Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.175
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1110, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597518

RESUMO

In complex societies, individuals' roles are reflected by interactions with other conspecifics. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) generally change tasks as they age, but developmental trajectories of individuals can vary drastically due to physiological and environmental factors. We introduce a succinct descriptor of an individual's social network that can be obtained without interfering with the colony. This 'network age' accurately predicts task allocation, survival, activity patterns, and future behavior. We analyze developmental trajectories of multiple cohorts of individuals in a natural setting and identify distinct developmental pathways and critical life changes. Our findings suggest a high stability in task allocation on an individual level. We show that our method is versatile and can extract different properties from social networks, opening up a broad range of future studies. Our approach highlights the relationship of social interactions and individual traits, and provides a scalable technique for understanding how complex social systems function.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Biol Lett ; 17(2): 20200733, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529546

RESUMO

The diversity of signalling traits within and across taxa is vast and striking, prompting us to consider how novelty evolves in the context of animal communication. Sexual selection contributes to diversification, and here we endeavour to understand the initial conditions that facilitate the maintenance or elimination of new sexual signals and receiver features. New sender and receiver variants can occur through mutation, plasticity, hybridization and cultural innovation, and the initial conditions of the sender, the receiver and the environment then dictate whether a novel cue becomes a signal. New features may arise in the sender, the receiver or both simultaneously. We contend that it may be easier than assumed to evolve new sexual signals because sexual signals may be arbitrary, sexual conflict is common and receivers are capable of perceiving much more of the world than just existing sexual signals. Additionally, changes in the signalling environment can approximate both signal and receiver changes through a change in transmission characteristics of a given environment or the use of new environments. The Anthropocene has led to wide-scale disruption of the environment and may thus generate opportunity to directly observe the evolution of new signals to address questions that are beyond the reach of phylogenetic approaches.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Animais , Comunicação , Fenótipo , Filogenia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 968, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579910

RESUMO

How can deceptive communication signals exist in an evolutionarily stable signalling system? To resolve this age-old honest signalling paradox, researchers must first establish whether deception benefits deceivers. However, while vocal exaggeration is widespread in the animal kingdom and assumably adaptive, its effectiveness in biasing listeners has not been established. Here, we show that human listeners can detect deceptive vocal signals produced by vocalisers who volitionally shift their voice frequencies to exaggerate or attenuate their perceived size. Listeners can also judge the relative heights of cheaters, whose deceptive signals retain reliable acoustic cues to interindividual height. Importantly, although vocal deception biases listeners' absolute height judgments, listeners recalibrate their height assessments for vocalisers they correctly and concurrently identify as deceptive, particularly men judging men. Thus, while size exaggeration can fool listeners, benefiting the deceiver, its detection can reduce bias and mitigate costs for listeners, underscoring an unremitting arms-race between signallers and receivers in animal communication.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Decepção , Voz/fisiologia , Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Evolução Biológica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 66: 45-60, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417824

RESUMO

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) consist of complex mixtures of straight-chain alkanes and alkenes, and methyl-branched hydrocarbons. In addition to restricting water loss through the cuticle and preventing desiccation, they have secondarily evolved to serve a variety of functions in chemical communication and play critical roles as signals mediating the life histories of insects. In this review, we describe the physical properties of CHCs that allow for both waterproofing and signaling functions, summarize their roles as inter- and intraspecific chemical signals, and discuss the influences of diet and environment on CHC profiles. We also present advances in our understanding of hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Hydrocarbons are biosynthesized in oenocytes and transported to the cuticle by lipophorin proteins. Recent work on the synthesis of fatty acids and their ultimate reductive decarbonylation to hydrocarbons has taken advantage of powerful new tools of molecular biology, including genomics and RNA interference knockdown of specific genes, to provide new insights into the biosynthesis of hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Insetos/química , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Insetos/fisiologia
5.
J Chem Ecol ; 47(1): 63-72, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392896

RESUMO

Much of our knowledge regarding the role of chemicals in species recognition in arthropods is based on a few taxonomic groups, predominantly insect pest species. To investigate the chemical underpinnings of species recognition cues in other arthropods, we conducted mate choice experiments and analyzed the chemical profiles of two species in the long-jawed spider genus Tetragnatha from allopatric populations across two different continents. In two separate bioassays, in which male T. extensa spiders were presented with either web silk or extracts from the silk of conspecific and heterospecific females, males consistently chose the silk or silk extract of conspecific females over those of heterospecifics. We examined the chemistry affecting this response using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to analyze silk and whole-body extracts of the spiders. The major compounds in the extracts were identified as long chain aliphatic methyl ethers. The chemical profiles of the two species differed: the T. extensa profile consisted of 12,20-dimethylnonacosyl methyl ether (A), 8,14,20-trimethylnonacosyl methyl ether (B), and 6,14,20-trimethylnonacosyl methyl ether (C), while the profile of T. versicolor consisted of B and 14,20-dimethylnonacosyl methyl ether (D). Within each species, chemical profiles of females and males did not differ. Our results suggest that these methyl ethers are involved in species recognition of Tetragnatha spiders. This is the first study to propose compounds involved in species recognition in spiders.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal/fisiologia , Éteres Metílicos/análise , Seda/química , Aranhas/química , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Éteres Metílicos/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Aranhas/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465075

RESUMO

Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) analysis is a well-recognized tool to investigate animal communication. It can be used for behavioral phenotyping of murine models of different disorders. The USVs are usually recorded with a microphone sensitive to ultrasound frequencies and they are analyzed by specific software. Different calls typologies exist, and each ultrasonic call can be manually classified, but the qualitative analysis is highly time-consuming. Considering this framework, in this work we proposed and evaluated a set of supervised learning methods for automatic USVs classification. This could represent a sustainable procedure to deeply analyze the ultrasonic communication, other than a standardized analysis. We used manually built datasets obtained by segmenting the USVs audio tracks analyzed with the Avisoft software, and then by labelling each of them into 10 representative classes. For the automatic classification task, we designed a Convolutional Neural Network that was trained receiving as input the spectrogram images associated to the segmented audio files. In addition, we also tested some other supervised learning algorithms, such as Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Multilayer Perceptrons, exploiting informative numerical features extracted from the spectrograms. The performance showed how considering the whole time/frequency information of the spectrogram leads to significantly higher performance than considering a subset of numerical features. In the authors' opinion, the experimental results may represent a valuable benchmark for future work in this research field.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Camundongos/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Ultrassom
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22328, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339880

RESUMO

In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, flying occurs soon after the last imaginal molt and precedes the mating behavior in natural conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flying may improve subsequent behavioral performance in a novel environment in female crickets. We developed a behavioral set-up to test female cricket responsiveness to male calling song as well as their ability to locate and find the source of the song. The male song was produced by a loudspeaker hidden behind the fabric wall of a spacious square arena. Forced flight prior to the test promoted female sexual searching behavior in the novel environment. After the flight, more females reached the hidden source zone, spent more time near the source and finally more of them climbed over the wall section immediately in front of the hidden loudspeaker. At the same time, their behavior in the arena did not differ from the control group when the calling song was not delivered, suggesting that flight exerts its behavioral effects by influencing sexual motivation. Our results support the suggestion that preceding intense locomotion facilitates sexual searching behavior of females in a novel environment.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382718

RESUMO

Hormonal changes such as increased cortisol level in blood plasma in response to stress and social environmental stimuli are common among vertebrates including humans and typically accompanied by other physiological processes, such as changes in body pigmentation and/or pupil dilatation. The role of pupil size variation (PSV) as a response to stress have yet to be investigated in fish. We exposed albino and pigmented European catfish to short-term stress and measured changes in pupil size and cortisol level. Albinos showed lower pupil dilatation and higher cortisol levels than did pigmented conspecifics. A clear positive relationship between pupil dilatation and cortisol concentrations was observed for both pigmented and albino specimens, suggesting that PSV can be used as a stress indicator in fish, irrespective of albino's inability to express social communication by coloring. During the follow-up, we investigated whether a penultimate contest between albino individuals would impact contestants' social stress during subsequent contact. We observed PSV during the contact of unfamiliar albino catfish with different penultimate experiences (winner (W) and/or loser (L)). Then, the following treatment combinations were tested: WW, WL and LL. Twenty-four-hour contact of two unfamiliar catfish resulted in higher pupil dilatation among individuals with previous winner experience. Among treatment combinations, a WL contest displayed the highest pupil dilatation for winners. PSV reflected socially induced stress in individuals that was accompanied by the "winner" experience and dominancy in albinos. To conclude, the present study validates pupil dilatation as a non-invasive method to evaluate stress level in pigmented as well as albino fish in various contexts.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Pigmentação da Pele , Estresse Psicológico/sangue
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4970, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009414

RESUMO

Communicating species identity is a key component of many animal signals. However, whether selection for species recognition systematically increases signal diversity during clade radiation remains debated. Here we show that in woodpecker drumming, a rhythmic signal used during mating and territorial defense, the amount of species identity information encoded remained stable during woodpeckers' radiation. Acoustic analyses and evolutionary reconstructions show interchange among six main drumming types despite strong phylogenetic contingencies, suggesting evolutionary tinkering of drumming structure within a constrained acoustic space. Playback experiments and quantification of species discriminability demonstrate sufficient signal differentiation to support species recognition in local communities. Finally, we only find character displacement in the rare cases where sympatric species are also closely related. Overall, our results illustrate how historical contingencies and ecological interactions can promote conservatism in signals during a clade radiation without impairing the effectiveness of information transfer relevant to inter-specific discrimination.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Evolução Biológica , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Ecossistema , Teoria da Informação , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Simpatria
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201278, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933444

RESUMO

Mate choice involves processing signals that can reach high levels of complexity and feature multiple components, even in small animals with tiny brains. This raises the question of whether and how such organisms deal with this complexity. One solution involves combinatorial processing, whereby different signal elements are processed as single units. Combinatorial processing has been described in several mammals and birds, and recently in a vibrationally signalling insect, Enchenopa treehoppers. Here, we ask about the relationship between combinatorial rules and mate preferences for continuously varying signal features. Enchenopa male advertisement signals are composed of two elements: a 'whine' followed by a set of pulses. The dominant frequency of the whine and element combination both matter to females. We presented synthetic signals varying in element order (natural [whine-pulses], reverse [pulses-whine]) and in frequency to Enchenopa females and recorded their responses. The reverse combination resulted in a decrease in attractiveness of the signals, and also slightly changed the shape of the preference for frequency. We found that females could be classified into three 'types': females with both a strong preference and a strong combinatorial rule, females with both a weak preference and weak rule, and females with a strong preference but a weak rule. Our results suggest that in Enchenopa signal processing, the mate preference for a continuous signal feature 'takes precedence' over, but also interacts with, the combinatorial rule. The relationship between the preference and the rule could evolve to take different forms according to selection on mate choice decisions. We suggest that exploring the relationship between such preferences and rules in species with more complex signals will bring insight into the evolution of the multi-component communication systems.


Assuntos
Insetos , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal
11.
Learn Behav ; 48(3): 281-300, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632754

RESUMO

Effective communication is essential in animal life to allow fundamental behavioral processes and survival. Communicating by surface-borne vibrations is likely the most ancient mode of getting and exchanging information in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this review, we concentrate on the use of vibrational communication in arthropods as a form of intraspecific and interspecific signaling, with a focus on the newest discoveries from our research group in terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea), a taxon never investigated before in this context. After getting little attention in the past, biotremology is now an emerging field of study in animal communication, and it is receiving increased interest from the scientific community dealing with these behavioral processes. In what follows, we illustrate the general principles and mechanisms on which biotremology is based, using definitions, examples, and insights from the literature in arthropods. Vibrational communication in arthropods has mainly been studied in insects and arachnids. For these taxa, much evidence of its use as a source of information from the surrounding environment exists, as well as its involvement in many behavioral roles, such as courtship and mating, conspecific recognition, competition, foraging, parental care, and danger perception. Recently, and for the first time, communication through surface-borne waves has been studied in terrestrial isopods, using a common Mediterranean species of the Armadillidae family as a pilot species, Armadillo officinalis Duméril, 1816. Mainly, for this species, we describe typical behavioral processes, such as turn alternation, aggregation, and stridulation, where vibrational communication appears to be involved.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Isópodes , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Insetos , Vibração
12.
Biol Lett ; 16(6): 20190931, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544378

RESUMO

Evolutionary loss of sexual signals is widespread. Examining the consequences for behaviours associated with such signals can provide insight into factors promoting or inhibiting trait loss. We tested whether a behavioural component of a sexual trait, male calling effort, has been evolutionary reduced in silent populations of Hawaiian field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus). Cricket song requires energetically costly wing movements, but 'flatwing' males have feminized wings that preclude song and protect against a lethal, eavesdropping parasitoid. Flatwing males express wing movement patterns associated with singing but, in contrast with normal-wing males, sustained periods of wing movement cannot confer sexual selection benefits and should be subject to strong negative selection. We developed an automated technique to quantify how long males spend expressing wing movements associated with song. We compared calling effort among populations of Hawaiian crickets with differing proportions of silent males and between male morphs. Contrary to expectation, silent populations invested as much in calling effort as non-silent populations. Additionally, flatwing and normal-wing males from the same population did not differ in calling effort. The lack of evolved behavioural adjustment following morphological change in silent Hawaiian crickets illustrates how behaviour might sometimes impede, rather than facilitate, evolution.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Vocalização Animal , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Hawaii , Masculino , Asas de Animais
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(6): e1007918, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569292

RESUMO

Vocalizations are widely used for communication between animals. Mice use a large repertoire of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in different social contexts. During social interaction recognizing the partner's sex is important, however, previous research remained inconclusive whether individual USVs contain this information. Using deep neural networks (DNNs) to classify the sex of the emitting mouse from the spectrogram we obtain unprecedented performance (77%, vs. SVM: 56%, Regression: 51%). Performance was even higher (85%) if the DNN could also use each mouse's individual properties during training, which may, however, be of limited practical value. Splitting estimation into two DNNs and using 24 extracted features per USV, spectrogram-to-features and features-to-sex (60%) failed to reach single-step performance. Extending the features by each USVs spectral line, frequency and time marginal in a semi-convolutional DNN resulted in a performance mid-way (64%). Analyzing the network structure suggests an increase in sparsity of activation and correlation with sex, specifically in the fully-connected layers. A detailed analysis of the USV structure, reveals a subset of male vocalizations characterized by a few acoustic features, while the majority of sex differences appear to rely on a complex combination of many features. The same network architecture was also able to achieve above-chance classification for cortexless mice, which were considered indistinguishable before. In summary, spectrotemporal differences between male and female USVs allow at least their partial classification, which enables sexual recognition between mice and automated attribution of USVs during analysis of social interactions.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Fatores Sexuais , Ultrassom , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Rede Nervosa , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(5-6): 490-496, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494930

RESUMO

The ability of stink bugs to release high amounts of strong-smelling and irritating defensive compounds is related to their metathoracic gland (MTG), which is an exocrine gland with defensive, sexual, alarm and aggregation signal functions. Orsilochides leucoptera (Scutelleridae) is a widespread species in the Neotropical region that feeds on plants of the families Malvaceae, Poaceae and Euphorbiaceae. A series of compounds (ketones, alcohols and esters) have been identified in the MTGs among the three species of Scutelleridae whose MTG secretions have been investigated thus far; however, no sex pheromone compounds have been described for any scutellerid species. The aim of this work was to study sex pheromone communication within this family of stink bugs, and identify the compounds present in the MTG of O. leucoptera. Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed two male specific compounds identified as (R)-camphor (1) and (R)-borneol (2), which were attractive to females in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. Also, GC/MS analysis of secretions from MTG of males and females of O. leucoptera, identified eight additional compounds: 2-(E)-hexenal (3), (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal (4), (E)-hex-2-enyl acetate (5), (R)-linalool (6), (R)-α-terpineol (7), dodecane (8), 1-tridecene (9) and n-tridecane (10). From these, (R)-α-terpineol was detected only in the gland of males, and is probably a biosynthetic intermediate of the pheromone components. Most of the MTG compounds identified in O. leucoptera have been identified in other heteropteran species. Camphor is often a toxic and repellent compound for insects. However, we report it, for the first time, as a sex pheromone component of an insect.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Feromônios/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Animais , Glândulas Exócrinas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Heterópteros/química , Masculino , Feromônios/química , Atrativos Sexuais/química
15.
J Neurosci ; 40(27): 5228-5246, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444386

RESUMO

Humans and animals maintain accurate sound discrimination in the presence of loud sources of background noise. It is commonly assumed that this ability relies on the robustness of auditory cortex responses. However, only a few attempts have been made to characterize neural discrimination of communication sounds masked by noise at each stage of the auditory system and to quantify the noise effects on the neuronal discrimination in terms of alterations in amplitude modulations. Here, we measured neural discrimination between communication sounds masked by a vocalization-shaped stationary noise from multiunit responses recorded in the cochlear nucleus, inferior colliculus, auditory thalamus, and primary and secondary auditory cortex at several signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in anesthetized male or female guinea pigs. Masking noise decreased sound discrimination of neuronal populations in each auditory structure, but collicular and thalamic populations showed better performance than cortical populations at each SNR. In contrast, in each auditory structure, discrimination by neuronal populations was slightly decreased when tone-vocoded vocalizations were tested. These results shed new light on the specific contributions of subcortical structures to robust sound encoding, and suggest that the distortion of slow amplitude modulation cues conveyed by communication sounds is one of the factors constraining the neuronal discrimination in subcortical and cortical levels.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dissecting how auditory neurons discriminate communication sounds in noise is a major goal in auditory neuroscience. Robust sound coding in noise is often viewed as a specific property of cortical networks, although this remains to be demonstrated. Here, we tested the discrimination performance of neuronal populations at five levels of the auditory system in response to conspecific vocalizations masked by noise. In each acoustic condition, subcortical neurons better discriminated target vocalizations than cortical ones and in each structure, the reduction in discrimination performance was related to the reduction in slow amplitude modulation cues.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Ruído , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Algoritmos , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/citologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Cobaias , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Colículos Superiores/citologia , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia , Tálamo/citologia , Tálamo/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302348

RESUMO

Acoustic signaling plays an important role in mother-offspring recognition and subsequent bond-formation. It remains unclear, however, if mothers and offspring use acoustic signaling in the same ways and for the same reasons throughout the juvenile stage, particularly after mutual recognition has been adequately established. Moreover, despite its critical role in mother-offspring bond formation, research explicitly linking mother-infant communication strategies to offspring survival are lacking. We examined the communicative patterns of mothers and offspring in the feral horse (Equus caballus) to better understand 1) the nature of mother-offspring communication throughout the first year of development; 2) the function(s) of mother- vs. offspring-initiated communication and; 3) the importance of mare and foal communication to offspring survival. We found that 1) mares and foals differ in when and how they initiate communication; 2) the outcomes of mare- vs. foal-initiated communication events consistently differ; and 3) the communicative patterns between mares and their foals can be important for offspring survival to one year of age. Moreover, given the importance of maternal activity to offspring behavior and subsequent survival, we submit that our data are uniquely positioned to address the long-debated question: do the behaviors exhibited during the juvenile stage (by both mothers and their young) confer delayed or immediate benefits to offspring? In summary, we aimed to better understand 1) the dynamics of mother-offspring communication, 2) whether mother-offspring communicative patterns were important to offspring survival, and 3) the implications of our research regarding the function of the mammalian juvenile stage. Our results demonstrate that we have achieved those aims.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Cavalos
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007755, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267836

RESUMO

Analyzing the rhythm of animals' acoustic signals is of interest to a growing number of researchers: evolutionary biologists want to disentangle how these structures evolved and what patterns can be found, and ecologists and conservation biologists aim to discriminate cryptic species on the basis of parameters of acoustic signals such as temporal structures. Temporal structures are also relevant for research on vocal production learning, a part of which is for the animal to learn a temporal structure. These structures, in other words, these rhythms, are the topic of this paper. How can they be investigated in a meaningful, comparable and universal way? Several approaches exist. Here we used five methods to compare their suitability and interpretability for different questions and datasets and test how they support the reproducibility of results and bypass biases. Three very different datasets with regards to recording situation, length and context were analyzed: two social vocalizations of Neotropical bats (multisyllabic, medium long isolation calls of Saccopteryx bilineata, and monosyllabic, very short isolation calls of Carollia perspicillata) and click trains of sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus. Techniques to be compared included Fourier analysis with a newly developed goodness-of-fit value, a generate-and-test approach where data was overlaid with varying artificial beats, and the analysis of inter-onset-intervals and calculations of a normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and we also show suggestions on how to best visualize rhythm analysis results. Furthermore, we developed a decision tree that will enable researchers to select a suitable and comparable method on the basis of their data.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Acústica da Fala , Vocalização Animal/classificação , Acústica , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1922): 20200190, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126959

RESUMO

Efficient communication is highly important for the evolutionary success of social animals. Honeybees (genus Apis) are unique in that they communicate the spatial information of resources using a symbolic 'language', the waggle dance. Different honeybee species differ in foraging ecology but it remains unknown whether this shaped variation in the dance. We studied distance dialects-interspecific differences in how waggle duration relates to flight distance-and tested the hypothesis that these evolved to maximize communication precision over the bees' foraging ranges. We performed feeder experiments with Apis cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata in India and found that A. cerana had the steepest dialect, i.e. a rapid increase in waggle duration with increasing feeder distance, A. florea had an intermediate, and A. dorsata had the lowest dialect. By decoding dances for natural food sites, we inferred that the foraging range was smallest in A. cerana, intermediate in A. florea and largest in A. dorsata. The inverse correlation between foraging range and dialect was corroborated when comparing six (sub)species across the geographical range of the genus including previously published data. We conclude that dance dialects constitute adaptations resulting from a trade-off between the spatial range and the spatial accuracy of communication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Comunicação Animal , Abelhas , Animais , Índia , Atividade Motora
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7284-7289, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184327

RESUMO

The evolution of male signals and female preferences remains a central question in the study of animal communication. The sensory trap model suggests males evolve signals that mimic cues used in nonsexual contexts and thus manipulate female behavior to generate mating opportunities. Much evidence supports the sensory trap model, but how females glean reliable information from both mimetic signals and their model cues remains unknown. We discovered a mechanism whereby a manipulative male signal guides reliable communication in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Migratory sea lamprey follow a larval cue into spawning streams; once sexually mature, males release a pheromone that mimics the larval cue and attracts females. Females conceivably benefit from the mimetic pheromone during mate search but must discriminate against the model cue to avoid orienting toward larvae in nearby nursery habitats. We tested the hypothesis that spawning females respond to petromyzonol sulfate (PZS) as a behavioral antagonist to avoid attraction to the larval cue while tracking the male pheromone despite each containing attractive 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS). We found 1) PZS inhibited electrophysiological responses to 3kPZS and abated preferences for 3kPZS when mixed at the same or greater concentrations, 2) larvae released more PZS than 3kPZS whereas males released more 3kPZS than PZS, and 3) mixtures of 3kPZS and PZS applied at ratios measured in larval and male odorants resulted in the discrimination observed between the natural odors. Our study elucidates how communication systems that arise via deception can facilitate reliable communication.


Assuntos
Lampreias/fisiologia , Feromônios/antagonistas & inibidores , Feromônios/fisiologia , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico/fisiologia , Ácidos Cólicos/química , Ácidos Cólicos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Feminino , Lampreias/metabolismo , Larva , Masculino , Petromyzon/metabolismo , Petromyzon/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...