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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199197

RESUMO

In the cochlea, non-sensory supporting cells are directly connected to adjacent supporting cells via gap junctions that allow the exchange of small molecules. We have previously shown that the pharmacological regulation of gap junctions alleviates cisplatin (CDDP)-induced ototoxicity in animal models. In this study, we aimed to identify specific small molecules that pass through gap junctions in the process of CDDP-induced auditory cell death and suggest new mechanisms to prevent hearing loss. We found that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) inducer forskolin (FSK) significantly attenuated CDDP-induced auditory cell death in vitro and ex vivo. The activation of cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling was observed in organ of Corti primary cells treated with FSK, especially in supporting cells. Co-treatment with gap junction enhancers such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and quinoline showed potentiating effects with FSK on cell survival via activation of cAMP/PKA/CREB. In vivo, the combination of FSK and ATRA was more effective for preventing ototoxicity compared to either single treatment. Our study provides the new insight that gap junction-mediated intercellular communication of cAMP may prevent CDDP-induced ototoxicity.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Ototoxicidade/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Células A549 , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colforsina/farmacologia , Colforsina/uso terapêutico , Conexina 26/metabolismo , Junções Comunicantes/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/tratamento farmacológico , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Camundongos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/patologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199303

RESUMO

The main purpose of new stent technologies is to overcome unfavorable material-related incompatibilities by producing bio- and hemo-compatible polymers with anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic properties. In this context, wettability is an important surface property, which has a major impact on the biological response of blood cells. However, the influence of local hemodynamic changes also influences blood cell activation. Therefore, we investigated biodegradable polymers with different wettability to identify possible aspects for a better prediction of blood compatibility. We applied shear rates of 100 s-1 and 1500 s-1 and assessed platelet and monocyte activation as well as the formation of CD62P+ monocyte-bound platelets via flow cytometry. Aggregation of circulating platelets induced by collagen was assessed by light transmission aggregometry. Via live cell imaging, leukocytes were tracked on biomaterial surfaces to assess their average velocity. Monocyte adhesion on biomaterials was determined by fluorescence microscopy. In response to low shear rates of 100 s-1, activation of circulating platelets and monocytes as well as the formation of CD62P+ monocyte-bound platelets corresponded to the wettability of the underlying material with the most favorable conditions on more hydrophilic surfaces. Under high shear rates, however, blood compatibility cannot only be predicted by the concept of wettability. We assume that the mechanisms of blood cell-polymer interactions do not allow for a rule-of-thumb prediction of the blood compatibility of a material, which makes extensive in vitro testing mandatory.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Água , Molhabilidade
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205072

RESUMO

Two-photon microscopy enables monitoring cellular dynamics and communication in complex systems, within a genuine environment, such as living tissues and, even, living organisms. Particularly, its application to understand cellular interactions in the immune system has brought unique insights into pathophysiologic processes in vivo. Simultaneous multiplexed imaging is required to understand the dynamic orchestration of the multiple cellular and non-cellular tissue compartments defining immune responses. Here, we present an improvement of our previously developed method, which allowed us to achieve multiplexed dynamic intravital two-photon imaging, by using a synergistic strategy. This strategy combines a spectrally broad range of fluorophore emissions, a wave-mixing concept for simultaneous excitation of all targeted fluorophores, and an unmixing algorithm based on the calculation of spectral similarities with previously measured fluorophore fingerprints. The improvement of the similarity spectral unmixing algorithm here described is based on dimensionality reduction of the mixing matrix. We demonstrate its superior performance in the correct pixel-based assignment of probes to tissue compartments labeled by single fluorophores with similar spectral fingerprints, as compared to the full-dimensional similarity spectral unmixing approach.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/genética , Microambiente Celular/genética , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Algoritmos , Linhagem Celular , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fótons
4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 234, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced a worldwide epidemiological event with a high infectivity and mortality. However, the predicting biomarkers and their potential mechanism in the progression of COVID-19 are not well known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the candidate predictors of COVID-19 and investigate their underlying mechanism. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted to identify the potential laboratory indicators with prognostic values of COVID-19 disease. Then, the prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the overall survival of COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of the most important prognostic indicators in lungs and peripherals, respectively. RESULTS: In total, 304 hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital were included in the retrospective study. CEA was the only laboratory indicator with significant difference in the univariate (P < 0.001) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.020). The scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of CEA in lungs and peripherals, respectively. The results revealed the potential roles of CEA were significantly distributed in type II pneumocytes of BALF and developing neutrophils of PBMCs, participating in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the prognostic roles of CEA in COVID-19 patients and implies the potential roles of CEACAM8-CEACAM6 in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication of developing neutrophils and type II pneumocyte.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comunicação Celular , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Nomogramas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 680891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194434

RESUMO

The network of tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) represents the filamentous (F)-actin rich tubular structure which is connected to the cytoplasm of the adjacent and or distant cells to mediate efficient cell-to-cell communication. They are long cytoplasmic bridges with an extraordinary ability to perform diverse array of function ranging from maintaining cellular physiology and cell survival to promoting immune surveillance. Ironically, TNTs are now widely documented to promote the spread of various pathogens including viruses either during early or late phase of their lifecycle. In addition, TNTs have also been associated with multiple pathologies in a complex multicellular environment. While the recent work from multiple laboratories has elucidated the role of TNTs in cellular communication and maintenance of homeostasis, this review focuses on their exploitation by the diverse group of viruses such as retroviruses, herpesviruses, influenza A, human metapneumovirus and SARS CoV-2 to promote viral entry, virus trafficking and cell-to-cell spread. The later process may aggravate disease severity and the associated complications due to widespread dissemination of the viruses to multiple organ system as observed in current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. In addition, the TNT-mediated intracellular spread can be protective to the viruses from the circulating immune surveillance and possible neutralization activity present in the extracellular matrix. This review further highlights the relevance of TNTs in ocular and cardiac tissues including neurodegenerative diseases, chemotherapeutic resistance, and cancer pathogenesis. Taken together, we suggest that effective therapies should consider precise targeting of TNTs in several diseases including virus infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/virologia , Nanotubos/virologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Viroses/etiologia , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Comunicação Celular , Humanos
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199668

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by elevated infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, leading to the development of insulin resistance. The black soybean seed coat is a rich source of anthocyanins with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. This study investigated the effects of black soybean anthocyanin extract (BSAn) on obesity-induced oxidative stress, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in a coculture system of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264 macrophages. Coculture of adipocytes with macrophages increased the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory mediators and cytokines (NO, MCP-1, PGE2, TNFα, and IL-6) and the release of free fatty acids but reduced anti-inflammatory adiponectin secretion. BSAn treatment (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL) alleviated the coculture-induced changes (p < 0.001) and inhibited coculture-induced activation of JNK and ERK signaling (p < 0.01). BSAn also blocked the migration of RAW264.7 macrophages toward 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, treatment with BSAn increased PPARγ expression and glucose uptake in response to insulin in hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocyte and RAW264.7 macrophage coculture (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate that BSAn attenuates inflammatory responses and improves adipocyte metabolic function in the coculture of hypertrophied 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages, suggesting the effectiveness of BSAn for obesity-induced insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Soja/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Insulina , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 692134, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222052

RESUMO

Chagas Disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects nearly eight million people in the world. T. cruzi is a complex taxon represented by different strains with particular characteristics, and it has the ability to infect and interact with almost any nucleated cell. The T. cruzi-host cell interactions will trigger molecular signaling cascades in the host cell that will depend on the particular cell type and T. cruzi strain, and also on many different experimental variables. In this review we collect data from multiple transcriptomic and functional studies performed in different infection models, in order to highlight key differences between works that in our opinion should be addressed when comparing and discussing results. In particular, we focus on changes in the respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation of host cells in response to infection, which depends on the experimental model of T. cruzi infection. Finally, we also discuss host cell responses which reiterate independently of the strain, cell type and experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Comunicação Celular , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
8.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 234, 2021 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has induced a worldwide epidemiological event with a high infectivity and mortality. However, the predicting biomarkers and their potential mechanism in the progression of COVID-19 are not well known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify the candidate predictors of COVID-19 and investigate their underlying mechanism. METHODS: The retrospective study was conducted to identify the potential laboratory indicators with prognostic values of COVID-19 disease. Then, the prognostic nomogram was constructed to predict the overall survival of COVID-19 patients. Additionally, the scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of the most important prognostic indicators in lungs and peripherals, respectively. RESULTS: In total, 304 hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital were included in the retrospective study. CEA was the only laboratory indicator with significant difference in the univariate (P < 0.001) and multivariate analysis (P = 0.020). The scRNA-seq data of BALF and PBMCs from COVID-19 patients were downloaded to investigate the underlying mechanism of CEA in lungs and peripherals, respectively. The results revealed the potential roles of CEA were significantly distributed in type II pneumocytes of BALF and developing neutrophils of PBMCs, participating in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the prognostic roles of CEA in COVID-19 patients and implies the potential roles of CEACAM8-CEACAM6 in the progression of COVID-19 by regulating the cell-cell communication of developing neutrophils and type II pneumocyte.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comunicação Celular , China/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Nomogramas , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204452

RESUMO

Intercellular communication governs multicellular interactions in complex organisms. A variety of mechanisms exist through which cells can communicate, e.g., cell-cell contact, the release of paracrine/autocrine soluble molecules, or the transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membrane-surrounded structures released by almost all cell types, acting both nearby and distant from their tissue/organ of origin. In the kidney, EVs are potent intercellular messengers released by all urinary system cells and are involved in cell crosstalk, contributing to physiology and pathogenesis. Moreover, urine is a reservoir of EVs coming from the circulation after crossing the glomerular filtration barrier-or originating in the kidney. Thus, urine represents an alternative source for biomarkers in kidney-related diseases, potentially replacing standard diagnostic techniques, including kidney biopsy. This review will present an overview of EV biogenesis and classification and the leading procedures for isolating EVs from body fluids. Furthermore, their role in intra-nephron communication and their use as a diagnostic tool for precision medicine in kidney-related disorders will be discussed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Fracionamento Químico , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/etiologia , Nefropatias/urina , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Urinálise/métodos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204510

RESUMO

Glioblastoma, a subset of aggressive brain tumors, deploy several means to increase blood vessel supply dedicated to the tumor mass. This includes typical program borrowed from embryonic development, such as vasculogenesis and sprouting angiogenesis, as well as unconventional processes, including co-option, vascular mimicry, and transdifferentiation, in which tumor cells are pro-actively engaged. However, these neo-generated vascular networks are morphologically and functionally abnormal, suggesting that the vascularization processes are rather inefficient in the tumor ecosystem. In this review, we reiterate the specificities of each neovascularization modality in glioblastoma, and, how they can be hampered mechanistically in the perspective of anti-cancer therapies.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glioblastoma/etiologia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Tolerância a Radiação , Transdução de Sinais , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204159

RESUMO

By upregulation of cell adhesion molecules and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, cells of the neurovascular unit, including pericytes and endothelial cells, actively participate in neuroinflammatory reactions. As previously shown, both cell types can activate inflammasomes, cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) through the canonical pathway, while pericytes only through the noncanonical pathway. Using complex in vitro models, we demonstrate here that the noncanonical inflammasome pathway can be induced in CECs as well, leading to a further increase in the secretion of active interleukin-1ß over that observed in response to activation of the canonical pathway. In parallel, a more pronounced disruption of tight junctions takes place. We also show that CECs respond to inflammatory stimuli coming from both the apical/blood and the basolateral/brain directions. As a result, CECs can detect factors secreted by pericytes in which the noncanonical inflammasome pathway is activated and respond with inflammatory activation and impairment of the barrier properties. In addition, upon sensing inflammatory signals, CECs release inflammatory factors toward both the blood and the brain sides. Consequently, CECs activate pericytes by upregulating their expression of NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3), an inflammasome-forming pattern recognition receptor. In conclusion, cerebral pericytes and endothelial cells mutually activate each other in inflammation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Pericitos/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Suínos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206170

RESUMO

Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor that regulates glial responses in animal models of different types of central nervous system (CNS) injuries. PTN is upregulated in the brain in different pathologies characterized by exacerbated neuroinflammation, including Parkinson's disease. PTN is an endogenous inhibitor of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (RPTP) ß/ζ, which is abundantly expressed in the CNS. Using a specific inhibitor of RPTPß/ζ (MY10), we aimed to assess whether the PTN/RPTPß/ζ axis is involved in neuronal and glial injury induced by the toxin MPP+. Treatment with the RPTPß/ζ inhibitor MY10 alone decreased the viability of both SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and BV2 microglial cultures, suggesting that normal RPTPß/ζ function is involved in neuronal and microglial viability. We observed that PTN partially decreased the cytotoxicity induced by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells underpinning the neuroprotective function of PTN. However, MY10 did not seem to modulate the SH-SY5Y cell loss induced by MPP+. Interestingly, we observed that media from SH-SY5Y cells treated with MPP+ and MY10 decreases microglial viability but may elicit a neuroprotective response of microglia by upregulating Ptn expression. The data suggest a neurotrophic role of microglia in response to neuronal injury through upregulation of Ptn levels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Microglia/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 5 Semelhantes a Receptores/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207035

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women of Western countries and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The breast tumor microenvironment contains immune cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, and extracellular matrix. Among these cells, macrophages or tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major components of the breast cancer microenvironment. TAMs facilitate metastasis of the breast tumor and are responsible for poor clinical outcomes. High TAM density was also found liable for the poor prognosis of breast cancer. These observations make altering TAM function a potential therapeutic target to treat breast cancer. The present review summarizes the origin of TAMs, mechanisms of macrophage recruitment and polarization in the tumor, and the contributions of TAMs in tumor progression. We have also discussed our current knowledge about TAM-targeted therapies and the roles of miRNAs and exosomes in re-educating TAM function.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Comunicação Celular , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exossomos/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Carga Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204326

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is now considered an innovative and strong strategy to beat metastatic, drug-resistant, or relapsing tumours. It is based on the manipulation of several mechanisms involved in the complex interplay between cancer cells and immune system that culminates in a form of immune-tolerance of tumour cells, favouring their expansion. Current immunotherapies are devoted enforcing the immune response against cancer cells and are represented by approaches employing vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, interleukins, checkpoint inhibitors, and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. Despite the undoubted potency of these treatments in some malignancies, many issues are being investigated to amplify the potential of application and to avoid side effects. In this review, we discuss how sphingolipids are involved in interactions between cancer cells and the immune system and how knowledge in this topic could be employed to enhance the efficacy of different immunotherapy approaches. In particular, we explore the following aspects: how sphingolipids are pivotal components of plasma membranes and could modulate the functionality of surface receptors expressed also by immune cells and thus their functionality; how sphingolipids are related to the release of bioactive mediators, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and ceramide that could significantly affect lymphocyte egress and migration toward the tumour milieu, in addition regulating key pathways needed to activate immune cells; given the renowned capability of altering sphingolipid expression and metabolism shown by cancer cells, how it is possible to employ sphingolipids as antigen targets.


Assuntos
Imunomodulação , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Comunicação Celular , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Lisofosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingolipídeos/química , Esfingolipídeos/imunologia , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3390, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099675

RESUMO

In the liver, the bile canaliculi of hepatocytes are connected to intrahepatic bile ducts lined with cholangiocytes, which remove cytotoxic bile from the liver tissue. Although liver organoids have been reported, it is not clear whether the functional connection between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is recapitulated in those organoids. Here, we report the generation of a hepatobiliary tubular organoid (HBTO) using mouse hepatocyte progenitors and cholangiocytes. Hepatocytes form the bile canalicular network and secrete metabolites into the canaliculi, which are then transported into the biliary tubular structure. Hepatocytes in HBTO acquire and maintain metabolic functions including albumin secretion and cytochrome P450 activities, over the long term. In this study, we establish functional liver tissue incorporating a bile drainage system ex vivo. HBTO enable us to reproduce the transport of hepatocyte metabolites in liver tissue, and to investigate the way in which the two types of epithelial cells establish functional connections.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/citologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Fígado/citologia , Organoides/fisiologia , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos , Animais , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Camundongos , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072307

RESUMO

A change in microglia structure, signaling, or function is commonly associated with neurodegeneration. This is evident in the patient population, animal models, and targeted in vitro assays. While there is a clear association, it is not evident that microglia serve as an initiator of neurodegeneration. Rather, the dynamics imply a close interaction between the various cell types and structures in the brain that orchestrate the injury and repair responses. Communication between microglia and neurons contributes to the physiological phenotype of microglia maintaining cells in a surveillance state and allows the cells to respond to events occurring in their environment. Interactions between microglia and astrocytes is not as well characterized, nor are interactions with other members of the neurovascular unit; however, given the influence of systemic factors on neuroinflammation and disease progression, such interactions likely represent significant contributes to any neurodegenerative process. In addition, they offer multiple target sites/processes by which environmental exposures could contribute to neurodegenerative disease. Thus, microglia at least play a role as a significant other with an equal partnership; however, claiming a role as an initiator of neurodegeneration remains somewhat controversial.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Microglia/metabolismo , Degeneração Neural/etiologia , Degeneração Neural/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Comunicação Celular , Polaridade Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fagocitose/genética , Fagocitose/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063496

RESUMO

Diet-induced obesity can originate from the dysregulated activity of hypothalamic neuronal circuits, which are critical for the regulation of body weight and food intake. The exact mechanisms underlying such neuronal defects are not yet fully understood, but a maladaptive cross-talk between neurons and surrounding microglial is likely to be a contributing factor. Functional and anatomical connections between microglia and hypothalamic neuronal cells are at the core of how the brain orchestrates changes in the body's metabolic needs. However, such a melodious interaction may become maladaptive in response to prolonged diet-induced metabolic stress, thereby causing overfeeding, body weight gain, and systemic metabolic perturbations. From this perspective, we critically discuss emerging molecular and cellular underpinnings of microglia-neuron communication in the hypothalamic neuronal circuits implicated in energy balance regulation. We explore whether changes in this intercellular dialogue induced by metabolic stress may serve as a protective neuronal mechanism or contribute to disease establishment and progression. Our analysis provides a framework for future mechanistic studies that will facilitate progress into both the etiology and treatments of metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Microglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Rede Nervosa , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
18.
Life Sci ; 280: 119750, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171378

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) constitutes multiple cell types including cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The intercellular communication between these cells through TME derived exosomes may either enhance or suppress the tumorigenic processes. The tumor-derived exosomes could convert an anti-tumor environment into a pro-tumor environment by inducing the differentiation of stromal cells into tumor-associated cells. The exosomes from tumor-associated stromal cells reciprocally trigger epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells, which impose therapeutic resistance and metastasis. It is well known that these exosomes contain the signals of EMT, but how these signals execute chemoresistance and metastasis in tumors remains elusive. Understanding the significance and molecular signatures of exosomes transmitting EMT signals would aid in developing appropriate methods of inhibiting them. In this review, we focus on molecular signatures of exosomes that shuttle between cancer cells and their stromal populations in TME to explicate their impact on therapeutic resistance and metastasis through EMT. Especially Wnt signaling is found to be involved in multiple ways of exosomal transport and hence we decipher the biomolecules of Wnt signaling trafficked through exosomes and their potential in serving as therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Exossomos/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
ACS Nano ; 15(6): 9434-9444, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152740

RESUMO

Cells commonly communicate with each other through diffusible molecules but nonchemical communication remains elusive. While bioluminescent organisms communicate through light to find prey or attract mates, it is still under debate if signaling through light is possible at the cellular level. Here, we demonstrate that cell to cell signaling through light is possible in artificial cell communities derived from biomimetic vesicles. In our design, artificial sender cells produce an intracellular light signal, which triggers the adhesion to receiver cells. Unlike soluble molecules, the light signal propagates fast, independent of diffusion and without the need for a transporter across membranes. To obtain a predator-prey relationship, the luminescence predator cells is loaded with a secondary diffusible poison, which is transferred to the prey cell upon adhesion and leads to its lysis. This design provides a blueprint for light based intercellular communication, which can be used for programing artificial and natural cell communities.


Assuntos
Células Artificiais , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Difusão , Luminescência , Comportamento Predatório , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4209-4224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188470

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Strontium ranelate (SrR) is an oral pharmaceutical agent for osteoporosis. In recent years, numerous unwanted side effects of oral SrR have been revealed. Therefore, its clinical administration and applications are limited. Hereby, this study aims to develop, formulate, and characterize an effective SrR carrier system for spinal bone regeneration. Methods: Herein, glycol chitosan with hyaluronic acid (HA)-based nanoformulation was used to encapsulate SrR nanoparticles (SrRNPs) through electrostatic interaction. Afterward, the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogels were used to encapsulate pre-synthesized SrRNPs (SrRNPs-H). The scanning electron microscope (SEM), TEM, rheometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to characterize prepared formulations. The rabbit osteoblast and a rat spinal decortication models were used to evaluate and assess the developed formulation biocompatibility and therapeutic efficacy. Results: In vitro and in vivo studies for cytotoxicity and bone regeneration were conducted. The cell viability test showed that SrRNPs exerted no cytotoxic effects in osteoblast in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo analysis for new bone regeneration mechanism was carried out on rat decortication models. Radiographical and histological analysis suggested a higher level of bone regeneration in the SrRNPs-H-implanted groups than in the other experimental groups. Conclusion: Local administration of the newly developed formulated SrR could be a promising alternative therapy to enhance bone regeneration in bone-defect sites in future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Ratos Wistar , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos
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