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1.
Global Health ; 17(1): 4, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402169

RESUMO

During global pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), crisis communication is indispensable in dispelling fears, uncertainty, and unifying individuals worldwide in a collective fight against health threats. Inadequate crisis communication can bring dire personal and economic consequences. Mounting research shows that seemingly endless newsfeeds related to COVID-19 infection and death rates could considerably increase the risk of mental health problems. Unfortunately, media reports that include infodemics regarding the influence of COVID-19 on mental health may be a source of the adverse psychological effects on individuals. Owing partially to insufficient crisis communication practices, media and news organizations across the globe have played minimal roles in battling COVID-19 infodemics. Common refrains include raging QAnon conspiracies, a false and misleading "Chinese virus" narrative, and the use of disinfectants to "cure" COVID-19. With the potential to deteriorate mental health, infodemics fueled by a kaleidoscopic range of misinformation can be dangerous. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of research on how to improve crisis communication across media and news organization channels. This paper identifies ways that legacy media reports on COVID-19 and how social media-based infodemics can result in mental health concerns. This paper discusses possible crisis communication solutions that media and news organizations can adopt to mitigate the negative influences of COVID-19 related news on mental health. Emphasizing the need for global media entities to forge a fact-based, person-centered, and collaborative response to COVID-19 reporting, this paper encourages media resources to focus on the core issue of how to slow or stop COVID-19 transmission effectively.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/normas , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais/normas
2.
Math Biosci ; 333: 108545, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460673

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread across the world, testing each nation's ability to understand the state of the pandemic in their country and control it. As we looked into the epidemiological data to uncover the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we discovered that critical metadata is missing which is meant to give context to epidemiological parameters. In this review, we identify key metadata for the COVID-19 fatality rate after a thorough analysis of mathematical models, serology-informed studies and determinants of causes of death for the COVID-19 pandemic. In doing so, we find reasons to establish a set of standard-based guidelines to record and report the data from epidemiological studies. Additionally, we discuss why standardizing nomenclature is be a necessary component of these guidelines to improve communication and reproducibility. The goal of establishing these guidelines is to facilitate the interpretation of COVID-19 epidemiological findings and data by the general public, health officials, policymakers and fellow researchers. Our suggestions may not address all aspects of this issue; rather, they are meant to be the foundation for which experts can establish and encourage future guidelines throughout the appropriate communities.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Pandemias , /estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemiologia/normas , Epidemiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Epidemiologia/tendências , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Metadados/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 514-519, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476229

RESUMO

Amid the COVID-19 global pandemic, a highly troublesome influx of viral misinformation threatens to exacerbate the crisis through its deleterious effects on public health outcomes and health behavior decisions.This "misinfodemic" has ignited a surge of ongoing research aimed at characterizing its content, identifying its sources, and documenting its effects. Noticeably absent as of yet is a cogent strategy to disrupt misinformation.We start with the premise that the diffusion and persistence of COVID-19 misinformation are networked phenomena that require network interventions. To this end, we propose five classes of social network intervention to provide a roadmap of opportunities for disrupting misinformation dynamics during a global health crisis. Collectively, these strategies identify five distinct yet interdependent features of information environments that present viable opportunities for interventions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Saúde Global , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos
4.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 9-13, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322939

RESUMO

Online misinformation regarding COVID-19 has undermined public health efforts to control the novel coronavirus. To date, public health organizations' efforts to counter COVID-19 misinformation have focused on identifying and correcting false information on social media platforms. Citing extant literature in health communication and psychology, we argue that these fact-checking efforts are a necessary, but insufficient, response to health misinformation. First, research suggests that fact-checking has several important limitations and is rarely successful in fully undoing the effects of misinformation exposure. Second, there are many factors driving misinformation sharing and acceptance in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic-such as emotions, distrust, cognitive biases, racism, and xenophobia-and these factors both make individuals more vulnerable to certain types of misinformation and also make them impervious to future correction attempts. We conclude by outlining several additional measures, beyond fact-checking, that may help further mitigate the effects of misinformation in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Confiança
5.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 15-22, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190547

RESUMO

The current study examined the role of the components of the Protection Motivation Theory of Health (PMT) in predicting protective health behaviors related to the COVID-19 virus. Through a snowball sampling procedure, in Wave 1 424 respondents completed a survey in March 2020. One hundred thirteen of these participants completed the same survey in Wave 2 in May 2020. Consistent with research on SARS, females and older individuals engaged in the behaviors more often than men and younger individuals. After accounting for these variables in predicting frequency of protective health behaviors, components of the PMT accounted for an additional 12% of the variance in Wave 1 and 16% in Wave 2, with perceived severity and outcome efficaciousness correlating positively with frequency. Anticipatory regret mediated the relationship between PMT and protective health behavior frequency. The results suggest that public health announcements that are tailored toward the severity of the virus and the efficacy of the health behaviors in decreasing the spread of the virus may meet with more success than those that heighten people's vulnerability to the disease.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Percepção , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 6-14, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225745

RESUMO

Wide-spread misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic has presented challenges for communicating public health recommendations. Should campaigns to promote protective behaviors focus on debunking misinformation or targeting behavior-specific beliefs? To address this question, we examine whether belief in COVID-19 misinformation is directly associated with two behaviors (face mask wearing and social distancing), and whether behavior-specific beliefs can account for this association and better predict behavior, consistent with behavior-change theory. We conducted a nationally representative two-wave survey of U.S. adults from 5/26/20-6/12/20 (n = 1074) and 7/15/20-7/21//20 (n = 889; follow-up response 83%). Scales were developed and validated for COVID-19 related misinformation beliefs, social distancing and face mask wearing, and beliefs about the consequences of both behaviors. Cross-lagged panel linear regression models assessed relationships among the variables. While belief in misinformation was negatively associated with both face mask wearing (B = -.27, SE =.06) and social-distancing behaviors (B = -.46, SE =.08) measured at the same time, misinformation did not predict concurrent or lagged behavior when the behavior-specific beliefs were incorporated in the models. Beliefs about behavioral outcomes accounted for face mask wearing and social distancing, both cross-sectionally (B =.43, SE =.05; B =.63, SE =.09) and lagged over time (B =.20, SE = 04; B =.30, SE =.08). In conclusion, belief in COVID-19-related misinformation is less relevant to protective behaviors, but beliefs about the consequences of these behaviors are important predictors. With regard to misinformation, we recommend health campaigns aimed at promoting protective behaviors emphasize the benefits of these behaviors, rather than debunking unrelated false claims.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Máscaras/normas , Adulto , /psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 81-88, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249853

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents were issued numerous, sometimes changing, safeguarding directives including social distancing, mask use, hygiene, and stay-at-home orders. Enacting these behaviors for the parent presented challenges, but the responsibility for children to follow protocol properly was an even more daunting undertaking. Self-efficacy is one of the most power predictors of health behavior and has been adapted to a context-specific crisis self-efficacy scale conducted on March20, 2020, captures real-time perceptions of parents as coronavirus anxieties peaked. The study reveals a relationship between self- and protective efficacy that is mediated by parents' assessments of how informed they are about COVID-19. It also examines the role of perceived knowledge on information-seeking and scrutiny of pandemic information found online. Important directions for future research to develop the protective efficacy construct emerge as well as evidence of the rich applied and theoretical value of a deeper understanding of the perceived ability to perform recommended actions to protect another.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pais/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Idoso , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(1): 1-4, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368223

RESUMO

Since the COVID-19 pandemic took hold in the first quarter of 2020, children and their families across the world have experienced extraordinary changes to the way they live their lives - creating enormous practical and psychological challenges for them at many levels. While some of these effects are directly linked to COVID-related morbidity and mortality, many are indirect - due rather to governmental public health responses designed to slow the spread of infection and minimise the numbers of deaths. These have often involved aggressive programmes of social distancing and quarantine, including extended periods of national social and economic lockdown, unprecedented in the modern age. Debates about the appropriateness of these measures have often referenced their potentially negative impact on people's mental health and well-being - impacts which both opponents and advocates appear to accept as being inevitable.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Saúde Mental/normas
10.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(8): 516-517, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773896

RESUMO

Why governments need to test their messages on novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) before disseminating them. Baruch Fischhoff talks to Fiona Fleck.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento , Betacoronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Medição de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806772

RESUMO

During the Covid-19 pandemic, risk communication has often been ineffective, and from this perspective "fake news" has found fertile ground, both as a cause and a consequence of it. The aim of this study is to measure how much "fake news" and corresponding verified news have circulated in Italy in the period between 31 December 2019 and 30 April 2020, and to estimate the quality of informal and formal communication. We used the BuzzSumo application to gather the most shared links on the Internet related to the pandemic in Italy, using keywords chosen according to the most frequent "fake news" during that period. For each research we noted the numbers of "fake news" articles and science-based news articles, as well as the number of engagements. We reviewed 2102 articles. Links that contained fake news were shared 2,352,585 times, accounting for 23.1% of the total shares of all the articles reviewed. Our study throws light on the "fake news" phenomenon in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. A quantitative assessment is fundamental in order to understand the impact of false information and to define political and technical interventions in health communication. Starting from this evaluation, health literacy should be improved by means of specific interventions in order to improve informal and formal communication.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Comunicação/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pandemias
12.
Clin Ter ; 171(4): e321-e327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614366

RESUMO

The context in which people consume health information has changed with the diffusion of the mobile media. The interactive health communication influences the health care system with its information dissemination, health promotion and support for health services. The object of this study is to analyze the relationships between mobile media and the credibility of health sources. The health sources include health professionals, mass media, and family/friends. Mobile media have been conceptualized at two levels. The individual-level analysis sees mobile media as a medium through which users receive information, and examines how the individual use of mobile media affects users' perceived credibility of health sources. The country-level analysis sees mobile media as a context in which trust in health sources is constructed, and examines how mobile contexts affect perceived credibility of health sources. The individual-level data came from a large cross-national survey conducted by the European Barometer in May, 2016, which aims to investigate people's opinions about antibiotics. The country-level data have been obtained from the United Nations and the European Social Survey. All the data have been combined into the final sample, consisting of 25,896 respondents in 26 European countries. For the main effects, the mobile phone penetration is negatively related to health professionals but positively related to media and family or friends. The wireless broadband penetration is positively related to health professionals but negatively related to family or friends. The health performance is positively related to health professionals but negatively related to family or friends. The post-materialistic culture is negatively related to media.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Meios de Comunicação , Comunicação em Saúde , Confiança , Atitude , Meios de Comunicação/normas , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 590-592, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524961

RESUMO

Trinidad and Tobago, a small island developing state, has been ranked as number one in a report published by the University of Oxford that assessed responses to COVID-19 based on four of the six WHO criteria for rolling back COVID-19 "lockdown" measures. The key mitigation and containment strategies implemented by the country were evidence-informed and demonstrated an "all-of-government" approach. The COVID-19 health system response of this country demonstrates that although developing countries face many health system challenges, political will, evidence-informed decision-making, respect for science, and timely, coordinated, collaborative actions can strengthen the resilience and response of the health system during a health emergency.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Programas Governamentais , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Trinidad e Tobago
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 587-589, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500850

RESUMO

Adherence of the population to COVID-19 prevention recommendations is crucial to control the epidemic. However, a study of communication messages around COVID-19 in 15 West African countries showed a number of unfounded messages, as well as a lack of communication on critical information to understand the prevention measures being promoted. Incidents of violence that have taken place recently suggest that general mistrust and hostility could grow, similar to the events that occurred during the previous Ebola epidemics. It is therefore urgent to review and revise the COVID-19 communication messages currently used in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Educação em Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Confiança
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 583-586, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500853

RESUMO

The COVID-19 epidemic has spawned an "infodemic," with excessive and unfounded information that hinders an appropriate public health response. This perspective describes a selection of COVID-19 fake news that originated in Peru and the government's response to this information. Unlike other countries, Peru was relatively successful in controlling the infodemic possibly because of the implementation of prison sentences for persons who created and shared fake news. We believe that similar actions by other countries in collaboration with social media companies may offer a solution to the infodemic problem.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Educação em Saúde/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Decepção , Regulamentação Governamental , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Peru , Mídias Sociais
18.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 77(1): 55-58, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238261

RESUMO

Este artículo analiza la cobertura mediática del avance de la pandemia de Covid-19 en Argentina y la medida de aislamiento social preventivo y obligatorio decretada por el gobierno nacional. Destaca tendencias problemáticas y buenas prácticas según un enfoque teórico-normativo, y las vincula con las características históricas del sistema de medios en el país. Utiliza una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que concibe a la comunicación como un derecho humano fundamental, esencial en una sociedad democrática y a los medios de comunicación de masas como vehículo fundamental para su ejercicio, y se apoya en las recomendaciones formuladas por organismos internacionales, organizaciones de la sociedad civil e instituciones nacionales. Se sostiene que los medios de comunicación de masas en la Argentina tienen la oportunidad histórica de mostrar la relevancia de su aporte no sólo para que enfrentar esta coyuntura, sino también para que salgamos de ella como una sociedad mejor y más justa.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/normas , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , Humanos
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