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1.
Prog Orthod ; 21(1): 2, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the regulatory compliance of Dutch practice websites offering orthodontic services, readability of the available treatment information, website design as well as possible relationship with practice location and professional qualification of practitioners. METHODS: A comprehensive Internet search was performed using the Google search engine and five relevant terms in Dutch. Eligibility screening of the first 50 results of each search led to the final inclusion of 111 websites. The content of the selected websites was evaluated in terms of compliance to international regulations on ethical advertising guidelines (CED), treatment information text readability using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), and website design using the BDC assessment tool. RESULTS: Reporting of websites according to CED guidelines covered on average 85% of the mandatory items. No significant differences were observed between dental and orthodontic practices, and between practices located in densely and sparsely populated regions (P > 0.05). The mean FRES of the displayed information indicated difficult-to-understand text. BDC scores of multi-location practices were significantly higher than the rest (P < 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The websites of orthodontic practices in The Netherlands do not fully comply with CED guidelines on ethical advertising. Readability of the displayed information and website technical performance needs to be further optimized.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Ferramenta de Busca , Estudos Transversais , Internet , Países Baixos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Leitura
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e285, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896363

RESUMO

Although Bastin et al. propose a useful model for thinking about the structure of memory and memory deficits, their distinction between entities and relational encoding is incompatible with data showing that even individual objects - prototypical "entities" - are made up of distinct features which require binding. Thus, "entity" and "relational" brain regions may need to solve fundamentally the same problems.


Assuntos
Memória , Compreensão , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
3.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(2): 111-117, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients commonly use online materials as a source of health information. Since poor health literacy has been shown to correlate with negative outcomes, it is recommended that patient-directed materials be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study evaluates the readability and understandability of commonly accessed online materials pertaining to both endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. METHODS: Searches for "endovascular repair abdominal aortic aneurysm" and "open repair abdominal aortic aneurysm" were performed on both Google and Bing, and the top 10 websites from each search engine were identified. Relevant websites (total N = 28, endovascular n = 15, open n = 15, and 2 redundant sites) with patient-directed content were analyzed. Readability was assessed using 9 established methods, and understandability was assessed using the Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool scoring system. RESULTS: The average reading grade level for all sites was 12.8. Endovascular sites averaged a reading grade level of 13.6 with a range from 11.5 to 15.6. Open-repair websites had a grade-level average of 12.1 with a range from 9.9 to 14.1. Readability was found to be inversely related to understandability, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.551 (P = .003). No website was written at or below the recommended sixth-grade reading level. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-directed online health information pertaining to open and endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm exceeds the recommended sixth-grade reading level. Increasing complexity of health literature correlates with poor understandability. Modifications such as shorter sentences, fewer words with more than 6 letters, and increasing usage of clear visual aids can increase readability and understandability.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Compreensão , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde , Internet , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Ferramenta de Busca
4.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(1): 8-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since therapeutic hypothermia became standard care for neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), even fewer infants die or have disability at 18-month assessment than in the clinical trials. However, longer term follow-up of apparently unimpaired children is lacking. We investigated the cognitive, motor and behavioural performances of survivors without cerebral palsy (CP) cooled for HIE, in comparison with matched non-HIE control children at 6-8 years. DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: 29 case children without CP, cooled in 2008-2010 and 20 age-matched, sex-matched and social class-matched term-born controls. MEASURES: Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth UK Edition, Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (MABC-2) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. RESULTS: Cases compared with controls had significantly lower mean (SD) full-scale IQ (91 [10.37]vs105[13.41]; mean difference (MD): -13.62, 95% CI -20.53 to -6.71) and total MABC-2 scores (7.9 [3.26]vs10.2[2.86]; MD: -2.12, 95% CI -3.93 to -0.3). Mean differences were significant between cases and controls for verbal comprehension (-8.8, 95% CI -14.25 to -3.34), perceptual reasoning (-13.9, 95% CI-20.78 to -7.09), working memory (-8.2, 95% CI-16.29 to -0.17), processing speed (-11.6, 95% CI-20.69 to -2.47), aiming and catching (-1.6, 95% CI-3.26 to -0.10) and manual dexterity (-2.8, 95% CI-4.64 to -0.85). The case group reported significantly higher median (IQR) total (12 [6.5-13.5] vs 6 [2.25-10], p=0.005) and emotional behavioural difficulties (2 [1-4.5] vs 0.5 [0-2.75], p=0.03) and more case children needed extra support in school (34%vs5%, p=0.02) than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: School-age children without CP cooled for HIE still have reduced cognitive and motor performance and more emotional difficulties than their peers, strongly supporting the need for school-age assessments.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Compreensão , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Destreza Motora , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reino Unido , Escalas de Wechsler
6.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180204, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851209

RESUMO

PURPOSE: to translate and culturally adapt, for Brazil, the battery of tests "Evaluación de los procesos lectores - PROLEC-SE-R", for students of Elementary School cycle II, and Senior High School. METHODS: The following stages of translation and cultural adaptation were followed: (1) Translation; (2) Synthesis of translations; (3) Back-translation; (4) Evaluation by specialist committee; (5) Pilot study: Undertaken in a sample of 70 students, 10 from each school year, in two sessions; and (6) Evaluation and appreciation of all the reports written by the researcher and specialist committee. RESULTS: modifications to the tests of PROLEC-SE-R are not necessary as indicated in the pilot study, both in the collective and individual version. The procedure received good acceptance by the evaluated students and there were no complaints or reports of difficulty in understanding the tests and instructions. CONCLUSION: the procedure is appropriate for the Brazilian reality and can be used to evaluate Elementary School II and Senior High School students. A standardization study is necessary in a representative sample of the population.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Leitura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traduções , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Estudantes
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e263, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826757

RESUMO

Evidence from our research on young children's temporal understanding supports Hoerl & McCormack's view that young children rely on a temporal updating system to change representations over time. We propose that the shift from temporal updating to temporal reasoning is enabled by children's expanding representations of event sequences, along with developments in language, memory, and other cognitive competencies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Resolução de Problemas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Humanos , Memória
9.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P53-P57], Dic 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047139

RESUMO

Introducción: Para la Teoría de Enfermería del Déficit de Autocuidado (TEDA), el enfermero trabaja con "sistemas de enfermería": parcialmente compensatorio, totalmente compensatorio y sistema de apoyo educativo. Para este último, los materiales informativos (educativos) impresos son importantes. De la legibilidad de ellos depende la eficacia de los programas del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social (MSP y BS) del Paraguay. Sin embargo, esta legibilidad no ha sido estudiada en el país. Objetivo: Analizar la legibilidad lingüística de materiales informativos impresos, divulgados por el MSP y BS, aplicando el Índice de Niebla de Gunning (ING). Materiales y métodos: De los materiales informativos impresos, publicados por el MSP y BS entre 2003 y 2018, se identificó un corpus de 49 materiales. De ellos, por muestreo aleatorio polietápico, fueron seleccionados 250 párrafos. Se calculó el ING de cada uno. La media de ING de dichos párrafos se comparó con un "patrón oro", elaborado para el español paraguayo estándar a partir de una muestra artículos de opinión de periódicos de circulación nacional. Resultados: La media de legibilidad lingüística calculada fue 20,50, valor de un nivel de dificultad "normal" en la escala del patrón oro elaborado con artículos periodísticos de opinión. Conclusión: Los párrafos estudiados, en promedio, tienen niveles de legibilidad comparables con los de artículos de opinión de periódicos de circulación nacional. Dado que la media de años de escolaridad de la población del país (8,4 años) es baja, la eficacia de los materiales informativos impresos, para fines de autocuidado, no está garantizada. Palabras clave: Autocuidado, Sistemas de enfermería, Materiales informativos impresos, Legibilidad lingüística.


Introduction: The Orem's Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) states that nurses work with "nursing systems": Partly compensatory, Wholly compensatory and Supportive-educative. For the latter, printed health instructional resources are important. The efficacy of the programs of the Ministry of Public Health and Social Welfare (MPH & SW) of Paraguay depends on the readability of those informational aids. However, there are no studies about the readability of these health educational resources in the country. Objective: To analyze the readability of printed health educational resources published by the MPH & SW, applying the Gunning Fog Index (GFI). Methods: A corpus of 49 health informational resources, published by the MPH & SW between 2003 and 2018, was identified. From these, by random multi-stage sampling, 250 paragraphs were selected. The GFI of each one was calculated. The mean of GFI of these paragraphs was compared with a "gold standard", designed for the Paraguayan Spanish, based on a sample of opinion articles of national newspapers. Results: The mean of GFI calculated was 20.50, which can be read as a "normal" difficulty level on the gold standard scale developed with newspaper opinion articles. Conclusion: The paragraphs studied, on average, have comparable readability levels with opinion articles of national newspapers. Since the schooling year average of the country's population is low (8.4 years), the efficacy of the printed health educational resource for self-care purposes is not guaranteed. Keywords: Self-Care, Nursing Systems, Printed Health Educational Resources, Readability.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Autocuidado , Compreensão , Linguística , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos
10.
Wiad Lek ; 72(11 cz 1): 2121-2127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The phenomenon of "health", being studied on an interdisciplinary basis, does not appear as the property that automatically belongs to the subject, since it is not inherited by the "natural" property, but is regarded as something that everyone needs to master the same way as the outside reality, in other words, to constantly teach your body to different movements, actions, types of activities, to know the resources of their own health and to develop their ability to serve them throughout their lives as a certain ability. The aim of the study is to provide theoretical substantiation and experimental verification of the appropriateness of considering health in the context of the inner world of man as a process of mastering the body and resources of his own health. Also in clarifying the factors that negatively affect the health of people aged 13 to 60 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: in the work, a set of methods is used: general scientific (analysis, synthesis, comparison, systematization, generalization) and empirical (observation, conversation, questionnaires). RESULTS: Results: consideration of the phenomenon of "health" is carried out with an emphasis on the inner world of man, in particular on the natural, social and spiritual grounds. It has been established that the content of the inner world exists in the child from the very moment of its birth and is unknowingly expressed by it in various types of activity (crying, movements). The formation of a natural origin is caused by the gradual ripening of various structures of the nervous system, which causes the transition from disorderly movements to clear and harmonious and the process of mastering his body on the basis of mastering one or another action, types of activity. The social origin, occurring and often changing under the influence of human interaction with others, is to a large extent caused by the improvement and deterioration of health. For the formation of a spiritual beginning, it is important to contemplate the spirituality of others (the attitude to health as a social and personal value) and the discovery of a spiritual principle in itself. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: educational activity of teachers, aimed at understanding people of different ages in the process of mastering the body and resources of their own health, will serve the formation of their inner world, the conscious elevation of health to the rank of personal values and the understanding of the essence of health as the ability of a person which is used throughout his life.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Família , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e239, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775928

RESUMO

Besides failing for the reasons Brette gives, codes fail to help us understand brain function because codes imply algorithms that compute outputs without reference to the signals' meanings. Algorithms cannot be found in the brain, only manipulations that operate on meaningful signals and that cannot be described as computations, that is, sequences of predefined operations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Metáfora , Algoritmos , Compreensão
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e243, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775945

RESUMO

The neural coding metaphor is so ubiquitous that we tend to forget its metaphorical nature. What do we mean when we assert that neurons encode and decode? What kind of causal and representational model of the brain does the metaphor entail? What lies beneath the neural coding metaphor, I argue, is a bureaucratic model of the brain.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Metáfora , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico
14.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 209-214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675298

RESUMO

This study evaluated the readability of online patient education materials on shoulder surgery. Medical and nonmedical institution web sites were compared and it was hypothesized that medical institution materials are written at lower grade levels than nonmedical institution materials, because medical institutions understand physician-patient interactions. Eighty-six articles were scored according to 10 readability tests: cumulative combined average grade level was 12.5 ± 2.8 and average Flesch reading score was 43.5 ± 12.6 (college level). The average composite grade level readability for medical institution web sites was 13 ± 2, significantly higher than for nonmedical institution web sites (11.9 ± 2.1; p = .017). Patient education materials available online are written at a higher level than American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health guidelines. Medical institution articles are written at a statistically significant higher grade level than nonmedical institution articles, but the difference is small and both rate poorly compared with current standards. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):209-214, 2019).


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Ortopedia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Ombro , Compreensão , Humanos , Internet , Leitura , Ombro/cirurgia , Estados Unidos
15.
J Surg Orthop Adv ; 28(3): 232-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675301

RESUMO

Increased opioid use in the United States has resulted in greater incidence of misuse. Orthopaedic patients are more likely to be prescribed opioids for pain. Low health literacy is related to opioid misuse; therefore, orthopaedic patient education tools on use of opioids must be easy to read, understand, and use for patients of all skill levels to be effective. This project aimed to review a broad array of opioid patient education tools and evaluate them from a health literacy perspective. Content evaluation revealed that not all tools expressed the same essential messaging. The mean readability score of the tools assessed was 9.5 grade; higher than the national and recommended 8th-grade reading level. Therefore, many opioid patient education tools may be difficult for patients to read and understand. Improvements in readability and other health literacy best practices are recommended to improve reading, comprehension, and use of opioid patient education tools. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 28(3):232-236, 2019).


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Alfabetização em Saúde , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Compreensão , Humanos , Internet , Leitura , Estados Unidos
16.
J Leg Med ; 39(3): 213-227, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626575

RESUMO

Despite the high prevalence of mental incapacity for treatment decisions in hospitals (27.7%), there is little information about the relationship, if any, between mental capacity assessments based on clinical and legal criteria. We performed a cross-sectional study of mental incapacity for treatment decisions in 300 hospital inpatients in two hospitals in Ireland, using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T) and the legal definition of mental incapacity in Ireland's incoming Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Act 2015. We found that patients who lacked mental capacity according to the legal criteria scored significantly lower on all four subscales of the MacCAT-T (Understanding, Appreciation, Reasoning, and Communication) compared to those who had mental capacity according to the legal criteria. In light of the similarity between Ireland's legal definition of mental incapacity and legislative definitions in other jurisdictions (e.g. England and Wales), we conclude that legal assessments of mental incapacity in these countries accord closely with clinical assessments (as reflected in the MacCAT-T). Ireland's new mental capacity legislation should be implemented promptly in order to further operationalize Ireland's new legal definition of mental incapacity and provide patients with the supports they need to optimize their mental capacity for treatment decisions in hospitals.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 87, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and chronic diseases could be prevented through improved diet. Most governments require at least one type of food labeling system on packaged foods to communicate nutrition information and promote healthy eating. This study evaluated adult consumer understanding and use of nutrition labeling systems in the US and Mexico, the most obese countries in the world. METHODS: Adults from online consumer panels in the US (Whites n = 2959; Latinos n = 667) and in Mexico (n = 3533) were shown five food labeling systems: 1. Nutrition Facts Table (NFT) that shows nutrients of concern per serving; 2. Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA) that shows levels of nutrients of concern; 3. Multiple Traffic-Light (MTL) that color codes each GDA nutrient (green = healthy; yellow = moderately unhealthy; red = unhealthy); 4. Health Star Rating System (HSR) that rates foods on a single dimension of healthiness; 5. Warning Label (WL) with a stop sign for nutrients present in unhealthy levels. Participants rated each label on understanding ("easy"/"very easy to understand" vs "difficult"/"very difficult to understand"), and, for NFTs and GDAs, frequency of use ("sometimes"/"often" vs "never"). Mixed logistic models regressed understanding and frequency of use on indicators of labeling systems (NFT = ref), testing for interactions by ethnicity (US Latinos, US Whites, Mexicans), while controlling for sociodemographic and obesity-related factors. RESULTS: Compared to the NFT, participants reported greater understanding of the WL (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 4.4-5.3) and lower understanding of the HSR (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.31-0.37) and the MTL (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.52-0.61), with similar patterns across ethnic subgroups. Participants used GDAs less often than NFTs (OR = 0.48; 95%CI = 0.41-0.55), with the greatest difference among US Whites (OR = 0.10; 95%CI = 0.07-0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and use of the GDA was similar to that of the NFT. Whites, Latinos, and Mexicans consistently reported the best understanding for WLs, a FOPL that highlights unhealthfulness of a product. Therefore, a FOPL summary indicator, such as WLs, may be more effective in both the US and Mexico for guiding consumers towards informed food choices.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Hispano-Americanos , Política Nutricional , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta , Feminino , Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
18.
Br Dent J ; 227(5): 399-402, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520044

RESUMO

Introduction Standard practice for dental extractions is to provide treatment under local anaesthesia (LA) without additional sedation or general anaesthesia. Even in oral surgery departments, the majority of patients receive this anxiety-provoking treatment under LA alone. All patients undergoing extractions could benefit from information on relaxation and anxiety management. This study aims to perform an in-depth analysis of the quality of websites that provide information on dental extractions and anxiety.Materials and methods Key phrases were searched on Google. The content, reliability and readability of the top ten websites for each key phrase were qualitatively evaluated using three tools: DISCERN, Flesch-Kincaid, and a specialised oral surgery website checklist (OSWC).Results Patient education was limited, with 70% of websites being either advertisements, forums or articles for healthcare professionals. The majority of websites poorly described treatment such as sedation and only 16% provided methods for relaxation. Readability was poor, with 92% above average UK adult literacy ability.Conclusion Extraction patients should be signposted to effective resources before treatment or referral. Dental anxiety advice can easily be incorporated into all treatment plans, with recommended website links included in digital communication, such as text messages or practice websites.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Extração Dentária , Ansiedade , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Internet , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540040

RESUMO

(1) Background: This article adopts an interdisciplinary perspective to analyse, examine, and reflect upon prominent health literacy (HL) understandings in childhood and youth. (2) Method: The conceptual analysis combined Rodgers' and Jabareen's approaches to conceptual analysis in eight phases. (3) Results: First, we present exploratory entry points for developing a child-specific HL understanding based on the six dimensions of a 'health-literacy 6D model'. Second, we describe and reflect upon five meta-level dimensions covering the HL definitions and models for children and youth found in the conceptual analysis. Third, we integrate our findings into a target-group-centred HL definition for children and youth. (4) Discussion/Conclusion: This article raises awareness for the heterogeneity of the current conceptual HL debate. It offers a multidisciplinary approach for advancing the existing understanding of HL. Four recommendations for future actions are deduced from the following four principles, which are inherent to the proposed target-group-centred HL definition: (a) to characterize HL from an asset-based perspective, (b) to consider HL as socially embedded and distributed, (c) to recognize that HL develops both in phases and in flexible ways, and (d) to consider the multimodal nature of health-related information. Further research is necessary to test the feasibility and applicability of the proposed definition and conceptual understanding in both research and practice.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos
20.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 59, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the preschool years, children's development of skills like language and communication, executive functions, and socioemotional comprehension undergo dramatic development. Still, our knowledge of how these skills are enhanced is limited. The preschool contexts constitute a well-suited arena for investigating these skills and hold the potential for giving children an equal opportunity preparing for the school years to come. The present study compared two pedagogical methods in the Swedish preschool context as to their effect on language and communication, executive functions, socioemotional comprehension, and early math. The study targeted children in the age span four-to-six-year-old, with an additional focus on these children's backgrounds in terms of socioeconomic status, age, gender, number of languages, time spent at preschool, and preschool start. An additional goal of the study was to add to prior research by aiming at disentangling the relationship between the investigated variables. METHOD: The study constitutes a randomized controlled trial including 18 preschools and 29 preschool units, with a total of 431 children, and 98 teachers. The interventions lasted for 6 weeks, preceded by pre-testing and followed by post-testing of the children. Randomization was conducted on the level of preschool unit, to either of the two interventions or to control. The interventions consisted of a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA) and a digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm (DIL). The preschools were further evaluated with ECERS-3. The main analysis was a series of univariate mixed regression models, where the nested structure of individuals, preschool units and preschools were modeled using random variables. RESULTS: The result of the intervention shows that neither of the two intervention paradigms had measurable effects on the targeted skills. However, there were results as to the follow-up questions, such as executive functions predicting all other variables (language and communication, socioemotional comprehension, and math). Background variables were related to each other in patterns congruent with earlier findings, such as socioeconomic status predicting outcome measures across the board. The results are discussed in relation to intervention fidelity, length of intervention, preschool quality, and the impact of background variables on children's developmental trajectories and life prospects.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Compreensão , Função Executiva , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Ensino , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Suécia
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