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1.
Naturwissenschaften ; 107(2): 11, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072268

RESUMO

Acoustic communication plays an important role in the life of insects and especially in representatives of the order Orthoptera. Their vibrational signalling, unlike signalling by sound, is poorly studied. The pygmy grasshoppers Tetrix tenuicornis (Sahlberg, 1891) belonging to the ancestral family Tetrigidae (Orthoptera) can produce several types of substrate-borne vibratory signals using their mid-legs. The emission of these signals is not accompanied by visible movements of any parts of the body. The goal of our study was to elucidate the mechanism of production of these vibrations. For this, we synchronously recorded the vibratory signals and the muscle activity in various regions of the legs and thorax in freely moving males. The obtained results revealed an unusual mechanism for the emission of acoustic signals. We found that the strongest muscle activity during the emission of the vibratory signals was recorded in the mesofemur and mesotibia. According to the position of the electrode, these muscles are the flexor and extensor of the tibia, levators and depressors of the tarsus, and probably pretarsus. The motor system employed during the emission of vibratory signals was most similar to that of the jump of locusts and probably is performed as a result of co-contraction of antagonistic muscles of the tibia, tarsus, and pretarsus. The data obtained make significant additions to the presentation of a variety of insect acoustic communication systems.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Vibração , Animais , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097434

RESUMO

Animals are faced with a range of ecological constraints that shape their behavioural decisions. Habitat features that affect resource abundance will also have an impact, especially as regards spatial distribution, which will in turn affect associations between the animals. Here we utilised a network approach, using spatial and genetic data, to describe patterns in use of space (foraging sites) by free-ranging Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the Dakhla Oasis in Egypt. We observed a decrease in home range size during spring, when food availability was lowest, which was reflected by differences in space sharing networks. Our data showed that when food was abundant, space sharing networks were less connected and more related individuals shared more foraging sites. In comparison, when food was scarce the bats had few possibilities to decide where and with whom to forage. Overall, both networks had high mean degree, suggesting communal knowledge of predictable food distribution.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Egito , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disseminação de Informação , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049993

RESUMO

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are valued for the pollination services that they provide. However, colony mortality has increased to unsustainable levels in some countries, including the United States. Landscape conversion to monocrop agriculture likely plays a role in this increased mortality by decreasing the food sources available to honey bees. Many land owners and organizations in the Upper Midwest region of the United States would like to restore/reconstruct native prairie habitats. With increasing public awareness of high bee mortality, many landowners and beekeepers have wondered whether these restored prairies could significantly improve honey bee colony nutrition. Conveniently, honey bees have a unique communication signal called a waggle dance, which indicates the locations of the flower patches that foragers perceive as highly profitable food sources. We used these communication signals to answer two main questions: First, is there any part of the season in which the foraging force of a honey bee colony will devote a large proportion of its recruitment efforts (waggle dances) to flower patches within prairies? Second, will honey bee foragers advertise specific taxa of native prairie flowers as profitable pollen sources? We decoded 1528 waggle dances in colonies located near two large, reconstructed prairies. We also collected pollen loads from a subset of waggle-dancing bees, which we then analyzed to determine the flower taxon advertised. Most dances advertised flower patches outside of reconstructed prairies, but the proportion of dances advertising nectar sources within prairies increased significantly in the late summer/fall at one site. Honey bees advertised seven native prairie taxa as profitable pollen sources, although the three most commonly advertised pollen taxa were non-native. Our results suggest that including certain native prairie flower taxa in reconstructed prairies may increase the chances that colonies will use those prairies as major food sources during the period of greatest colony growth and honey production.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Abelhas , Pradaria , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 625, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005817

RESUMO

The honeybee (Apis mellifera) dance communication system is a marvel of collective behaviour, but the added value it brings to colony foraging efficiency is poorly understood. In temperate environments, preventing communication of foraging locations rarely decreases colony food intake, potentially because simultaneous transmission of olfactory information also plays a major role in foraging. Here, we employ social network analyses that quantify information flow across multiple temporally varying networks (each representing a different interaction type) to evaluate the relative contributions of dance communication and hive-based olfactory information transfer to honeybee recruitment events. We show that virtually all successful recruits to novel locations rely upon dance information rather than olfactory cues that could otherwise guide them to the same resource. Conversely, during reactivation to known sites, dances are relatively less important, as foragers are primarily guided by olfactory information. By disentangling the contributions of multiple information networks, the contexts in which dance communication truly matters amid a complex system full of redundancy can now be identified.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Predomínio Social , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Olfato
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(3): 411-422, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066980

RESUMO

Communication plays an integral role in human social dynamics and is impaired in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Mice are used to study the neurobiology of social behavior; however, the extent to which mouse vocalizations influence social dynamics has remained elusive because it is difficult to identify the vocalizing animal among mice involved in a group interaction. By tracking the ultrasonic vocal behavior of individual mice and using an algorithm developed to group phonically similar signals, we showed that distinct patterns of vocalization emerge as male mice perform specific social actions. Mice dominating other mice were more likely to emit different vocal signals than mice avoiding social interactions. Furthermore, we showed that the patterns of vocal expression influence the behavior of the socially engaged partner but do not influence the behavior of other animals in the cage. These findings clarify the function of mouse communication by revealing a communicative ultrasonic signaling repertoire.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Comportamento Social , Ultrassom , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Agressão , Algoritmos , Animais , Feminino , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Camundongos , Predomínio Social , Localização de Som
6.
Naturwissenschaften ; 107(1): 9, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950367

RESUMO

Understanding the evolutionary origins of communication signals requires careful study of multiple species within a known phylogenetic framework. Most cricket species produce low-frequency calls for mate attraction, whereas they startle to high-frequency sounds similar to bat echolocation. Male crickets in the tribe Lebinthini produce high-frequency calls, to which females reply with vibrational signals. This novel communication system likely evolved by male sensory exploitation of acoustic startle to high-frequency sounds in females. This behavior was previously described for the Lebinthini from Asia. Here we demonstrate that this novel communication system is found in a Neotropical species, Ponca hebardi, and is therefore likely shared by the whole tribe Lebinthini, dating the origin of this behavior to coincide with the origin of echolocation in bats. Furthermore, we document male duets involving both acoustic and vibratory signals not previously described in crickets, and we tentatively interpret it as competitive masking between males.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Gryllidae/classificação , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Animais , Ecolocação , Masculino , Filogenia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 526, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988279

RESUMO

Animal alarm calls can contain detailed information about a predator's threat, and heterospecific eavesdropping on these signals creates vast communication networks. While eavesdropping is common, this indirect public information is often less reliable than direct predator observations. Red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) eavesdrop on chickadee mobbing calls and vary their behaviour depending on the threat encoded in those calls. Whether nuthatches propagate this indirect information in their own calls remains unknown. Here we test whether nuthatches propagate direct (high and low threat raptor vocalizations) or indirect (high and low threat chickadee mobbing calls) information about predators differently. When receiving direct information, nuthatches vary their mobbing calls to reflect the predator's threat. However, when nuthatches obtain indirect information, they produce calls with intermediate acoustic features, suggesting a more generic alarm signal. This suggests nuthatches are sensitive to the source and reliability of information and selectively propagate information in their own mobbing calls.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Predatório
8.
Insect Sci ; 27(2): 349-360, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390389

RESUMO

Animals use diverse sensory stimuli to navigate their environment and to recognize rewarding food sources. Honey bees use visual attributes of the targeted food source, such as its color, shape, size, direction and distance from the hive, and the landmarks around it to navigate during foraging. They transmit the location information of the food source to other bees if it is highly rewarding. To investigate the relative importance of these attributes, we trained bees to feeders in two different experiments. In the first experiment, we asked whether bees prefer to land on (a) a similar feeder at a different distance on the same heading or on (b) a visually distinct feeder located at the exact same location. We found that, within a short foraging range, bees relied heavily on the color and the shape of the food source and to a lesser extent on its distance from the hive. In the second experiment, we asked if moving the main landmark or the feeder (visual target) influenced recruitment dancing for the feeder. We found that foragers took longer to land and danced fewer circuits when the location of the food source, or a major landmark associated with it, changed. These results demonstrate that prominent visual attributes of food sources and landmarks are evidently more reliable than distance information and that foraging bees heavily utilize these visual cues at the later stages of their journey.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Abelhas , Percepção Visual , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo , Sinais (Psicologia)
9.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226136, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851714

RESUMO

Melanism in the cat family has been associated with functions including camouflage, thermoregulation and parasite resistance. Here we investigate a new hypothesis proposing that the evolution of melanism in cats has additionally been influenced by communication functions of body markings. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assembled a species-level data set of morphological (body marks: white marks on the backs of ears) and ecological (circadian activity: arrhythmic/nocturnal, and environmental preference: open/closed) characteristics that could be associated with communication via body markings, and combined these data with a dated molecular phylogeny. Next, we tested the association between melanism and communication, first by relating species' body marks with their ecological conditions, using a Bayesian implementation of the threshold model. Second, to explore the evolution of characteristics potentially influencing melanism in cat species, we modeled their evolution relative to melanism using models of coordinated vs. independent character changes. Our results suggest that white marks are associated with intraspecific communication between individuals that have non-melanistic phenotypes, as well as towards melanistic individuals (without white marks). The absence of white marks in a melanistic individual tends to be a limiting condition for intraspecific visual communication at night, resulting in an evolutionary dilemma for these species, i.e. to be almost invisible at night, but not to communicate visually. The comparative analysis of several evolutionary models indicated more support for the evolution of melanism being coordinated with the evolution of arrhythmic activity and white marks on the backs of ears.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Felidae , Cor de Cabelo , Melaninas , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Gatos , Modelos Biológicos
10.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(10): 823-837, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701385

RESUMO

European badgers, Meles meles, are group-living in the UK, and demarcate their ranges with shared latrines. As carnivores, badgers possess paired anal glands, but olfactory information on the content of badger anal gland secretion (AGS) is largely uninvestigated. Here, we examined the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of AGS samples from 57 free-living badgers using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. AGS was rich in alkanes (C7-C15, 14.3% of identified compounds), aldehydes (C5-C14, 9.7%), phenols (C6-C15, 9.5%), alcohols (C5-C10, 7.3%), aromatic hydrocarbons (C6-C13, 6.8%), ketones (C6-C13, 6.3%) and carboxylic acids (C3-C12, 5.6%) and contained a variety of esters, sulfurous and nitrogenous compounds, and ethers. The number of VOCs per profile ranged from 20 to 111 (mean = 65.4; ± 22.7 SD), but no compound was unique for any of the biological categories. After normalization of the raw data using Probabilistic Quotient Normalization, we produced a resemblance matrix by calculating the Euclidian distances between all sample pairs. PERMANOVA revealed that AGS composition differs between social groups, and concentration and complexity in terms of number of measurable VOCs varies between seasons and years. AGS VOC profiles encode individual identity, sex and vary with female reproductive state, indicating an important function in intraspecific communication. Because AGS is excreted together with fecal deposits, we conclude that chemical complexity of AGS enables particularly latrine-using species, such as badgers, to advertise more complex individual-specific information than in feces alone.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/química , Mustelidae/fisiologia , Feromônios/química , Alcanos/química , Alcanos/isolamento & purificação , Alcanos/farmacologia , Canal Anal/metabolismo , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Feromônios/farmacologia , Estações do Ano , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
11.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(5): 236-248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609040

RESUMO

Like catarrhines, some platyrrhines show exposed and reddish skin, raising the possibility that reddish signals have evolved convergently. This variation in skin exposure and color combined with sex-linked polymorphic color vision in platyrrhines presents a unique, and yet underexplored, opportunity to investigate the relative importance of chromatic versus achromatic signals, the influence of color perception on signal evolution, and to understand primate communication broadly. By coding the facial skin exposure and color of 96 platyrrhines, 28 catarrhines, 7 strepsirrhines, 1 tarsiiform, and 13 nonprimates, and by simulating the ancestral character states for these traits, we provide the first analysis of the distribution and evolution of facial skin exposure and color in platyrrhini. We highlight ways in which studying the presence and use of color signals by platyrrhines and other primates will enhance our understanding of the evolution of color signals, and the forces shaping color vision.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Primatas/fisiologia , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Animais , Antropologia Física , Face/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 55, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612286

RESUMO

Sexual signals serve as an honest indicator of individual quality, reflecting either developmental and/or maintenance costs. A possible underlying physiological mechanism is oxidative stress, which could mediate energy trade-offs between sexual signals and other quality traits. In ectotherms, thermal performance acts as a key indicator of individual quality and influence signal intensity. We investigated how oxidative state is reflected in visual signals of lizards from different thermal habitats. According to our hypothesis, efficient thermoregulation requires different strategies in different thermal environments. In a habitat with predictable temperature changes, animals are less exposed to suboptimal temperature ranges and selection will, therefore, be stronger on the maximum oxidative damage at optimal body temperature. Contrarily, in a habitat with rather stochastic thermal shifts, individuals are often constricted by suboptimal thermal conditions, and oxidative damage can be limiting on a wide temperature range. We used Iberolacerta cyreni and Psammodromus algirus inhabiting stochastic and predictable thermal environments respectively. We examined two aspects of oxidative stress: the level of reactive oxygen metabolites at the preferred temperature (maximal ROM) and the temperature range in which animals produce at least 80% of the maximum level of reactive oxygen metabolites (effective ROM range). In I. cyreni, we found that duller coloration was related to a wider effective ROM range, while expression of coloration in P. algirus was negatively correlated with the maximal ROM. Our results suggest that different thermal constraints affect different aspects of oxidative damage which can indicate individual quality and are, therefore, represented in sexual ornaments.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Lagartos/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Caracteres Sexuais , Temperatura
13.
Primates ; 60(6): 499-505, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650280

RESUMO

We provide a preliminary case study in red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer) to illustrate a multimodal approach to understanding communication strategies within a species with obligate pair-bonds. From June to August 2012, we observed and analyzed signaling behaviors across three established red-bellied lemur pairs at Duke Lemur Center (Durham, NC, USA). Our aim was to assess how individuals combine signal modalities to communicate with pair-mates, and to determine whether these strategies vary by time of day, sex, or pair. We analyzed rates of occurrence of touch (allogrooming, mutual grooming, physical contact, and huddling), scent (scent marking and allomarking), and sound (close-distance contact calls) using Wilcoxon rank sum and exact binomial tests. Time of day impacted rates of occurrence across signal modalities, with higher rates of combined signaling within each modality occurring earlier in the day (p < 0.03). Across time periods, all pairs used auditory signals most frequently, followed by olfactory signals, and finally tactile and tactile-olfactory signals (p < 0.01, all comparisons). In fact, auditory signals frequently overlapped the olfactory signaling modality, and travel rarely occurred without accompanying vocalizations. However, red-bellied lemurs spent the highest percentage of their observed time in tactile signaling bouts (on average, 19.5% of total observed time across pairs). Males and females participated equally in most signaling behaviors (p > 0.1), with the exception of scent marking, which males used more frequently (p < 0.01). The results of this study will aid in developing methods and hypotheses to determine how wild red-bellied lemurs communicate to form, maintain, and advertise their pair-bonds.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Lemuridae/psicologia , Ligação do Par , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Biol Lett ; 15(10): 20190513, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662064

RESUMO

Although the effects of anthropogenic noise on animal communication have been studied widely, most research on the effect of noise in communication has focused on signals in a single modality. Consequently, how multi-modal communication is affected by anthropogenic noise is relatively poorly understood. Here, we ask whether song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) show evidence of plasticity in response to noise in two aggressive signals in acoustic and visual modalities. We test two hypotheses: (i) that song sparrows will shift signalling effort to the visual modality (the multi-modal shift hypothesis) and (ii) that they will increase redundancy of their multi-modal signalling (the back-up signal hypothesis). We presented male song sparrows with song playback and a taxidermic mount with or without a low-frequency acoustic noise from a nearby speaker. We found that males did not switch their signalling effort to visual modality (i.e. wing waves) in response to the noise. However, the correlation between warbled soft songs and wing waves increased in the noise treatment, i.e. signals became more redundant. These results suggest that when faced with anthropogenic noise, song sparrows can increase the redundancy of their multi-modal signals, which may aid in the robustness of the communication system.


Assuntos
Pardais , Acústica , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Masculino , Ruído , Vocalização Animal
15.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 115: 103244, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560967

RESUMO

Three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) can typically be found in the sensilla lymph of noctuid moth antennae, but their relative contributions in perception of the sex pheromone is rarely verified in vivo. Previously, we demonstrated that SlitPBP3 plays a minor role in the sex pheromone detection in Spodoptera litura using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In the present study, the roles of two other SlitPBPs (SlitPBP1 and SlitPBP2) are further verified using the same system. First, by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA/sgRNA into newly laid eggs, a high rate of target mutagenesis was induced, 51.5% for SlitPBP1 and 46.8% for SlitPBP2 as determined by restriction enzyme assay. Then, the homozygous SlitPBP1 and SlitPBP2 knockout lines were obtained by cross-breeding. Finally, using homozygous knockout male moths, we performed electrophysiological (EAG recording) and behavioral analyses. Results showed that knockout of either SlitPBP1 or SlitPBP2 in males decreased EAG response to each of the 3 sex pheromone components (Z9,E11-14:Ac, Z9,E12-14:Ac and Z9-14:Ac) by 53%, 60% and 63% (for SlitPBP1 knockout) and 40%, 43% and 46% (for SlitPBP2 knockout), respectively. These decreases in EAG responses were similar among 3 pheromone components, but were more pronounced in SlitPBP1 knockout males than in SlitPBP2 knockout males. Consistently, behavioral assays with the major component (Z9,E11-14:Ac) showed that SlitPBP1 knockout males responded in much lower percentages than SlitPBP2 knockout males in terms of orientation to the pheromone, along with reduction in close range behaviors such as hairpencil display and mating attempt. Taken together, this study provides direct functional evidence for the roles of SlitPBP1 and SlitPBP2, as well as their relative importance (SlitPBP1 > SlitPBP2) in the sex pheromone perception. This information is valuable in understanding mechanisms of sex pheromone perception and may facilitate the development of PBP-targeted pest control techniques.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Feminino , Masculino , Mutação , Atrativos Sexuais
16.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103956, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493494

RESUMO

Nonhuman primate gestures are believed to be crucial evolutionary precursors of human language. Comparative studies on primate gestures in an evolutionary framework have, however, remained largely restricted to the great apes and the potential flexibility and richness of gestural communication in monkeys, especially in the wild, continue to be virtually unknown. In this paper, we followed several criteria, adapted from ape gesture studies, to identify gestures and evaluate their contexts of usage in the repertoire of wild bonnet macaques Macaca radiata in the Bandipur National Park of southern India. This report is the first of its kind to systematically identify gestures in any wild, non-ape species, thus providing a platform for comparative studies across primate taxa, particularly in our efforts to trace out the phylogenetic origins of language-like markers in the primate lineage, earlier than in the great apes.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Gestos , Macaca radiata/psicologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Índia , Masculino , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4231, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530801

RESUMO

Acoustic communication allows the exchange of information within specific contexts and during specific behaviors. The blind, cave-adapted and the sighted, river-dwelling morphs of the species Astyanax mexicanus have evolved in markedly different environments. During their evolution in darkness, cavefish underwent a series of morphological, physiological and behavioral changes, allowing the study of adaptation to drastic environmental change. Here we discover that Astyanax is a sonic species, in the laboratory and in the wild, with sound production depending on the social contexts and the type of morph. We characterize one sound, the "Sharp Click", as a visually-triggered sound produced by dominant surface fish during agonistic behaviors and as a chemosensory-, food odor-triggered sound produced by cavefish during foraging. Sharp Clicks also elicit different reactions in the two morphs in play-back experiments. Our results demonstrate that acoustic communication does exist and has evolved in cavefish, accompanying the evolution of its behaviors.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Characidae/fisiologia , Acústica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Cavernas , Characidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino
18.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(5): 273-278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416062

RESUMO

Auditory, visual and olfactory cues play varying roles in non-human primate communication, and these systems have been intensively studied over the last several decades. The use of vocalisations as a primary mode of communication has been the focus of much research, especially in attempts to understand the origins of human language, with a major focus on anthropoid primates and diurnal lemurs. Over the last decade, technological advances have allowed researchers to begin to conduct in-depth investigations into the communication systems exhibited by the nocturnal and cathemeral prosimian primates, including tarsiers, lemurs and lorises. Understanding how nocturnal prosimians use visual, olfactory and auditory cues is vital for reconstructing the origins of primate communication systems. In this special issue, we highlight some of the more exciting advances in the communication strategies of the prosimians. Contributions come from work conducted in Kenya, Tanzania, Senegal, Rwanda, Madagascar and the Indonesian islands of Java and Sulawesi. Topics will include: the description of novel ultrasonic vocalisations, including frequency and function of these newly discovered calls; the possible use of vocalisations to navigate and assemble at sleep sites; the importance of species-specific contact vocalisations for the identification of new species; the use of urinary and glandular signals to communicate and the methods developed to understand this complex communication in the field; the use of vocalisations for niche separation among nocturnal primates from mainland Africa and Madagascar; and whether or not we can use new technologies to discern whether prosimians use vocalisations for individual identification of group members. We discuss the importance of new field methods including novel equipment and techniques, the use of vocalisation to influence conservation practices and the importance of comparing across prosimian taxa to reconstruct the communication systems of our early primate ancestors.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Audição , Olfato , Strepsirhini/fisiologia , Visão Ocular , África , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Indonésia , Percepção Olfatória , Percepção Visual
19.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(5): 422-438, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416063

RESUMO

Scent marking is a well-established, but highly variable, mode of communication among strepsirrhine primates. We begin by reviewing this literature, focusing on nocturnal species. Our understanding about the information content of scent signals and the factors driving species diversity remains incomplete, owing to difficulties in acquiring comparative chemical data. We therefore re-examine such a data set, representing the richness and relative abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the urine of 12 species (from Galagidae, Lorisidae, Daubentoniidae, Cheirogaleidae, Indriidae, and Lemuridae), to explore differences between nocturnal, diurnal and cathemeral species. As predicted by the variable importance of urine marking across species, the urine of nocturnal strepsirrhines contained the most VOCs and putative semiochemicals, differed significantly in composition from that of diurnal and cathemeral species and showed the strongest species scent "signatures." Relevant to retracing the evolutionary trajectory of cathemeral strepsirrhines, nocturnal and diurnal species were most differentiated in their VOCs, with cathemeral species being intermediary, but more closely aligned with diurnal species. These data support cathemerality as an ancient expansion of diurnal animals into a nocturnal niche. Consideration of the traits and variables associated with olfactory communication offers a profitable new way for examining species diversity and patterns of evolutionary change.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Strepsirhini/fisiologia , Urina/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Masculino , Odorantes/análise , Olfato , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(5): 404-421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416071

RESUMO

Crypsis, including visual and auditory concealment, usually manifests in primates as an antipredator strategy. Other factors may also influence cryptic communication style, including habitat structure and phylogenetic history. Compared to less cryptic lowland Sulawesian tarsiers, montane pygmy tarsiers (Tarsius pumilus) exhibit a communication style that lacks scent marks and lower-frequency vocalisations. This study examines why auditory crypsis occurs in montane tarsiers more so than in larger tarsier species and presents the only known spectrograms of T. pumilus in the field. T. pumilus regularly exhibited calls with a dominant frequency of 60-80 kHz (n = 4) in both social situations (duet calls) and stressed contexts. These results indicate that highland, smaller-bodied tarsiers habitually communicate at high frequencies in contexts where Sulawesian and Philippine tarsiers use lower frequencies. While predation threats and habitat acoustics may influence the use of high-frequency vocalisations, this study found that T. pumilus shows an expected relationship between vocal frequency and body mass. These traits may represent a retention of primitive haplorhine traits rather than derived adaptations to a montane environment.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Ecossistema , Tarsiidae/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Feminino , Indonésia , Masculino , Espectrografia do Som/veterinária
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