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1.
PLoS Biol ; 19(1): e3001038, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497384

RESUMO

Planning to speak is a challenge for the brain, and the challenge varies between and within languages. Yet, little is known about how neural processes react to these variable challenges beyond the planning of individual words. Here, we examine how fundamental differences in syntax shape the time course of sentence planning. Most languages treat alike (i.e., align with each other) the 2 uses of a word like "gardener" in "the gardener crouched" and in "the gardener planted trees." A minority keeps these formally distinct by adding special marking in 1 case, and some languages display both aligned and nonaligned expressions. Exploiting such a contrast in Hindi, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking to suggest that this difference is associated with distinct patterns of neural processing and gaze behavior during early planning stages, preceding phonological word form preparation. Planning sentences with aligned expressions induces larger synchronization in the theta frequency band, suggesting higher working memory engagement, and more visual attention to agents than planning nonaligned sentences, suggesting delayed commitment to the relational details of the event. Furthermore, plain, unmarked expressions are associated with larger desynchronization in the alpha band than expressions with special markers, suggesting more engagement in information processing to keep overlapping structures distinct during planning. Our findings contrast with the observation that the form of aligned expressions is simpler, and they suggest that the global preference for alignment is driven not by its neurophysiological effect on sentence planning but by other sources, possibly by aspects of production flexibility and fluency or by sentence comprehension. This challenges current theories on how production and comprehension may affect the evolution and distribution of syntactic variants in the world's languages.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Linguística , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 51-65, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199709

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to examine effects of relevance instructions and elaborative interrogation on the processing of and memory for expository texts. Eye movements of 132 undergraduate students were tracked while they read expository texts. After reading each text, they produced an oral summary. Participants were divided into four experimental conditions that differed by the presence or absence of the why question and the specific or general relevance instruction they received. Results showed that readers who received the why question embedded in the texts and also received the specific instruction of answering the question demonstrated more strategic reading, as reflected in their first-pass and look-back reading times and also in their better recall of question-relevant information. These results can be readily applied to real-life learning contexts, as they suggest that employing specific relevance instructions in combination with elaborative interrogation may elicit more efficient and strategic reading


El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar el efecto de las Instrucciones de relevancia y de Interrogación elaborativa en el procesamiento y el posterior recuerdo de textos expositivos. A tal fin se registraron los movimientos oculares de 132 estudiantes universitarios mientras leían textos expositivos. Después de leer cada texto, realizaron un resumen oral del mismo. Se asignó a los participantes a cuatro condiciones experimentales que se diferenciaban por la presencia o ausencia de una pregunta de tipo "por qué" y la instrucción específica o general de relevancia que recibieron. Los resultados mostraron que los lectores que recibieron la pregunta de tipo "por qué" insertada en los textos y que también recibieron la instrucción específica de contestar a la pregunta mostraron unos patrones de lectura más estratégicos, como quedó reflejado en sus tiempos de lectura inicial y de refijaciones y también en su mejor recuerdo de la información relacionada con la pregunta. Estos resultados pueden aplicarse fácilmente a contextos reales de aprendizaje, ya que sugieren que emplear instrucciones específicas de relevancia en combinación con interrogación elaborativa puede facilitar y potenciar estilos de lectura más eficientes y estratégicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Leitura , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Psicologia Educacional , Fatores de Tempo , Desempenho Acadêmico
3.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): e42-e47, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465245

RESUMO

A reliable identification of a high-risk state for upcoming seizures may allow for preemptive treatment and improve the quality of patients' lives. We evaluated the ability of prodromal symptoms to predict preictal states using a machine learning (ML) approach. Twenty-four patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were admitted for continuous video-electroencephalographic monitoring and filled out a daily four-point questionnaire on prodromal symptoms. Data were then classified into (1) a preictal group for questionnaires completed in a 24-h period prior to at least one seizure (n1  = 58) and (2) an interictal group for questionnaires completed in a 24-h period without seizures (n2  = 190). Our prediction model was based on a support vector machine classifier and compared to a Fisher's linear classifier. The combination of all the prodromal symptoms yielded a good prediction performance (area under the curve [AUC] = .72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .61-.81). This performance was significantly enhanced by selecting a subset of the most relevant symptoms (AUC = .80, 95% CI = .69-.88). In comparison, the linear classifier systematically failed (AUCs < .6). Our findings indicate that the ML analysis of prodromal symptoms is a promising approach to identifying preictal states prior to seizures. This could pave the way for development of clinical strategies in seizure prevention and even a noninvasive alarm system.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Atenção/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Fotofobia/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Fala/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Neuroimage ; 227: 117586, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346131

RESUMO

Acquiring a new language requires individuals to simultaneously and gradually learn linguistic attributes on multiple levels. Here, we investigated how this learning process changes the neural encoding of natural speech by assessing the encoding of the linguistic feature hierarchy in second-language listeners. Electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded from native Mandarin speakers with varied English proficiency and from native English speakers while they listened to audio-stories in English. We measured the temporal response functions (TRFs) for acoustic, phonemic, phonotactic, and semantic features in individual participants and found a main effect of proficiency on linguistic encoding. This effect of second-language proficiency was particularly prominent on the neural encoding of phonemes, showing stronger encoding of "new" phonemic contrasts (i.e., English contrasts that do not exist in Mandarin) with increasing proficiency. Overall, we found that the nonnative listeners with higher proficiency levels had a linguistic feature representation more similar to that of native listeners, which enabled the accurate decoding of language proficiency. This result advances our understanding of the cortical processing of linguistic information in second-language learners and provides an objective measure of language proficiency.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Adulto Jovem
5.
Elife ; 92020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345775

RESUMO

Speech contains rich acoustic and linguistic information. Using highly controlled speech materials, previous studies have demonstrated that cortical activity is synchronous to the rhythms of perceived linguistic units, for example, words and phrases, on top of basic acoustic features, for example, the speech envelope. When listening to natural speech, it remains unclear, however, how cortical activity jointly encodes acoustic and linguistic information. Here we investigate the neural encoding of words using electroencephalography and observe neural activity synchronous to multi-syllabic words when participants naturally listen to narratives. An amplitude modulation (AM) cue for word rhythm enhances the word-level response, but the effect is only observed during passive listening. Furthermore, words and the AM cue are encoded by spatially separable neural responses that are differentially modulated by attention. These results suggest that bottom-up acoustic cues and top-down linguistic knowledge separately contribute to cortical encoding of linguistic units in spoken narratives.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23116, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181681

RESUMO

A recent paper in the journal Neuroreport suggested that, upon source localization, the semantic P600 localizes to executive function areas, that is, outside language. But is this true for all types of linguistic P600? We report a cross-sectional source localization study of a classical (agreement) syntactic paradigm.The results show a clear localization to the temporal lobe, in classical language areas.The P600 is probably not a unitary phenomenon in term of source localization, and the question whether it localizes within or outside the language system depends on the type of P600.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Idioma , Semântica , Lobo Temporal , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Tomografia/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with single-sided deafness (SSD), restoration of binaural function via cochlear implant (CI) has been shown to improve speech understanding in noise. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in behavioral performance and cortical auditory responses following cochlear implantation. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. METHODS: Six adults with SSD were tested before and 12 months post-activation of the CI. Six normal hearing (NH) participants served as experimental controls. Speech understanding in noise was evaluated for various spatial conditions. Cortical auditory evoked potentials were recorded with /ba/ stimuli in quiet and in noise. Global field power and responses at Cz were analyzed. RESULTS: Speech understanding in noise significantly improved with the CI when speech was presented to the CI ear and noise to the normal ear (p<0.05), but remained poorer than that of NH controls (p<0.05). N1 peak amplitude measure in noise significantly increased after CI activation (p<0.05), but remained lower than that of NH controls (p<0.05) at 12 months. After 12 months of CI experience, cortical responses in noise became more comparable between groups. CONCLUSION: Binaural restoration in SSD patients via cochlear implantation improved speech performance noise and cortical responses. While behavioral performance and cortical auditory responses improved, SSD-CI outcomes remained poorer than that of NH controls in most cases, suggesting only partial restoration of binaural hearing.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Compreensão/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Estudos Prospectivos , Localização de Som/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785231

RESUMO

Two cross-modal priming experiments were conducted to investigate morphological processing in Chinese spoken word recognition during sentence comprehension. Participants heard sentences that contained opaque prime words and performed lexical decisions on visual targets that were related to second morpheme meanings of opaque words or whole-word meanings. The targets were presented at the auditory onset of the second morphemes or the subsequent syllables after the opaque primes to examine the time course of effects. In a neutral sentence context (Experiment 1), opaque word morpheme meanings produced morphological priming on target word recognition, which preceded lexical priming. When context biased toward whole opaque words (Experiment 2), morphological priming disappeared, while the effect of lexical meanings remained significant and emerged earlier than the effect of lexical meanings in the neutral context. These findings suggest that morphemes play a role in Chinese spoken word recognition, but their effects depend on the prior context during sentence comprehension.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Fonética , Semântica , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813695

RESUMO

Successful natural language understanding requires that comprehenders be able to resolve uncertainty in language. One source of potential uncertainty emerges from a speaker's choice to use a pronoun (e.g., he, she, they), since pronouns often do not fully specify the speaker's intended referent. Nevertheless, comprehenders are typically able to interpret pronouns rapidly despite having limited cognitive resources. Here we report three pronoun interpretation experiments that investigate whether comprehenders reverse-engineer a speaker's referential intentions based on Bayesian principles, as documented in previous studies for English. Using Mandarin Chinese, we test the generality of the Bayesian pronoun interpretation theory, and further evaluate the predictions of the theory in ways that are not possible in English. Our results lend both qualitative and quantitative support to a cross-linguistically general Bayesian theory of pronoun interpretation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Teorema de Bayes , China , Comunicação , Humanos , Linguística/métodos , Leitura , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3117, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561726

RESUMO

On-line comprehension of natural speech requires segmenting the acoustic stream into discrete linguistic elements. This process is argued to rely on theta-gamma oscillation coupling, which can parse syllables and encode them in decipherable neural activity. Speech comprehension also strongly depends on contextual cues that help predicting speech structure and content. To explore the effects of theta-gamma coupling on bottom-up/top-down dynamics during on-line syllable identification, we designed a computational model (Precoss-predictive coding and oscillations for speech) that can recognise syllable sequences in continuous speech. The model uses predictions from internal spectro-temporal representations of syllables and theta oscillations to signal syllable onsets and duration. Syllable recognition is best when theta-gamma coupling is used to temporally align spectro-temporal predictions with the acoustic input. This neurocomputational modelling work demonstrates that the notions of predictive coding and neural oscillations can be brought together to account for on-line dynamic sensory processing.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Ritmo Gama/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Compreensão/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fonética
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20439, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541465

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Previous studies indicated inconsistent results for the treatment effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on post-stroke aphasics. The study conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the rTMS with different frequencies demonstrated any effect in patients with post-stroke aphasia. METHODS: Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar) were searched for articles published before July 2019. Statistical analyses were made using STATA 12.0 software. Standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the treatment effect of rTMS on post-stroke aphasia. RESULTS: Meta-analysis indicated significant treatment effects on naming of rTMS in post-stroke aphasics (SMD 0.76, 95%CI 0.16 to 1.36, I = 76.9%, P < .001). Subgroup analyses showed significant treatment effects on naming of low frequency (LF)-rTMS (SMD 0.40, 95%CI 0.10 to 0.69, I = 0.0%, P = .671). However, the changes in repetition and comprehension following stimulation were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we provide preliminary evidence that both LF-rTMS and high-frequency-rTMS might be relatively effective and safe treatment for post-stroke aphasics. However, LF-rTMS mainly plays a short-term role in subacute post-stroke aphasics. Longer-term and large-scale studies are essential to explore the effect of rTMS with different frequencies on post-stroke aphasia.


Assuntos
Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Compreensão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 208: 103088, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497741

RESUMO

People find positive attribute frames (e.g., 75% lean) more persuasive than negative ones (e.g., 25% fat). In three pre-registered experiments, we tested whether this effect would be magnified by using verbal quantifiers instead of numerical ones (e.g., 'high % lean' vs. '75% lean'). This moderating effect of quantifier format was predicted based on previous empirical work and two non-exclusive accounts of framing effects. First, verbal quantifiers are presumed to be a more intuitive format than numerical quantifiers, so might predispose people more to judgement biases such as the framing effect. Second, verbal quantifiers draw a greater focus to the attributes they describe. This could provide a linguistic signal that the positive frame is better than the negative one. In three experiments, we manipulated the attribute frame (positive or negative) and the quantifier format (verbal or numerical) between-subjects, and quantity pairs (e.g., 5% fat and 95% lean or 25% fat and 75% lean) within-subjects. We also tested if participants focused more on the attributes in the frame, by measuring whether participants selected causal sentence completions about the beef that focused on why it had fat meat or lean meat. Results showed a robust framing effect, which was partially mediated by the focus of the sentence completions. However, the verbal format did not increase the magnitude of the framing effect. These results suggest that a focus on the attribute contributes to the framing effect, but contrary to past work, this focus is not different between verbal and numerical quantifiers.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Idioma , Cognição , Humanos
14.
J Neurosci ; 40(25): 4900-4912, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404347

RESUMO

The cognitive and neural structure of conceptual knowledge affects how concepts combine in language and thought. Examining the principles by which individual concepts (e.g., diamond, baseball) combine into more complex phrases (e.g., "baseball diamond") can illuminate not only how the brain combines concepts but also the key ingredients of conceptual structure. Here we specifically tested the role of feature uncertainty in the modulation of conceptual brightness evoked by adjective-noun combinations (e.g., "dark diamond") in male and female human subjects. We collected explicit ratings of conceptual brightness for 45 noun concepts and their "dark" and "light" combinations, resulting in a measure reflecting the degree of conceptual brightness modulation in each noun concept. Feature uncertainty was captured in an entropy measure, as well as in a predictive Bayesian model of feature modulation. We found that feature uncertainty (i.e., entropy) and the Bayesian model were both strong predictors of these behavioral effects. Using fMRI, we observed the neural responses evoked by the concepts and combinations in a priori ROIs. Feature uncertainty predicted univariate responses in left inferior frontal gyrus, and multivariate responses in left anterior temporal lobe were predicted by degree of conceptual brightness modulation. These findings suggest that feature uncertainty is a key ingredient of conceptual structure, and inform cognitive neuroscience theories of conceptual combination by highlighting the role of left inferior frontal gyrus and left anterior temporal lobe in the process of flexible feature modulation during comprehension of complex language.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The meaning of a word depends on the words surrounding it. The challenge of understanding how flexible meaning emerges in language can be simplified by studying adjective-noun phrases. We tested whether the uncertainty of a feature (i.e., brightness) in a given noun concept (e.g., diamond) influences how the adjective and noun concepts combine. We analyzed feature uncertainty using two probabilistic measures, and found that feature uncertainty predicted people's explicit interpretations of adjective-noun phrases (e.g., "dark diamond"). Using fMRI, we found that combined concepts evoked responses in left inferior frontal gyrus and left anterior temporal lobe that related to our measures of feature modulation and uncertainty. These findings reveal the cognitive and neural processes supporting conceptual combination and complex language use.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incerteza
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 13151-13161, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457158

RESUMO

Understanding object-directed actions performed by others is central to everyday life. This ability is thought to rely on the interaction between the dorsal action observation network (AON) and a ventral object recognition pathway. On this view, the AON would encode action kinematics, and the ventral pathway, the most likely intention afforded by the objects. However, experimental evidence supporting this model is still scarce. Here, we aimed to disentangle the contribution of dorsal vs. ventral pathways to action comprehension by exploiting their differential tuning to low-spatial frequencies (LSFs) and high-spatial frequencies (HSFs). We filtered naturalistic action images to contain only LSF or HSF and measured behavioral performance and corticospinal excitability (CSE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Actions were embedded in congruent or incongruent scenarios as defined by the compatibility between grips and intentions afforded by the contextual objects. Behaviorally, participants were better at discriminating congruent actions in intact than LSF images. This effect was reversed for incongruent actions, with better performance for LSF than intact and HSF. These modulations were mirrored at the neurophysiological level, with greater CSE facilitation for congruent than incongruent actions for HSF and the opposite pattern for LSF images. Finally, only for LSF did we observe CSE modulations according to grip kinematics. While results point to differential dorsal (LSF) and ventral (HSF) contributions to action comprehension for grip and context encoding, respectively, the negative congruency effect for LSF images suggests that object processing may influence action perception not only through ventral-to-dorsal connections, but also through a dorsal-to-dorsal route involved in predictive processing.


Assuntos
Núcleo Basal de Meynert/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Núcleo de Edinger-Westphal/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise Espacial , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Assess ; 32(7): 649-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271059

RESUMO

This article describes (a) the origins of, (b) rationale underlying, and (c) preliminary validity evidence for, a new ability measure of emotional understanding (EU), a major component of emotional intelligence. A novel conceptual approach-the empathic agent paradigm (EAP)-provided the theoretical foundation. The EAP results in a veridical, logically defensible scoring key, a major development for the assessment of EI, which otherwise has relied on less defensible approaches. Validity evidence for test score interpretations of the Empathic Agent Paradigm Test (EAPT) was subsequently obtained in two studies. In Study 1, participants (N = 321) completed the EAPT (α = .72 at testlet level), along with measures of classical intelligence, the Big Five personality traits, and a situational judgment measure of EU. This study provides factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity evidence for EAPT test score interpretations. In Study 2 (N = 158), an important assumption about the response processes in the EAPT was verified experimentally, in the process providing further validity evidence for test score interpretations. In sum, findings suggest that the EAPT is a promising new maximum performance measure for the assessment of EU. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Compreensão , Inteligência Emocional , Empatia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
J Neurosci ; 40(23): 4536-4550, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317387

RESUMO

Aside from the language-selective left-lateralized frontotemporal network, language comprehension sometimes recruits a domain-general bilateral frontoparietal network implicated in executive functions: the multiple demand (MD) network. However, the nature of the MD network's contributions to language comprehension remains debated. To illuminate the role of this network in language processing in humans, we conducted a large-scale fMRI investigation using data from 30 diverse word and sentence comprehension experiments (481 unique participants [female and male], 678 scanning sessions). In line with prior findings, the MD network was active during many language tasks. Moreover, similar to the language-selective network, which is robustly lateralized to the left hemisphere, these responses were stronger in the left-hemisphere MD regions. However, in contrast with the language-selective network, the MD network responded more strongly (1) to lists of unconnected words than to sentences, and (2) in paradigms with an explicit task compared with passive comprehension paradigms. Indeed, many passive comprehension tasks failed to elicit a response above the fixation baseline in the MD network, in contrast to strong responses in the language-selective network. Together, these results argue against a role for the MD network in core aspects of sentence comprehension, such as inhibiting irrelevant meanings or parses, keeping intermediate representations active in working memory, or predicting upcoming words or structures. These results align with recent evidence of relatively poor tracking of the linguistic signal by the MD regions during naturalistic comprehension, and instead suggest that the MD network's engagement during language processing reflects effort associated with extraneous task demands.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Domain-general executive processes, such as working memory and cognitive control, have long been implicated in language comprehension, including in neuroimaging studies that have reported activation in domain-general multiple demand (MD) regions for linguistic manipulations. However, much prior evidence has come from paradigms where language interpretation is accompanied by extraneous tasks. Using a large fMRI dataset (30 experiments/481 participants/678 sessions), we demonstrate that MD regions are engaged during language comprehension in the presence of task demands, but not during passive reading/listening, conditions that strongly activate the frontotemporal language network. These results present a fundamental challenge to proposals whereby linguistic computations, such as inhibiting irrelevant meanings, keeping representations active in working memory, or predicting upcoming elements, draw on domain-general executive resources.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(4): e202027, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242904

RESUMO

Importance: Children born preterm are at an elevated risk of academic underachievement. However, the extent to which performance across domain-specific subskills in reading and mathematics is associated with preterm birth remains unclear. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of academic outcomes of school-aged children born preterm, compared with children born at term, appraising evidence for higher- and lower-order subskills in reading and mathematics. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature electronic databases from January 1, 1980, to July 30, 2018, were searched for population, exposure, and outcome terms such as child (population), preterm birth (exposure), and education* (outcome). Study Selection: Peer-reviewed English-language publications that included preterm-born children and a comparison group of term-born children aged 5 to 18 years and born during or after 1980 and that reported outcomes on standardized assessments from cohort or cross-sectional studies were screened. Of the 9833 articles screened, 33 unique studies met the inclusion criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data were analyzed from August 1 to September 29, 2018. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Two reviewers independently screened the databases and extracted sample characteristics and outcomes scores. Pooled mean differences (MDs) were analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures: Performance on standardized assessment of higher-order subskills of reading comprehension and applied mathematics problems; lower-order reading subskills of decoding, pseudoword decoding, and word identification; and lower-order mathematics subskills of knowledge, calculation, and fluency. Results: Outcomes data were extracted for 4006 preterm and 3317 term-born children, totaling 7323 participants from 33 unique studies. Relative to children born at term, children born preterm scored significantly lower in reading comprehension (mean difference [MD], -7.96; 95% CI, -12.15 to -3.76; I2 = 81%) and applied mathematical problems (MD, -11.41; 95% CI, -17.57 to -5.26; I2 = 91%) assessments. Across the assessments of lower-order skills, children born preterm scored significantly lower than their term-born peers in calculation (MD, -10.57; 95% CI, -15.62 to -5.52; I2 = 92%), decoding (MD, -10.18; 95% CI, -16.83 to -3.53; I2 = 71%), mathematical knowledge (MD, -9.88; 95% CI, -11.68 to -8.08; I2 = 62%), word identification (MD, -7.44; 95% CI, -9.08 to -5.80; I2 = 69%), and mathematical fluency (MD, -6.89; 95% CI, -13.54 to -0.23; I2 = 72%). The associations remained unchanged after sensitivity analyses for reducing heterogeneity. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide evidence that preterm birth is associated with academic underperformance in aggregate measures of reading and mathematics, as well as a variety of related subskills.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Pré-Escolar/educação , Matemática/educação , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Compreensão/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Nascimento Prematuro/psicologia , Leitura
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271773

RESUMO

Although the connection between the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and the left superior temporal gyrus (LSTG) has been found to be essential for the comprehension of relative clause (RC) sentences, it remains unclear how the LIFG and the LSTG interact with each other, especially during the processing of Chinese RC sentences with different processing difficulty. This study thus conducted a 2 × 2 (modifying position × extraction position) factorial analyses to examine how these two factors influences regional brain activation. The results showed that, regardless of the modifying position, greater activation in the LIFG was consistently elicited in Chinese subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) with non-canonical word order than object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs) with canonical word order, implying that the LIFG subserving the ordering process primarily contributes to the processing of information with increased integration demands due to the non-canonical sequence. Moreover, the directional connection between the LIFG and the LSTG appeared to be modulated by different modifying positions. When the RC was at the subject-modifying position, the effective connectivity from the LIFG to the LSTG was dominantly activated for sentence comprehension; whereas when the RC was at the object-modifying position thus being more difficult, it might be the feedback mechanism from the LSTG back to the LIFG that took place in sentence processing. These findings reveal that brain activation in between the LIFG and the LSTG may be dynamically modulated by different processing difficulty and suggest the relative specialization but extensive collaboration involved in the LIFG and the LSTG for sentence comprehension.


Assuntos
Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/anatomia & histologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Neurosci ; 40(14): 2914-2924, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111697

RESUMO

The meaning of a sentence can be understood, whether presented in written or spoken form. Therefore, it is highly probable that brain processes supporting language comprehension are at least partly independent of sensory modality. To identify where and when in the brain language processing is independent of sensory modality, we directly compared neuromagnetic brain signals of 200 human subjects (102 males) either reading or listening to sentences. We used multiset canonical correlation analysis to align individual subject data in a way that boosts those aspects of the signal that are common to all, allowing us to capture word-by-word signal variations, consistent across subjects and at a fine temporal scale. Quantifying this consistency in activation across both reading and listening tasks revealed a mostly left-hemispheric cortical network. Areas showing consistent activity patterns included not only areas previously implicated in higher-level language processing, such as left prefrontal, superior and middle temporal areas, and anterior temporal lobe, but also parts of the control network as well as subcentral and more posterior temporal-parietal areas. Activity in this supramodal sentence-processing network starts in temporal areas and rapidly spreads to the other regions involved. The findings indicate not only the involvement of a large network of brain areas in supramodal language processing but also that the linguistic information contained in the unfolding sentences modulates brain activity in a word-specific manner across subjects.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The brain can extract meaning from written and spoken messages alike. This requires activity of both brain circuits capable of processing sensory modality-specific aspects of the input signals as well as coordinated brain activity to extract modality-independent meaning from the input. Using traditional methods, it is difficult to disentangle modality-specific activation from modality-independent activation. In this work, we developed and applied a multivariate methodology that allows for a direct quantification of sensory modality-independent brain activity, revealing fast activation of a wide network of brain areas, both including and extending beyond the core network for language.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Idioma , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
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