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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20439, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541465

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Previous studies indicated inconsistent results for the treatment effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on post-stroke aphasics. The study conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the rTMS with different frequencies demonstrated any effect in patients with post-stroke aphasia. METHODS: Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar) were searched for articles published before July 2019. Statistical analyses were made using STATA 12.0 software. Standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the treatment effect of rTMS on post-stroke aphasia. RESULTS: Meta-analysis indicated significant treatment effects on naming of rTMS in post-stroke aphasics (SMD 0.76, 95%CI 0.16 to 1.36, I = 76.9%, P < .001). Subgroup analyses showed significant treatment effects on naming of low frequency (LF)-rTMS (SMD 0.40, 95%CI 0.10 to 0.69, I = 0.0%, P = .671). However, the changes in repetition and comprehension following stimulation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we provide preliminary evidence that both LF-rTMS and high-frequency-rTMS might be relatively effective and safe treatment for post-stroke aphasics. However, LF-rTMS mainly plays a short-term role in subacute post-stroke aphasics. Longer-term and large-scale studies are essential to explore the effect of rTMS with different frequencies on post-stroke aphasia.


Assuntos
Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271773

RESUMO

Although the connection between the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left superior temporal gyrus (LSTG) has been found to be essential for the comprehension of relative clause (RC) sentences, it remains unclear how the LIFG and the LSTG interact with each other, especially during the processing of Chinese RC sentences with different processing difficulty. This study thus conducted a 2 × 2 (modifying position × extraction position) factorial analyses to examine how these two factors influences regional brain activation. The results showed that, regardless of the modifying position, greater activation in the LIFG was consistently elicited in Chinese subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) with non-canonical word order than object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs) with canonical word order, implying that the LIFG subserving the ordering process primarily contributes to the processing of information with increased integration demands due to the non-canonical sequence. Moreover, the directional connection between the LIFG and the LSTG appeared to be modulated by different modifying positions. When the RC was at the subject-modifying position, the effective connectivity from the LIFG to the LSTG was dominantly activated for sentence comprehension; whereas when the RC was at the object-modifying position thus being more difficult, it might be the feedback mechanism from the LSTG back to the LIFG that took place in sentence processing. These findings reveal that brain activation in between the LIFG and the LSTG may be dynamically modulated by different processing difficulty and suggest the relative specialization but extensive collaboration involved in the LIFG and the LSTG for sentence comprehension.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80 Suppl 2: 37-40, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150711

RESUMO

Research about the academic profile of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reports a variable performance, although it tends to be lower than what it is expected according to the cognitive level. In the school context, reading and writing are crucial abilities for learning in different curricular areas and they have important implications for academic, social and occupational success. A brief review is carried out about the main reading and writing disabilities that students with ASD show. Studies about reading coincide to point out an adequate knowledge of the decodification processes. However, a lower performance in reading comprehension and, particularly, inferential comprehension has been frequently described. In addition, deficits in the different components of writing have been reported, especially, handwriting and text coherence. Different factors may explain this profile of difficulties, like linguistic factors or aspects related to the psychological theories of autism, which may contribute to possible interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Leitura , Criança , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/fisiopatologia , Redação
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084153

RESUMO

Irony is one of the linguistic means in which intended and expressed meaning diverge. It serves social-communicative functions, requires the understanding of the speaker's mental state and its comprehension takes place at an advanced stage of language acquisition. In the present study, we investigated 8-year old's irony comprehension and social skills and asked their parents about their preferred use of irony towards their children. We then compared children with the highest scores in irony comprehension test with those with lower scores. The full sample included 46 families from Poland. Results show positive associations between children's levels of irony comprehension and levels of mothers irony use. No such relations were found for fathers. No differences were found in ToM scores between proficient and non-proficient irony comprehenders. Our findings provide a base for future studies to study the use of irony in child-parent talk in more diverse culturally and linguistically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguística , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística/educação , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Psicometria , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Senso de Humor e Humor como Assunto/psicologia
5.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(1): 25-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204837

RESUMO

This study explored the meaning of "good outcome" within and beyond the much-used statistical indices of clinical significance in standard outcome research as developed by Jacobson and Truax (1991). Specifically, we examined the experiences of patients marked as "recovered" and "improved" following cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic therapy for major depression. A mixed-methods study was conducted using data gathered in an RCT, including patients' pre-post outcome scores on the Beck Depression Inventory-II and posttreatment client change interviews. We selected 28 patients who showed recovery and 19 patients who showed improvement in self-reported depression symptoms. A grounded theory analysis was performed on patients' interviews, ultimately resulting in a conceptual model of "good outcome." From patients' perspectives, good outcome can be understood as feeling empowered, finding personal balance and encountering ongoing struggle, indicating an ongoing process and variation in experience. The Jacobson-Truax classification of "good outcome" could not account for the (more pessimistic) nuances in outcome experiences, especially for "improved" patients, and did not grasp the multidimensional nature of outcome as experienced by patients. It is recommended that statistical indications of clinical meaningfulness are interpreted warily and ideally contextualized within personal narratives. Further research on the phenomenon of change and good outcome is required, aiming at integrating multiple perspectives and methods accordingly the multidimensional phenomenon under study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Compreensão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Autorrelato , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/tendências , Compreensão/fisiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia/tendências , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104712, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704517

RESUMO

Previous studies investigating the processing of complex sentences have demonstrated the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and left superior temporal gyrus (LSTG), which might subserve ordering and storage of linguistic components, respectively, for sentence comprehension. However, how these brain regions are interconnected, especially during the processing of Chinese sentences, need to be further explored. In this study, the neural network supporting the comprehension of Chinese relative clause was identified. Both the LIFG and LSTG exhibited higher activation in processing subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) than object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs). Moreover, a Granger causality analysis revealed that the effective connectivity from the LIFG to LSTG was significant only when participants read Chinese SRCs, which were argued to be more difficult than ORCs. Contrary to the observations of an SRC advantage in most other languages, the present results provide clear neuroimaging evidence for an ORC advantage in Chinese.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Mapeamento Encefálico , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Brain Lang ; 200: 104709, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722272

RESUMO

Deviations of attention from the task at hand are often associated with worse reading performance (Schooler, Reichle, & Halpern, 2004). Ironically, current methods for detecting these shifts of attention typically generate task interruptions and further disrupt performance. In the current study, we developed a method to (1) track shifts of attention away from the reading task by examining the similarity between 5 min of eyes-closed-resting-state EEG and 5 min reading EEG; and (2) investigate, during reading, how the ratio between attention shifts and focused reading relates to readers' comprehension. We performed a Spectral Similarity Analysis (SSA) that examined the spectral similarity between EEG recorded during reading and at rest on a moment-by-moment basis. We then recursively applied the algorithm to the resting-state data itself to obtain an individual baseline of the stability of brain activation recorded during rest. We defined any moment in which SSA during reading was greater than the mean correlation between resting-state EEG and itself as an "attentional shift." The results showed that the proportion of such attentional shifts recorded over the left visual region (O1) significantly predicted reading comprehension, with higher ratios (indicative of more frequent attentional shifts) relating to worse comprehension scores on the reading test. As a proof of its validity, the same measure collected during the reading comprehension test also predicted participants' Simon effect (incongruent - congruent response times) which is a common index of selective attention. This novel method allows researchers to detect attention shifts moments during reading without interrupting natural reading process.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e245, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826782

RESUMO

We discuss whether the two systems approach can advance understanding of children's developing counterfactual thinking. We argue that types of counterfactual thinking that are acquired early in development could be handled by the temporal updating system, whereas those that emerge in middle childhood require thinking about specific events in time.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grey matter volume (GMV) decline is a frequent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common chronic neurological disease in young adults. Increases of GMV were detected in language related brain regions following second language (L2) learning in healthy adults. Effects of L2 learning in people with MS (pwMS) have not been investigated so far. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated the potential of an eight-week L2 training on grey matter plasticity measured by 3T-MRI, L2 proficiency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with relapsing-remitting MS (pwMS, n = 11) and healthy, sex- and age-matched controls (HCs; n = 12). RESULTS: Categorical voxel-based analysis revealed significantly less GMV bilaterally of the insula extending to the temporal pole in pwMS at baseline. Following L2 training, significant increases of GMV were evident in the right hippocampus, parahippocampus and putamen of pwMS and in the left insula of HCs. L2 training resulted in significant improvements of listening comprehension, speaking fluency and vocabulary knowledge in both pwMS and HCs. GMV increases of right hippocampus and parahippocampus significantly correlated with vocabulary knowledge gain and L2 learning was associated with a significant increase of HRQoL in pwMS. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate distinct patterns of GMV increases of language related brain regions in pwMS and HCs and indicate disease-related compensatory cortical and subcortical plasticity to acquire L2 proficiency in pwMS.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Multilinguismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Vocabulário
10.
Elife ; 82019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845887

RESUMO

An intuitive understanding of physical objects and events is critical for successfully interacting with the world. Does the brain achieve this understanding by running simulations in a mental physics engine, which represents variables such as force and mass, or by analyzing patterns of motion without encoding underlying physical quantities? To investigate, we scanned participants with fMRI while they viewed videos of objects interacting in scenarios indicating their mass. Decoding analyses in brain regions previously implicated in intuitive physical inference revealed mass representations that generalized across variations in scenario, material, friction, and motion energy. These invariant representations were found during tasks without action planning, and tasks focusing on an orthogonal dimension (object color). Our results support an account of physical reasoning where abstract physical variables serve as inputs to a forward model of dynamics, akin to a physics engine, in parietal and frontal cortex.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Integr Psychol Behav Sci ; 53(4): 679-693, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729627

RESUMO

Referring to the notion of "possible worlds", the paper aims to investigate an intriguing aspect of children's thinking: the function that play narrative scenarios in sharing with other partners (peers and adults) the child's understanding of the physical and social reality. The idea of possible worlds to which this work relates, can be considered in some way as the legacy of Piaget's pioneering research on symbolic thinking, currently referred in Harris's perspective as "work of imagination". Over the past few decades now, the notion of possible worlds has supported a new representation of the child's thinking that is based on the idea that imagination allows children to explore alternative and multiple versions of reality. Among other things, imagination permits to the child to use sophisticated forms of causal reasoning and understanding of the rules of social life. By reconsidering a part of the literature on "possible worlds" and presenting two empirical observations, this paper wants to draw attention to the central role played by explorative thinking in child's argumentative activities. Angelo, the three-year-old who is the protagonist of the episode reported, is a child like many: constantly relating to the social world, attentive to what is happening around him and, in particular, to the events in which he finds himself involved. Surprisingly equipped to position himself and act in the routines that he knows, but also capable of adopting effective strategies with respect to events that he cannot foresee and that are built constantly, and in a manner situated during interpersonal events. From a certain point of view, he acts in a competent way in the present, but thanks to previous experiences he seems equally ready to anticipate the activities that follow each other in the many scenarios of reality and fiction of which his daily experience is made up. In the example above, Angelo shows a precise interpretation of the situation (evidently based on previous experiences) and provides a solidly argued answer to his mother's request. The reference to the socio-material context fully supports his argument with the use of a perceptive fact that is difficult to contest. As highlighted by the short sequence presented, the dialogue between Angelo and his mother undoubtedly takes on the characteristics of an argumentative activity. As in a court debate, the child/lawyer explores the relationships with the other participants, offering to the jury "material" evidence. This will allow him both to challenge his mother's point of view and to defend his own authoritatively. To give an account of the variety of thinking strategies that Angelo exhibits and also to illustrate the exploratory function of argumentation in children, this paper will explore the idea that during social interaction each participant builds narrative versions of the world from his own point of view. As Bruner (2002) wrote, possible worlds offer the possibility of throwing new light on the "real" world. On a theoretical level, this rapid exchange in the family can be defined as an illustration of sophisticated thinking activities (partly argumentative) in a three-year-old child. In fact, only a few sequences of observation of the unstoppable activities of Angelo are sufficient, as they are of any other child in everyday life situations, to obtain a large number of useful elements to understand the active role of younger generations in challenging the rules of social worlds and in reproducing and creating new cultural forms during social interactions (Corsaro 1997). More specifically, this paper aims to showcase firstly how this way of acting in the physical and social reality emerges early in children's development, especially in situations where they have to defend their point of view or try to convince someone to do something. Secondly, it wants to show that these early thinking strategies are displayed by children mainly as activities of exploration of narrative scenarios (possible worlds) that emerge during social interactions. In order to answer these central questions for the study of thinking in children, this paper will a) analyse the notion of "possible worlds" as Bruner refers to it, b) present two transcripts of social interactions that allow clear examples of the children's thinking activity, and c) discuss studies that support the acceptance of early cognitive activity in children and the multipurpose and flexible nature of child's learning capacities (Gopnik and Meltzoff 1998).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comunicação , Compreensão/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Narração , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho
12.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 501-512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602657

RESUMO

In the last decades, a series of studies has explored the role of morphological awareness on reading comprehension. Path analysis studies performed in English have shown that morphological awareness benefits reading comprehension both directly and indirectly, through word decoding. This issue has seldom been explored in Spanish. The aim of this study was to replicate in Spanish the results previously found in English. We used path analysis to assess three alternative models of the relationship between morphological awareness, word decoding and reading comprehension in 4th grade Spanish-speaking children. Contrary to English, we found that morphological awareness benefits reading comprehension only directly. We conclude that in Spanish, in which accurate and fluent pronunciation of written words can be achieved through grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules, morphological awareness does not help the correct pronunciation of words. Thus, morphological awareness is not relevant for word decoding in Spanish but is related to reading comprehension since this type of morphological knowledge provides access to the semantic and syntactic information of new words.


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Argentina , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102916, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627034

RESUMO

When comprehending a spoken sentence that refers to a visually-presented event, comprehenders both integrate their current interpretation of language with the recent event and develop expectations about future event possibilities. Tense cues can disambiguate this linking, but temporary ambiguity in these cues may lead comprehenders to also rely on further, experience-based (e.g., frequency or an actor's gaze) cues. How comprehenders reconcile these different cues in real time is an open issue. Extant results suggest that comprehenders preferentially relate their unfolding interpretation to a recent event by inspecting its target object. We investigated to what extent this recent-event preference could be overridden by short-term experiential and situation-specific cues. In Experiments 1-2 participants saw substantially more future than recent events and listened to more sentences about future-events (75% in Experiment 1 and 88% in Experiment 2). Experiment 3 cued future target objects and event possibilities via an actor's gaze. The event frequency increase yielded a reduction in the recent event inspection preference early during sentence processing in Experiments 1-2 compared with Experiment 3 (where event frequency and utterance tense were balanced) but did not eliminate the overall recent-event preference. Actor gaze also modulated the recent-event preference, and jointly with future tense led to its reversal in Experiment 3. However, our results showed that people overall preferred to focus on recent (vs. future) events in their interpretation, suggesting that while two cues (actor gaze and short-term event frequency) can partially override the recent-event preference, the latter still plays a key role in shaping participants' interpretation.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(42): 21318-21327, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570590

RESUMO

Human speech comprehension is remarkable for its immediacy and rapidity. The listener interprets an incrementally delivered auditory input, millisecond by millisecond as it is heard, in terms of complex multilevel representations of relevant linguistic and nonlinguistic knowledge. Central to this process are the neural computations involved in semantic combination, whereby the meanings of words are combined into more complex representations, as in the combination of a verb and its following direct object (DO) noun (e.g., "eat the apple"). These combinatorial processes form the backbone for incremental interpretation, enabling listeners to integrate the meaning of each word as it is heard into their dynamic interpretation of the current utterance. Focusing on the verb-DO noun relationship in simple spoken sentences, we applied multivariate pattern analysis and computational semantic modeling to source-localized electro/magnetoencephalographic data to map out the specific representational constraints that are constructed as each word is heard, and to determine how these constraints guide the interpretation of subsequent words in the utterance. Comparing context-independent semantic models of the DO noun with contextually constrained noun models reflecting the semantic properties of the preceding verb, we found that only the contextually constrained model showed a significant fit to the brain data. Pattern-based measures of directed connectivity across the left hemisphere language network revealed a continuous information flow among temporal, inferior frontal, and inferior parietal regions, underpinning the verb's modification of the DO noun's activated semantics. These results provide a plausible neural substrate for seamless real-time incremental interpretation on the observed millisecond time scales.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 1019749, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485215

RESUMO

Product color plays a vital role in shaping brand style and affecting users' purchase decision. However, users' preferences about product color design schemes may vary due to their cognition differences. Although considering users' perception of product color has been widely performed by industrial designers, it is not effective to support this activity. In order to provide users with plentiful product color solutions as well as embody users' preference into product design process, involving users in interactive genetic algorithms (IGAs) is an effectual way to find optimum solutions. Nevertheless, cognition difference and uncertainty among users may lead to various understanding in line with IGA progressing. To address this issue, this study presents an advanced IGA by combining users' cognition noise which includes cognition phase, intermediate phase, and fatigue phase. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are employed to represent uncertainty of users' evaluations. An algorithm is designed to find key parameters through similarity calculation between RGB value and their area proportion of two individuals and users' judgment. The interactive product color design process is put forward with an instance by comparing with an ordinary IGA. Results show that (1) knowledge background will significantly affect users' cognition about product colors and (2) the proposed method is helpful to improve convergence speed and evolution efficiency with convergence increasing from 67.5% to 82.5% and overall average evolutionary generations decreasing from 18.15 to 15.825. It is promising that the proposed method can help reduce users' cognition noise, promote convergence, and improve evolution efficiency of interactive product color design.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Cor , Compreensão/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Ruído
16.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(12): 2807-2819, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519136

RESUMO

The method students use to take notes impacts how they process lecture information. The current experiment examined how the format and amount of content included in instructor-provided notes affect learning. Undergraduate students listened to a brief audio-recorded science lecture that emphasised independent facts, while using one of four note-taking guides. These guides varied in their format (outline notes, cloze notes) and level of difficulty (less-difficult, more-difficult). Outline notes included a partially complete organisational framework, promoting knowledge of relationships among concepts. Cloze notes included all lecture content with select words missing, encouraging processing of specific details. Metacognitive ratings and an objective cognitive load measure confirmed that outline note-taking was the most difficult method. However, outline notes led to higher performance than cloze notes on free recall and inference questions, and equal performance on verbatim questions. These benefits were greatest in the more-difficult outline notes condition, when less information was provided. These findings are consistent with the material-appropriate difficulty framework. Increasing note-taking difficulty was desirable, but only when the activity elicited semantic processing that complemented the type of processing afforded by the learning material.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Ciência/educação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Infant Behav Dev ; 57: 101379, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561147

RESUMO

Early language development is considered critical for children's adjustment in school, for social adaptation and for later educational achievement. Despite the role of children's receptive skills as a foundation for later productive word use, receptive language skills have received surprisingly little attention. The present research extends recent work on the prediction of preschool language skills by exploring whether a decontextualized measure of lexical comprehension can account for unique variance in preschool language skills above and beyond parent report and how early such a prediction can be made. For this purpose, 65 French-speaking children have been tested at 16, 22, 29 and 36 months. The results of the current study suggest that up to the age of two, although parent reports of lexical comprehension and/or production account for a portion of variance in later receptive, productive or general language outcome, they have less predictive validity than a direct measure of early lexical comprehension. By contrast, after age two, parent reported vocabulary production is the strongest predictor of later language production skills.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Vocabulário , Pré-Escolar , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Linguagem , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho
18.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513622

RESUMO

NEURAL CORRELATES OF MIND WANDERING: The ability to detect mind wandering as it occurs is an important step towards improving our understanding of this phenomenon and studying its effects on learning and performance. Current detection methods typically rely on observable behaviour in laboratory settings, which do not capture the underlying neural processes and may not translate well into real-world settings. We address both of these issues by recording electroencephalography (EEG) simultaneously from 15 participants during live lectures on research in orthopedic surgery. We performed traditional group-level analysis and found neural correlates of mind wandering during live lectures that are similar to those found in some laboratory studies, including a decrease in occipitoparietal alpha power and frontal, temporal, and occipital beta power. However, individual-level analysis of these same data revealed that patterns of brain activity associated with mind wandering were more broadly distributed and highly individualized than revealed in the group-level analysis. MIND WANDERING DETECTION: To apply these findings to mind wandering detection, we used a data-driven method known as common spatial patterns to discover scalp topologies for each individual that reflects their differences in brain activity when mind wandering versus attending to lectures. This approach avoids reliance on known neural correlates primarily established through group-level statistics. Using this method for individual-level machine learning of mind wandering from EEG, we were able to achieve an average detection accuracy of 80-83%. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling mind wandering at the individual level may reveal important details about its neural correlates that are not reflected when using traditional observational and statistical methods. Using machine learning techniques for this purpose can provide new insight into the varieties of neural activity involved in mind wandering, while also enabling real-time detection of mind wandering in naturalistic settings.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Int Adv Otol ; 15(2): 267-271, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether, in asymmetric hearing loss, the presence of an ear with a better or worse hearing threshold is related to either better or worse speech-in-noise (SiN) intelligibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 618 subjects with different degrees of hearing loss were evaluated for their ability to understand SiN. A stepwise forward logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that affect performance. The influencing factors of very high or very low performance were determined. RESULTS: Age, especially after 70 years of age, and hearing loss, especially from moderate hearing loss, negatively influence SiN intelligibility. Remarkably high intelligibility was identified in subjects with a contralateral ear presenting a better auditory threshold. CONCLUSION: Although age and hearing loss are known factors that affect SiN intelligibility, the presence of a healthy contralateral ear is presented as the first description of preservation of SiN hearing ability.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Ruído , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cogn Neuropsychol ; 36(7-8): 383-409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434524

RESUMO

We investigated what strategies underlie figurative language processing in two groups of participants distinguished by the presence of a developmental deficit, highly-verbal participants with autism, and control participants without autism in two age ranges each. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder are characterised by impaired social interaction and communication. Even at the high end of the spectrum, where structural language is adequate, difficulties in comprehending non-literal aspects of language are widely attested. The exact causes of these problems are, however, still open to debate. In an interactive sentence-picture matching task participants selected the most suitable image representation of a non-literal figurative expression that matched the target meaning, while their eye-movements and hand movements were being tracked. Our results suggest that individuals with ASD have different processing patterns than typically developing peers when interpreting figurative language, even when they provide the correct answers. Both children with and without autism, and participants with autism display greater uncertainty and competition between alternatives when providing the answer, often reflected in also considering the literal interpretation of the expression against its target figurative meaning. We provide evidence that expression transparency and decomposability play a central role in figurative language processing across all groups.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Compreensão/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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