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2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2893-2896, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018611

RESUMO

Face to face communication is interactive, and involves continuous feedforward and feedback of information, thoughts, and feelings to the opposite party. To accurately assess the neural processing underlying these interactions, synchronous and simultaneous recording of the brain activity from both parties is needed, a method known as hyperscanning. Here, we investigated the neural processing underlying nonverbal face-to-face communication using a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) hyperscanning system, comprising two fiber optically connected MEGs. Eight pairs of subjects participated. Each individual in each pair viewed a combined 80 randomized 20 s trials of 40 real-time and 40 recorded (hereafter, real and simulated, respectively) videos of the opposite party's face. Non-verbal communication through actions such as gaze, eye blinks, and facial expression was intrinsically only possible during real videos. After each trial, subjects individually subjectively discriminated whether the viewed video was real or simulated. Overall subjective discrimination accuracies were slightly but significantly above chance level. Statistical analysis of brain activity revealed a significant three way interaction between theta-band rhythm amplitude, video type, and subjective discrimination response in the right frontal cortex. Additionally, when subjects responded that videos were simulated, theta activity was significantly lower for real videos compared with simulated videos (p = 0.01). This result not only demonstrates the importance of right frontal theta activity during non-verbal communication, but also indicates the existence of unconscious, semi-automated neural processing during non-verbal communication that underlies one's ability to subjectively discriminate whether or not the opposite party is real.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Magnetoencefalografia , Comunicação , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114350

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been intense interest in political leaders' nonverbal communicative structures (NCS) during televised appearances. This study analyzes the effect of gender on leaders' NCS and presents theoretical and analytical frameworks of gendered NCS. We analyzed 20 televised appearances by 10 heads of state (five males and five females) from democratic Western countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings revealed that gender had a significant effect on leaders' NCS, indicating that leaders presented NCS that corresponded to their gender. Male leaders' masculine NCS included competition, warning, threatening, and scaring behavior, broad proxemics, tension leakage, and illustrative gestures, while female leaders presented feminine NCS of cooperativeness, emotional communication, empathy, optimism, eye contact, and flexible expressions. Furthermore, the effect of gender on leaders' NCS had an interaction effect with the situation of the pandemic, indicating that countries with a female leader had fewer diseased and severe cases and more calmness and healing NCS. The conclusions present theoretical and analytical frameworks that explain the central effect of gender on contemporary leaders' NCS. This study develops advanced distinctive profiles for male versus female leaders' NCS of emotions, cognition, and behavior during a crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Liderança , Comunicação não Verbal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selfies are a novel social phenomenon that is gradually beginning to receive attention within the cognitive sciences. Several studies have documented biases that may be related to nonverbal communicative intentions. For instance, in selfies posted on the dating platform Tinder males but not females prefer camera views from below (Sedgewick, Flath & Elias, 2017). We re-examined this study to assess whether this bias is confined to dating selection contexts and to compare variability between individuals and between genders. METHODS: Three raters evaluated vertical camera position in 2000 selfies- 1000 by males and 1000 by females-posted in Instagram. RESULTS: We found that the choices of camera angle do seem to vary depending on the context under which the selfies were uploaded. On Tinder, females appear more likely to choose neutral, frontal presentations than they do on Instagram, whereas males on Tinder appear more likely to opt for camera angles from below than on Instagram. CONCLUSIONS: This result confirms that the composition of selfies is constrained by factors affecting nonverbal communicative intentions.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Comunicação não Verbal , Fotografação/instrumentação , Mídias Sociais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S70-S74, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737236

RESUMO

The alleviation of suffering has always been central to the care of the sick. Yet as medical technology has advanced and life-sustaining treatments multiplied, medicine's capacity to both prevent and create suffering has grown exponentially. In pediatric medicine, the ability to stave off death with life-sustaining treatments allows children to survive but also to suffer in ways that are diverse and unprecedented. However, although parents and pediatric clinicians broadly agree that all children can suffer, there is little published literature in which researchers analyze or clarify the concept of pediatric suffering. This gap is worrisome, especially in light of growing concerns that the label of suffering is used to justify end-of-life decision-making and mask quality-of-life determinations for pediatric patients with profound neurologic impairment. Moreover, the awareness that some children can experience suffering but cannot communicate whether and how they are suffering creates a problem. Does the determination of suffering in a nonverbal child lie in the judgement of clinicians or parents? In this article, I will address several important questions related to the suffering of children through an analysis of two prevalent conceptualizations of pediatric suffering and suggest a possible avenue forward for future scholarship.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Terminologia como Assunto , Bibliometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dissidências e Disputas , Humanos , Lactente , Futilidade Médica/ética , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção da Dor/ética , Qualidade de Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609778

RESUMO

Advances in computer and communications technology have deeply affected the way we communicate. Social media have emerged as a major means of human communication. However, a major limitation in such media is the lack of non-verbal stimuli, which sometimes hinders the understanding of the message, and in particular the associated emotional content. In an effort to compensate for this, people started to use emoticons, which are combinations of keyboard characters that resemble facial expressions, and more recently their evolution: emojis, namely, small colorful images that resemble faces, actions and daily life objects. This paper presents evidence of the effect of emojis on memory retrieval through a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study. A total number of fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the experiment, during which successive stimuli were presented, containing words with intense emotional content combined with emojis, either with congruent or incongruent emotional content. Volunteers were asked to recall a memory related to the stimulus. The study of the reaction times showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations led to longer reaction times in memory retrieval compared to congruent combinations. General Linear Model (GLM) and Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods have been tested in assessing the influence of the emojis on the process of memory retrieval. The analysis of the fMRI data showed that emotional incongruity among word+emoji combinations activated the Broca's area (BA44 and BA45) in both hemispheres, the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) and the inferior prefrontal cortex (BA47), compared to congruent combinations. Furthermore, compared to pseudowords, word+emoji combinations activated the left Broca's area (BA44 and BA45), the amygdala, the right temporal pole (BA48) and several frontal regions including the SMA and the inferior prefrontal cortex.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Simbolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Comunicação , Compreensão , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Leitura , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Redação , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(4): 449-461, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614226

RESUMO

Early change is an increasing area of investigation in psychotherapy research. In this study, we analyzed patterns of early change in interpersonal problems and their relationship to nonverbal synchrony and multiple outcome measures for the first time. We used growth mixture modeling to identify different latent classes of early change in interpersonal problems with 212 patients who underwent cognitive-behavioral treatment including interpersonal and emotion-focused elements. Furthermore, videotaped sessions were analyzed using motion energy analysis, providing values for the calculation of nonverbal synchrony to predict early change in interpersonal problems. The relationship between early change patterns and symptoms as well as overall change in interpersonal problems was also investigated. Three latent subgroups were identified: 1 class with slow improvement (n = 145), 1 class with fast improvement (n = 12), and 1 early deterioration class (n = 55). Lower levels of early nonverbal synchrony were significantly related to fast improvement in interpersonal change patterns. Furthermore, such patterns predicted treatment outcome in symptoms and interpersonal problems. The results suggest that nonverbal synchrony is associated with early change patterns in interpersonal problems, which are also predictive of treatment outcome. Limitations of the applied methods as well as possible applications in routine care are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/tendências , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/tendências , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(1): 118-125, jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1102828

RESUMO

Objetivo: Construir e investigar as propriedades psicométricas de uma escala que avalia a compreensão do paciente sobre orientações de alta. Metodologia: Estudo metodológico quantitativo realizado com 72 pacientes e dois observadores. A validação foi obtida por meio da análise fatorial e correlação intra-classe. A consistência interna foi verificada pelo Alpha de Cronbach. Resultados: A escala foi construída em duas partes: a parte I (14 itens) refere-se a compreensão referida e é respondida pelo paciente, a parte II (8 itens) refere-se a compreensão percebida e é respondida por um observador. A consistência interna foi considerada excelente (α=0.918) na parte I e aceitável na parte II tanto para observador 1 (α=0.724) quanto para o observador 2 (α=0.749). A reprodutibilidade inter-observador foi aceitável (r=0.824). A análise fatorial da parte I determinou quatro fatores: (1) compreensão sobre medicamentos; (2) compreensão sobre tratamento e diagnóstico; (3) compreensão sobre restrição e (4) compreensão sobre retorno. Conclusão: A escala "Avaliação da compreensão do paciente sobre orientações de alta" foi considerada confiável e válida. (AU)


Objective: To construct and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale that assesses patient understanding of discharge guidelines. Method: A quantitative methodological study involving 72 patients and two observers was conducted. Validation was obtained through factor analysis and intra-class correlation. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure internal consistency. Results: The scale consisted of two parts: part I (14 items) refers to the reported comprehension and is answered by the patient; part II (8 items) refers to the perceived comprehension and is answered by an observer. Internal consistency was excellent in part I (α=0.918) and acceptable in part II for both observer 1 (α=0.724) and observer 2 (α=0.749). Interobserver reproducibility was acceptable (r=0.824). Factor analysis of part I determined four factors: 1) understanding of medications, 2) understanding of treatment and diagnosis; 3) understanding of restrictions, and 4) understanding of return. Conclusion: The scale "Assessment of patient comprehension of discharge instructions" was considered reliable and valid. (AU)


Objectivo: Construir y investigar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala que evalúa la comprensión del paciente de las pautas de alta. Metodo: estudio metodológico cuantitativo realizado con 72 pacientes y dos observadores. La validación se obtuvo mediante análisis factorial y correlación intra-clase. La consistencia interna fue verificada por el Alpha de Cronbach. Resultados: La escala fue construida en dos partes: la parte I (14 ítems) se refiere a la comprensión referida y es respondida por el paciente, la parte II (8 ítems) se refiere a la comprensión percibida y es respondida por un observador. La consistencia interna fue considerada excelente (α=0.918) en la parte I y aceptable en la parte II tanto para el observador 1 (α=0.724) como para el observador 2 (α=0.749). La reproducibilidad inter-observador fue aceptable (r=0.824). El análisis factorial de la Parte I determinó cuatro factores: (1) la comprensión de los medicamentos; (2) comprensión sobre tratamiento y diagnóstico; (3) comprensión sobre restricción y (4) comprensión sobre retorno. Conclusión: La escala "Evaluación de la Comprensión del Paciente sobre Orientaciones de Alta" fue considerada confiable y válida. (AU)


Assuntos
Comunicação não Verbal , Alta do Paciente , Enfermagem , Estudo de Validação
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232361, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353045

RESUMO

In face-to-face communication there are multiple paralinguistic and gestural features that facilitate recognition of a speaker's intended meaning, features that are lacking when people communicate digitally (e.g., texting). As a result, substitutes have emerged (expressive punctuation, capitalization, etc.) to facilitate communication in these situations. However, little is known about the comprehension processes involved in digital communication. In this research we examined the role of emoji in the comprehension of face-threatening, indirect replies. Participants in two experiments read question-reply sequences and then judged the accuracy of interpretations of the replies. On critical trials the reply violated the relation maxim and conveyed a negative, face-threatening response. On one-third of the trials the reply contained only text, on one-third of the trials the reply contained text and an emoji, and on one-third of the trials the reply contained only an emoji. When the question requested potentially negative information about one of the interactants (disclosures and opinions), participants were more likely to endorse the indirect meaning of the reply, and did so faster, when the reply contained an emoji than when it did not. This effect did not occur when the question was a request for action, a more conventional type of indirect reply. Overall, then, this research demonstrates that emoji can sometimes facilitate the comprehension of meaning. Future research is needed to examine the boundary conditions for this effect.


Assuntos
Emoções , Reconhecimento Facial , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 406-411, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357089

RESUMO

Family and home environment factors have been outlined in previous literature as important variables that affect early reasoning development. However, little research has focused on the association between screen use in the home environment and nonverbal reasoning ability. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the role of both screen time and various screen activities (e.g., television, video, or educational games) in nonverbal reasoning ability in 9,001 5-year-old children using a large birth cohort study (Growing Up in Ireland). Interviews conducted with parents related to the children's screen use and various family factors, while reasoning ability was measured using a standardized task (Picture Similarities Task, British Ability Scales II). A hierarchical multiple regression examined the role of screen use in nonverbal reasoning, while also statistically controlling for family factors such as parental education and employment status. Screen use variables made a significant contribution to the regression model, even after family factors were accounted for, although the effect sizes were very small. Playing educational games, video games, or engaging in over three hours screen use per day were all significant predictors of nonverbal reasoning scores in the final adjusted model. The results of this study suggest that screen use may play a small role in the development of nonverbal reasoning in young children. The findings highlight the need for further studies in this area and may have implications for current debates in screen time research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Resolução de Problemas , Tempo de Tela , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Pais
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231756, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330158

RESUMO

Guilt is a complex emotion with a potentially important social function of stimulating cooperative behaviours towards and from others, but whether the feeling of guilt is associated with a recognisable pattern of nonverbal behaviour is unknown. We examined the production and perception of guilt in two different studies, with a total of 238 participants with various places of origin. Guilt was induced experimentally, eliciting patterns of movement that were associated with both the participants' self-reported feelings of guilt and judges' impressions of their guilt. Guilt was most closely associated with frowning and neck touching. While there were differences between self-reported guilt and perception of guilt the findings suggest that there are consistent patterns that could be considered a non-verbal signal of guilt in humans.


Assuntos
Culpa , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(7): 465-470, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345043

RESUMO

Key social learning occurs during early childhood with lasting effects throughout the lifespan. In the past 10 years, ownership of mobile technology grew rapidly, particularly in households with young children; this has dramatically changed the early learning landscape. With the ubiquity of mobile devices, many have questioned their effect on the social and emotional learning of children. To explore one aspect of this question, we conducted a cross-temporal comparison to compare two cohorts of sixth graders, one measured in 2012 and another in 2017. Each group took tests, one with still photographs of faces (diagnostic analysis of nonverbal accuracy 2 or DANVA2) and one with videotaped vignettes (the child and adolescent social perception measure or CASP), designed to measure their ability to accurately identify nonverbal emotional cues. We sought to explore whether changes in the early learning environment of the 2017 cohort, who grew up with mobile phones and tablets, could be related to participants' ability to read nonverbal emotional cues. We found that sixth-grade students in 2017 performed better than sixth-grade students in 2012 on the DANVA2, but not on the CASP. One possible reason participants improved on the test with still photographs is because mediated communication has become more visual and less text based, and sharing photographs of oneself and others is more common. Accordingly participants may be more accurate at interpreting emotional cues in photographs due to a larger exposure to photographs of faces.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Percepção Social , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(13-14): 2378-2387, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222006

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study explores nonverbal communication behaviours between general practice nurses and patients during chronic disease consultations. BACKGROUND: Nonverbal communication is an important aspect of nurse-patient lifestyle risk reduction conversations. Despite the growing role of general practice nurses in lifestyle risk modification when managing chronic disease, few studies have investigated how this communication occurs. DESIGN: Observational study within a concurrent mixed methods project. METHODS: Thirty-six consultations by 14 general practice nurses were video-recorded between August 2017 and March 2018. Video analysis used the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System. The STROBE checklist was used to guide this paper. RESULTS: Joint convergence of nurse-patient behaviours such as laughing, smiling and eye contact was most common (44%; n = 157). Patient-nurse eye contact time decreased significantly across the consultation, while nurse gesturing increased significantly. No significant relationship between consultation length and convergent to divergent behaviour categorisation or nurse-computer use across the consultation was found. CONCLUSIONS: The high levels of convergent behaviours are promising for person-centred care. However, scope exists to enhance nonverbal interactions around lifestyle risk reduction. Supporting nurses with skills and improved environments for lifestyle risk communication has potential to improve therapeutic relationships and patient outcomes. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: These results indicate that nurses support patients through nonverbal interactions during conversations of lifestyle risk reduction. However, there are opportunities to improve this practice for future interventions.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Comunicação não Verbal , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
16.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 20(1): 47-59, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196855

RESUMO

Dialogic reading (DR) is the shared reading of storybooks, interspersed with dialogues about story and illustrations. Previous findings have indicated that DR can be adapted for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and can improve their engagement in shared reading activities. The present study aimed to investigate how DR with a verbal prompting hierarchy impacted the performance of children with ASD engaged in dialogue about the story. We also measured effects on verbal and non-verbal initiations and on task engagement. We used a single-subject design to test a DR adaptation involving a least-to-most prompting hierarchy with two 7-year-old children with ASD and evaluated the effects on independent verbal responses to questions about the story, verbal and non-verbal initiations, and task engagement. The participants showed an increase of independent verbal answers to WH (Who, What, Where, What) questions about the story, and to the more general "What is happening here?" (WIHH) question. One child showed an increase in verbal initiations. Both children showed high task engagement independently of condition, but with less variability when reading was dialogic. The results of this study support the use of story-based open questions and least-to-most prompting verbal hierarchies for helping children with ASD engage in conversation about the story in shared reading settings


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Comunicação , Comportamento Verbal , Compreensão , Habilidades Sociais , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(8): 2957-2972, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056115

RESUMO

This systematic review examined definitions of "nonverbal" or "minimally verbal" and assessment measures used to evaluate communication in intervention studies focusing on improving expressive verbal communication in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We reviewed sample size, number of participants, participant age, and male/female representation. Our analysis yielded relatively few studies with non/minimally verbal children with ASD focusing on verbal expressive communication. Further, we found large inconsistencies in measures used, definitions of "nonverbal" and "minimally verbal", and ages targeted. Guidelines are suggested to create a more uniform assessment protocol with systematic descriptions of early communication learners as a foundational step for understanding the heterogeneity in this group and replicating research findings for this subgroup of children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/classificação , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Comunicação não Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2218, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042066

RESUMO

Close human-wildlife interactions are rapidly growing, particularly due to wildlife tourism popularity. Using both laboratory and ecological observation studies we explored potential interspecies communication signalling mechanisms underpinning human-animal approach behaviour, which to date have been unclear. First impression ratings (n = 227) of Barbary macaques' social and health traits were related to the macaques' facial morphology and their observed behaviour supporting a shared facial signalling system in primates. These ratings significantly predicted intended approach to the macaques during hypothetical interactions. Finally, real-world interspecies proximity was observed and found to be best predicted by the interaction between human first impression perception and animal behaviour. Specifically, perceived macaque health in interaction with actual macaque dominance drives close interactions despite human proclivity to avoid dominant animals, raising safety concerns in interspecies interactions.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Julgamento , Macaca/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Animais Selvagens/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 137: 105437, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036105

RESUMO

"Semi-controlled" crosswalks are unsignalized, but clearly marked with "yield to pedestrian within crosswalk" signs. Ideally, pedestrians can cross the street immediately after they arrive at the curb. However, real world observations show that pedestrians and vehicles are often involved in non-verbal "negotiations" to decide who should proceed first. This kind of "negotiation" often causes delays for both parties and may lead to unsafe situations. The study in this paper was based on video recordings of the waiting behaviors of 2059 pedestrians interacting with 1003 motorists at selected semi-controlled crosswalks. One such location experienced a conversion from one-way operation to two-way operation, which provided a rare opportunity for a before-and-after study at that location. Multi-state Markov models were introduced as a novel approach to correlate the dynamic process between recurrent events. Time-varying covariates related to pedestrian characteristics, traffic condition, and vehicle dynamics (distance and speed) turned out to be significant. The analytical method developed in this study provides a tool to dynamically model pedestrian waiting decisions with uncertainties. Model results reveal that, after the conversion from one-way to two-way operation, the probability of a pedestrian accepting a lag decreases from 69.7% to just below 60% on the same street. In addition, pedestrians are more hesitant to cross a two-way street than a one-way street. Countermeasures that increase motorist yielding rate or reduce pedestrian confusion will enhance safety such crossing locations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Pedestres/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(4): 1238-1248, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902055

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Childhood Nonverbal Communication Scale (CNCS) to assess nonverbal communication skills in children from birth to 18 months old. An extensive review of existing research provided evidence used to generate items representative of nonverbal communication behaviors. The final version of the CNCS includes 37 items divided in two dimensions (CNCS-1 and CNCS-2) showing high content validity (item-rated content validity index ≥ 0.75). The scale was administered to 428 Iranian Persian-speaking children 3 to 18 months old with normal development. According to the findings, the CNCS showed strong internal consistency (KR-20 = 0.965). Further, it had good convergent validity based on a significant correlation between total scores and the results of the Persian version of the Production of Infant Scale Evaluation (PRISE-P) (r = 0.5, P < 0.01). Therefore, the CNCS is a promising tool for measuring nonverbal communication in Iranian children from birth to 18 months of age.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental/normas , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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