el tercero de promover el desarrollo de la población adolescente y en el cuarto de las habilidades sociales para la interacción efectiva.


Assuntos
População , Adolescente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Compreensão , Habilidades Sociais
14.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(5): 1054-1058, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970554

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The development and deployment of a web-based, self-triage tool for severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19 disease) aimed at preventing surges in healthcare utilization could provide easily understandable health guidance with the goal of mitigating unnecessary emergency department (ED) and healthcare visits. We describe the iterative development and usability testing of such a tool. We hypothesized that adult users could understand and recall the recommendations provided by a COVID-19 web-based, self-triage tool. METHODS: We convened a multidisciplinary panel of medical experts at two academic medical schools in an iterative redesign process of a previously validated web-based, epidemic screening tool for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We then conducted a cross-sectional usability study over a 24-hour period among faculty, staff, and students at the two participating universities. Participants were randomly assigned a pre-written health script to enter into the self-triage website for testing. The primary outcome was immediate recall of website recommendations. Secondary outcomes included usability measures. We stratified outcomes by demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A final sample of 877 participants (mean age, 32 years [range, 19-84 years]; 65.3% female) was used in the analysis. We found that 79.4% of the participants accurately recalled the recommendations provided by the website. Almost all participants (96.9%) found the website easy to use and navigate. CONCLUSION: Adult users of a COVID-19 self-triage website, recruited from an academic setting, were able to successfully recall self-care instructions from the website and found it user-friendly. This website appears to be a feasible way to provide evidence-based health guidance to adult patients during a pandemic. Website guidance could be used to reduce unnecessary ED and healthcare visits.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Internet , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autocuidado/métodos , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898166

RESUMO

Mapping brain functions is crucial for neurosurgical planning in patients with drug-resistant seizures. However, presurgical language mapping using either functional or structural networks can be challenging, especially in children. In fact, most of the evidence on this topic derives from cross-sectional or retrospective studies in adults submitted to anterior temporal lobectomy. In this prospective study, we used fMRI and DTI to explore patterns of language representation, their predictors and impact on cognitive performances in 29 children and young adults (mean age at surgery: 14.6 ± 4.5 years) with focal lesional epilepsy. In 20 of them, we also assessed the influence of epilepsy surgery on language lateralization. All patients were consecutively enrolled at a single epilepsy surgery center between 2009 and 2015 and assessed with preoperative structural and functional 3T brain MRI during three language tasks: Word Generation (WG), Rhyme Generation (RG) and a comprehension task. We also acquired DTI data on arcuate fasciculus in 24 patients. We first assessed patterns of language representation (relationship of activations with the epileptogenic lesion and Laterality Index (LI)) and then hypothesized a causal model to test whether selected clinical variables would influence the patterns of language representation and the ensuing impact of the latter on cognitive performances. Twenty out of 29 patients also underwent postoperative language fMRI. We analyzed possible changes of fMRI and DTI LIs and their clinical predictors. Preoperatively, we found atypical language lateralization in four patients during WG task, in one patient during RG task and in seven patients during the comprehension task. Diffuse interictal EEG abnormalities predicted a more atypical language representation on fMRI (p = 0.012), which in turn correlated with lower attention (p = 0.036) and IQ/GDQ scores (p = 0.014). Postoperative language reorganization implied shifting towards atypical language representation. Abnormal postoperative EEG (p = 0.003) and surgical failures (p = 0.015) were associated with more atypical language lateralization, in turn correlating with worsened fluency. Neither preoperative asymmetry nor postoperative DTI LI changes in the arcuate fasciculus were observed. Focal lesional epilepsy associated with diffuse EEG abnormalities may favor atypical language lateralization and worse cognitive performances, which are potentially reversible after successful surgery.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Epilepsias Parciais/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsias Parciais/psicologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Compreensão , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/psicologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Epilepsias Parciais/cirurgia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4553, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917902

RESUMO

Eye tracking has been widely used for decades in vision research, language and usability. However, most prior research has focused on large desktop displays using specialized eye trackers that are expensive and cannot scale. Little is known about eye movement behavior on phones, despite their pervasiveness and large amount of time spent. We leverage machine learning to demonstrate accurate smartphone-based eye tracking without any additional hardware. We show that the accuracy of our method is comparable to state-of-the-art mobile eye trackers that are 100x more expensive. Using data from over 100 opted-in users, we replicate key findings from previous eye movement research on oculomotor tasks and saliency analyses during natural image viewing. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of smartphone-based gaze for detecting reading comprehension difficulty. Our results show the potential for scaling eye movement research by orders-of-magnitude to thousands of participants (with explicit consent), enabling advances in vision research, accessibility and healthcare.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Oculares , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Compreensão , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leitura , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
18.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 283-294, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192065

RESUMO

Identificar factores instruccionales específicos relacionados con progresos en comprensión lectora es esencial para optimizar el aprendizaje y orientar la intervención, especialmente en contextos de desventaja socio-cultural o dificultades de aprendizaje. Este estudio pretende identificar patrones instruccionales de mediación eficaces en la explicación del progreso en comprensión. Se grabaron, transcribieron y analizaron sistemáticamente 82 sesiones-clase, y se registraron pautas de mediación relativas a diferentes procesos lectores. Los patrones de mediación fueron analizados mediante codificación y categorización del contenido con el programa Maxqdea-7. Fueron consideradas 19 categorías, que aglutinaron 178 unidades de información significativas (pautas/conductas de mediación). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 21 docentes y 821 estudiantes de tercero a octavo grado de Educación Básica de escuelas públicas de Chile ubicadas en contextos de-privados socialmente. El progreso lector se midió con la prueba estandarizada CL-PT, aplicada al principio y al final del curso escolar. Los resultados permitieron identificar pautas específicas de mediación significativas en la explicación del progreso, especialmente el patrón M_17 (Mediación del uso de estrategias para la activación e integración de conocimientos previos) explicaba el 26% de la varianza (r = .55, p < .01; R2ajustado = .26, F (1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). Se discuten las implicaciones educativas de estos resultados


Identifying specific instructional factors related to progress in reading comprehension is essential to optimize learning and guide intervention, especially in contexts of sociocultural disadvantage or learning difficulties. This study aims to identify effective mediational instructional patterns in the explanation of progress in reading comprehension. Teaching guidelines were systematically recorded in relation to different reading processes. Eighty-two sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding and categorizing the content of the sessions through the Maxqdea-7 program. Nineteen categories were considered, which comprised 178 significant units of information (mediation guidelines). The sample consisted of 21 teachers and 821 students from third to the eighth grade of public schools of Chile located in deprived contexts. Reading progress was measured with the standardized CL-PT test, which was applied at the beginning and end of the school year. The results have allowed identifying mediation patterns with a significant relevance in the explanation of reading progress, especially the pattern M_P17 (Mediation of the use of strategies for the activation and integration of previous knowledge) managed to explain 26% of the variance in the progress (r = .55, p < .01; R2adjusted = .26, F(1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). The educational implications of these results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão , Populações Vulneráveis , Leitura , Aprendizagem , Docentes/normas , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , 25783 , Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas
19.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 156-157: 40-49, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900672

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Doctor-patient communication is one of the hallmarks of good medical treatment. Mutual understanding is of foremost importance, in particular when communicating non-numerical test results. METHODS: Using a two-step approach, this study analyses the influence of wording on the correct understanding of medical test results by people without a medical background. In a first step, a qualitative analysis of physicians' letters helped to identify adjectives that are frequently used to communicate test results. In a second step, a parallel randomised study was conducted to test the comprehensibility of particularly relevant adjectives, combining the written communication of test results with a subsequent survey. 1,131 participants, representing the population of Germany with regard to age, gender, and educational level, were recruited via an online platform. The participants read a scenario involving the communication of the results of a breath test, whereby non-numerical test results were described as being either "positive" vs. "negative" (n=566) or "abnormal" vs. "normal" (n=565). Participant assignment to one of these groups took place in a randomised way. The outcomes measured included the subjective and objective understanding of test results as well as the participants' subjective comprehension of the physician communicating with them. RESULTS: People without a medical background can understand medical test results more readily when neutral, descriptive adjectives are used rather than adjectives considered as being judgmental in everyday language. 54 % of the participants who read test results using the adjectives "positive" vs. "negative" and 65 % of the participants who read test results using the adjectives "abnormal" vs. "normal", respectively, understood the results correctly. This relative difference of 20.4 % in the number of participants with a correct understanding is statistically significant (Chi square=13.061; p=0.001). There was also a considerable difference in the subjective understanding (means of 5.04 of "positive" vs. "negative" and 5.47 for "abnormal" vs. "normal" on a 7-point Likert scale; absolute mean difference 0.42 [95 % CI: 0.20; 0.64]) as well as in the subjective comprehension of the communicating physician (means of 4.49 for "positive" vs. "negative" and 4.95 for "abnormal" vs. "normal" on a 7-point Likert scale; absolute mean difference 0.45 [95% CI: 0.23; 0.67]). A higher level of comprehension for the words "abnormal" vs. "normal" was consistent across the overall sample. It is mainly people with no school-leaving certificate and a lower educational level who benefit from the changed wording. CONCLUSIONS: In the process of communicating non-numerical medical test results, people without a medical background understand neutral, descriptive adjectives better than adjectives that are considered judgmental in everyday usage. A corresponding change of written and oral communication can easily be implemented by medical experts in their everyday practice and particularly supports a population group that already suffers disadvantages in the medical system.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Compreensão , Alemanha , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105065, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide following ischemic heart disease, and the fifth in the United States. The video-sharing database, YouTube, is the second most popular visited website with more than 2 billion users, thus it's increasingly being used as a medium for delivering health information. AIM: We aimed to evaluate the quality, reliability and audience engagement of stroke-related YouTube videos. METHODS: In October 2019 we conducted a search on YouTube using 5 keywords: stroke, brain attack, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. We selected the first 30 videos from each search query for further analysis. The validated DISCERN instrument was used (a score of 0-5 per question) to assess the videos by four independent raters. We then recorded qualitative data and quantitative data for each video. RESULTS: After sorting through 150 stroke videos, a total of 101 unique YouTube videos met our inclusion criteria. We found that the mean overall quality of YouTube videos according to DISCERN is of fair quality. Most videos (65.3%) were uploaded by hospitals, mentioned the symptoms of stroke (66.3%), had a doctor speaking (60.4%) and contained diagrams (20.8%). CONCLUSION: YouTube is a useful source of gathering information about treatment choices for patients and their families as the quality of YouTube videos is fair. The audience engagement suggestions in our paper may help content creators improve the appeal of YouTube videos.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Mídias Sociais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Gravação em Vídeo , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
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