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1.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(6): 35-41, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882559

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with maldevelopment of the brain that leads to impaired communication and social interaction skills, possible cognitive decline, and an inability to cope with environmental stimuli. Affected individuals may also exhibit a myriad of stereotypic and maladaptive behaviors. With the increasing prevalence of ASD in the United States, oral healthcare professionals (OHCP) will encounter greater opportunities for patient interactions. There is limited information in the literature regarding ASD and dental radiography. The task of taking diagnostically acceptable radiographs on ASD-affected patients may be hindered by a lack of cooperative behavior, communication difficulties, and an incapacity to understand instructions. This report will review various ASD-related characteristics, comorbidities, and an assortment of general behavior guidance techniques (Picture Exchange Communication System, visual scheduling, social stories, first-then board, voice control, tell-show-do, electronic media devices, nonverbal communication, and desensitization). Guidelines for applying basic and advanced techniques for dental radiographic examinations will be discussed with the goal of improved patient interactions and positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Adaptação Psicológica , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Estados Unidos
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze nonverbal communication between nurse and parturient during the active phase of labor in two Portuguese-speaking countries. METHOD: a quantitative and analytical study, whose sample consisted of 709 interactions that used the nonverbal communication of nurses and parturients. The analyzed variables were: distance; posture; axis; contact; emblematic gestures; illustrator gestures and regulatory gestures. For the analysis of the data, the Chi-Square and Likelihood Ratio tests were used. RESULTS: the intimate distance between nurse and parturient in both countries (p = 0.005) prevailed. In both, touch was the most commonly used form of contact (p <0.0001). In both countries, the parturient remained lying down (p <0.0001). In relation to the established contact (p <0.0001), the parturient did not use contact. The face-to-face axis predominated in the interactions in both countries between nurse-parturient (p <0.0001) and parturient-nurse (p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: similarities were observed in non-verbal communication between nurses and parturients in both countries. However, there are differences such as the established contact between Brazilian and Cape Verdean nurses to parturients.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Comunicação não Verbal , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Saúde da Mulher , Brasil , Cabo Verde , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Enfermagem Obstétrica , Gravidez
3.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 2931-2935, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607624

RESUMO

Transplant recipients have difficulty expressing, identifying, and describing their emotional experiences. The Machover human figure test allows us to bring out the deepest contents of a patient's personality, which are normally hidden and not explained to structured quantitative tests. The study analyzed possible situations of distress and possible symptoms of psychopathology in kidney transplant recipients, emerged from the projective test of the human figure and not easily verbalized to the common standardized tests. The sample included 80 kidney transplant patients (51 men and 29 women; mean age, 47.74 [SD, 12.39] years) during follow-up visits at 12 months after transplant. The Machover test was used to evaluate body image, affective aspects, and personality variables by projective method; the Symptom Checklist-90-R was used for the evaluation of possible psychopathology, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used for the assessment of perceived quality of life. RESULTS: showed that the more anxiety there is in the human figure test, the less somatization dimensions (ANX/SOM R = -331, P < .05), depression (ANX/DEP R = -326, P < .05), and the global index of psychic symptomatology (ANX/GSI R = -367, P < .05) of the Symptom Checklist-90-R are present. This research has confirmed the hypothesis that the spontaneous graphic production of the recipients, through the projective methods, allows them to identify and deepen their psychological contents and to activate and maintain a good psychophysical balance post transplant.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Testes Psicológicos , Psicopatologia/instrumentação , Transplantados/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46814

RESUMO

Our mission is to educate, guide and inspire parents of children with learning disabilities or ADHD. Our aim is to help parents realize their children’s significant gifts and talents, and to show that with their love, guidance, and the right support, their children can live happy and productive lives.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Comunicação não Verbal , Função Executiva
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 376-380, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobius syndrome is characterized by a bilateral congenital paralysis of the facial and abducens nerves which leaves the subject with an expressionless "mask-like" face. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Based on a literature review and a case discussion of an adult patient with Mobius syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder, initially undiagnosed and confused with a psychotic disorder, we will discuss the influence of Mobius syndrome in psychiatric evaluations. RESULTS: The lack of facial expressiveness and non-verbal emotional interactions may influence psychiatric evaluations and result in misdiagnosis and the inappropriate prescribing of antipsychotics. In the case analysis, we also observed other associated malformations such as renal atrophy, a bicuspid aortic valve and mitral valve prolapse. CONCLUSION: We feel that educating the patient about the communicative consequences of impaired facial expressions and facial interactions is a necessary prerequisite for any psychiatric or psychological evaluation in subjects with Mobius syndrome. We also recommend using caution when prescribing antipsychotics in patients with Mobius syndrome given the motor side effects secondary to a potentially pre-existing hypotonia.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico , Síndrome de Möbius/complicações , Síndrome de Möbius/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Síndrome de Möbius/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Möbius/patologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/patologia
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102899, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387061

RESUMO

The effects of power posing on hormonal reactions such as testosterone and cortisol have been widely investigated, however, its effects on the autonomic nervous system are rather unknown. Consequently, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of power posing on cardiac vagal activity (CVA), as indexed by heart rate variability. It was hypothesized that high power poses (HPP) would increase CVA, whereas low power poses (LPP) would decrease CVA, given power posing is expected to decrease stress. Participants (N = 56) performed a total of four power poses, a combination of two power conditions (high vs. low) and two body positions (sitting vs. standing) for 1 min each, in a randomized order. In addition, for each power pose participants were given a role description. Contrary to our hypothesis, CVA decreased significantly during HPP in comparison to the resting measures before and after HPP, and CVA did not change during LPP. Moreover, while holding the power pose, CVA was higher in the LPP than in the HPP condition. Regarding subjective measures our hypotheses were confirmed, felt power was significantly higher after HPP than after LPP. Additionally, perceived stress was higher after LPP than after HPP. Taken together, these results suggest that the immediate impact of PP on the autonomic nervous system is more likely to influence a higher state of activation within the body instead of increasing resources to cope with stress as indexed by CVA, which may be seen only on a more long-term basis.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Postura/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 31(4): E1-E5, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whole body vibration training is a viable option for children with Rett syndrome; however, the positioning requirements and intense vibration may be interpreted as pain. CASE: A 13-year-old girl with a diagnosis of Rett syndrome, Stage IV, participated. The Individualized Numeric Rating Scale was developed in collaboration with the caregiver and scored by a physical therapist and student physical therapists during 16 sessions of whole body vibration training. OUTCOMES: The therapist and students reached 100% agreement on the Individualized Numeric Rating Scale ratings and successfully provided distractions to prevent pain and distress from reaching a level 5 out of 10 for 139 of 144 sessions. CONCLUSION: This is the first case in the literature to demonstrate use of the Individualized Numeric Rating Scale with a child who is nonverbal during a potentially painful physical therapy procedure.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Comunicação não Verbal , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Processual/etiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Síndrome de Rett/reabilitação , Vibração/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Rev. enferm. UFSM ; 9: [19], jul. 15, 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1024463

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a semiologia das expressões corporais e as tipologias de cuidados realizados pelos enfermeiros em emergência. Método: estudo qualitativo e exploratório, oriundo da coleta de dados por meio de imagens fílmicas, realizado com oito enfermeiros na emergência de um Hospital Universitário durante 24 dias. Resultados: identificou-se que os cuidados de Enfermagem na emergência apresentam uma natureza própria, discutida em 23 maneiras de cuidar: alerta; guerra; dinâmico; contínuo; contingencial; expressivo; multifaces; anônimo; admissional; registrado; conexões; diurno; noturno; passagem de plantão; corpo transformado; eletrônico; microespaço, à margem social, da população de rua, mural, perto/distante, corpo (semi)morto, dos profissionais do cuidado. Considerações finais: o estudo em tela permitiu identificar, por meio das imagens, a natureza dos cuidados de Enfermagem na emergência.


Aim: to describe the semiology of body expressions and the typologies of care performed by emergency nurses. Method: qualitative and exploratory study arising from data collection by means of recorded images, performed with eight nurses in the emergency unit of a University Hospital, during 24 days. Results: it was identified that Nursing care in emergency units has a nature of its own, discussed in 23 ways of caring: alert; war; dynamic; continuous; contingency; expressive; multifaceted; anonymous; admission; registered; connections; daily, nightly; shift change; transformed body; electronic; micro-space; socially aside; of street population; mural; near/far; (half-)dead body; of care professionals. Final considerations: the present study allowed the identification, through the images, of the nature of Nursing care in the emergency room.


Objetivo: describir la semiología de las expresiones corporales y las tipologías de cuidados realizados por enfermeros en emergencia. Método: estudio cualitativo y exploratorio, realizado a partir de la recolección de datos por medio de imágenes grabadas, con ocho enfermeros en la emergencia de un Hospital Universitario, durante 24 días. Resultados: se identificó que los cuidados de Enfermería en la emergencia presentan una naturaleza propia, discutida en 23 maneras de cuidar: alerta; guerra; dinámico; continuo, de contingencia; expresivo; multifocal; anónimo, de lo que está al margen social; de población desasistida; mural; cercano/lejano; del cuerpo (semi)muerto; de los profesionales; de admisión; registrado; de conexiones; diurno; nocturno; en cambio de turno; del cuerpo transformado; electrónico; del microespacio. Consideraciones finales: el estudio en pantalla ha permitido identificar, por medio de las ha permitido identificar, por medio de las imágenes, la naturaleza de la atención de enfermería en urgencias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem em Emergência , Comunicação não Verbal , Cuidados de Enfermagem
9.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46641

RESUMO

Autism Speaks is dedicated to promoting solutions, across the spectrum and throughout the life span, for the needs of individuals with autism and their families through advocacy and support; increasing understanding and acceptance of people with autism spectrum disorder; and advancing research into causes and better interventions for autism spectrum disorder and related conditions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Síndrome de Asperger , Transtorno de Comunicação Social , Hipersensibilidade , Comunicação não Verbal , Ansiedade , Depressão , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Habilidades Sociais , Fonoterapia , Terapia Ocupacional , Fisioterapia , Psicotrópicos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Espectro Autista
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102865, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228718

RESUMO

Older adults sometimes experience difficulty in decoding non-literal language, such as sarcastic statements where the underlying meaning differs from the literal words used. Given that sarcasm usually communicates a negative message this age effect might be explained by a positivity bias in old age. Here we test this for the first time by looking at age differences in interpreting non-literal compliments made with positive intention. However, another possibility is that older adults may fail to interpret such remarks correctly because these non-literal compliments are rarely encountered in everyday interactions. The aim of this study was therefore to compare younger and older adults' comprehension of positively and negatively valenced non-literal language. Forty younger and thirty-eight older adults read short story scenarios ending with a positive or negative, literal or non-literal evaluative appraisal of an event. Older adults were less likely than young to detect negatively valenced non-literal criticism and there were even more pronounced age-related differences in comprehending positive non-literal compliments. This indicates that age differences in understanding non-literal language are not driven by positivity biases. The relative rarity of non-literal compliments may have made these particularly difficult to interpret for both younger and older adults. Younger adults' performance indicated that non-literal language mutes perceived levels of critique and praise, while older adults' tendency to misinterpret non-literal language means that they may not benefit from this muting function. Potential implications for social interactions in older adulthood are discussed.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Compreensão , Linguagem , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leitura
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 304-308, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In spite of the rapid development in various communication-support technologies for those waking up from a coma, studies describing the sole process of reconstructing communication in this group of patients are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze communication reactions in a minimal state of consciousness and describe the nonverbal behaviours characteristic for each stages significant for the therapy of communication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 18 severely brain-injured patients in a minimal state of consciousness participated in the half-year observation study, which included people experiencing at least 4 weeks of consciousness disorder/coma. Age of patients 25±5 years. Psychological assessment included: observation of various attempts of communications undertaken by patients, caregivers and family interview, the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Individual Communication Sheet. RESULTS: Data analysis showed a significant increase in preverbal communication, both in primal and sensory areas when compared between Stage II (GCS=6-8 points) and Stage III (GCS=9-12 points). After a time, primary communication reached a high level. Patients produced communication attempts from the behaviour organization level, and an increase in the nonverbal communication level was noted. Based on observations, nonverbal communication profiles for each stage of waking up from a coma were introduced. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that in the process of waking up from a coma the patients communicate with the use of the preverbal level of primal communication, the sensory and behaviour organization activities. The characteristics of the communication reactions show that in Stage III there is a significant increase in two preverbal communication areas: primal and sensory acts, when compared with Stage II.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Coma/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/reabilitação , Coma/reabilitação , Estado de Consciência , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 37(2): [E02], 15-06-2019. Table 1, Table 2, table 3, Table 4
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1006796

RESUMO

Objetivo. Describir la calidad de la relación entre las enfermeras y los pacientes sometidos a ventilación mecánica. Métodos. Estudio observacional realizado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de Cirugía Cardíaca en Irán. Se seleccionaron 10 enfermeras y 35 pacientes mediante muestreo aleatorio simple y de conveniencia, respectivamente. Se observaron 175 comunicaciones entre las enfermeras y los pacientes en diferentes turnos de trabajo. Los resultados se registraron de acuerdo con una lista de verificación. La satisfacción con la comunicación de las enfermeras y de los pacientes se evaluó mediante una escala Likert de 6 ítems, de 8 a 12 horas después de la extubación del paciente. Resultados. La mayoría de los pacientes eran hombres (77.1%), mientras que en las enfermeras predominó el sexo femenino (60%). El 75% de las comunicaciones observadas las iniciaron los pacientes. El contenido de la comunicación estaba relacionado principalmente con las necesidades físicas y el dolor. La mayoría de los pacientes usaron las miradas intencionadas, los gestos con las manos y los movimientos de la cabeza para comunicarse. La mayoría de las comunicaciones fueron 'ligeramente satisfactorias' (45.7% para enfermeras versus 54.3% para pacientes). Sin embargo, la satisfacción general fue menor en las enfermeras (0%) en comparación con los pacientes (5.7%). No se encontró correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la satisfacción de los pacientes y de las enfermeras con las variables demográficas estudiadas. Conclusión. Los resultados mostraron que la comunicación entre las enfermeras y los pacientes con ventilación mecánica se construyó a través de métodos tradicionales y se basó en las solicitudes de los pacientes. Esta situación puede ser el motivo del nivel indeseable de satisfacción con las comunicaciones, las cuales son esenciales para comprender y satisfacer las necesidades de los pacientes.


Objective. To describe the quality of the relationship between nurses and patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods. This observational study, performed in a cardiac surgery intensive care unit in Iran, selected 10 nurses and 35 patients through simple random and convenience sampling, respectively. One of the researchers observed 175 communications between nurses and patients in different work shifts and recorded the results according to a checklist. Nurse and patient satisfaction with the communication was assessed by using a six-item Likert scale, 8 to 12 h after extubation. Results. Most of the patients were male (77.1%), while most of the nurses were female (60%). Patients started over 75% of the communications observed. The content of the communication was related mostly to physical needs and pain. Besides, the majority of patients used purposeful stares and hand gestures, and head nod for communication. Most of the communications between patients and nurses were satisfied 'very low' (45.7% in nurses, versus 54.3% in patients). However, 'complete satisfaction' was lower in nurses (0%), compared with patients (5.7%). No statistically significant correlation was found between patients' and nurses' satisfaction and demographic variables. Conclusion. The results showed that communication between nurses and mechanically ventilated patients was built through traditional methods and was based on the patients' requests. This issue might be the cause of an undesirable level of their satisfaction with the communication, given that effective communication can lead to understanding and meeting the needs of the patients.


Objetivo. Descrever a qualidade da relação entre as enfermeiras e os pacientes submetidos a ventilação. Métodos. Estudo observacional realizado em uma Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo de Cirurgia Cardíaca no Irã. Se selecionaram 10 enfermeiras e 35 pacientes mediante amostra aleatória simples e de conveniência, respectivamente. Se observaram 175 comunicações entre as enfermeiras e os pacientes em diferentes turnos de trabalho. Os resultados se registraram de acordo com uma lista de verificação. A satisfação com a comunicação das enfermeiras e dos pacientes se avaliou mediante uma escala Likert de 6 itens, de 8 a 12 horas depois da extubação do paciente. Resultados. A maioria dos pacientes eram homens (77.1%), enquanto que nas enfermeiras predominou o sexo feminino (60%). 75% das comunicações observadas foram iniciadas pelos pacientes. O conteúdo da comunicação estava relacionado principalmente com as necessidades físicas e a dor. A maioria dos pacientes para comunicar-se usavam as olhadas intencionadas, os gestos com as mãos e os movimentos da cabeça. A maioria das comunicações foram 'ligeiramente satisfatórias' (45.7% para enfermeiras versus 54.3% para pacientes). Porém, a satisfação completa foi menor nas enfermeiras (0%) em comparação com os pacientes (5.7%). Não se encontrou correlação estatisticamente significativa entre a satisfação dos pacientes e das enfermeiras com as variáveis demográficas. Conclusão. Os resultados mostraram que a comunicação entre as enfermeiras e os pacientes com ventilação mecânica se construiu através de métodos tradicionais e se baseou nas solicitações dos pacientes. Esta situação pode ser o motivo do nível indesejável de satisfação com as comunicações, as quais são necessárias para compreender e satisfazer as necessidades dos pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Institutos de Cardiologia , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Satisfação do Paciente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Comunicação não Verbal
13.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(11): 1266-1274, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074506

RESUMO

AIM: A scoping review was conducted to examine and evaluate empirical data on the communication profile of Angelman syndrome beyond the described dissociation between receptive language and speech. METHOD: Three databases (PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science) were searched to retrieve articles investigating communication in Angelman syndrome. Seventeen articles investigating the broader communication profile were found; their methodology was evaluated against quality criteria. RESULTS: Despite the absence of speech, individuals with Angelman syndrome have a wide repertoire of non-verbal communicative behaviours, mainly characterized by gestures, although advanced forms such as symbolic communication are used by some individuals. The use of communicative forms differs between the genetic aetiologies of Angelman syndrome; individuals with non-deletion aetiologies typically have greater communicative abilities. INTERPRETATION: The broader communication profile of Angelman syndrome is characterized by diverse and multimodal abilities, including some use of symbolic forms of communication that appears atypical given the absence of speech. This is suggestive of a probable dissociation between speech and other expressive forms of communication, indicating an isolated speech production impairment. This highlights a need in this population for alternative communication and specific input from services tailored to support the nuances of the communication profile of Angelman syndrome. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Although absent speech is near universal, a diverse profile of other communicative abilities has been reported. Parental reporting has been predominantly used to assess the communication profile of Angelman syndrome. Literature that investigates the specificities and possible dissociations in such a communication profile is limited.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/psicologia , Comunicação , Síndrome de Angelman/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal , Fala
14.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086381

RESUMO

There have been decades of research on the usability and educational value of augmented reality. However, less is known about how augmented reality affects social interactions. The current paper presents three studies that test the social psychological effects of augmented reality. Study 1 examined participants' task performance in the presence of embodied agents and replicated the typical pattern of social facilitation and inhibition. Participants performed a simple task better, but a hard task worse, in the presence of an agent compared to when participants complete the tasks alone. Study 2 examined nonverbal behavior. Participants met an agent sitting in one of two chairs and were asked to choose one of the chairs to sit on. Participants wearing the headset never sat directly on the agent when given the choice of two seats, and while approaching, most of the participants chose the rotation direction to avoid turning their heads away from the agent. A separate group of participants chose a seat after removing the augmented reality headset, and the majority still avoided the seat previously occupied by the agent. Study 3 examined the social costs of using an augmented reality headset with others who are not using a headset. Participants talked in dyads, and augmented reality users reported less social connection to their partner compared to those not using augmented reality. Overall, these studies provide evidence suggesting that task performance, nonverbal behavior, and social connectedness are significantly affected by the presence or absence of virtual content.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978207

RESUMO

We present a new signal for detecting deception: full body motion. Previous work on detecting deception from body movement has relied either on human judges or on specific gestures (such as fidgeting or gaze aversion) that are coded by humans. While this research has helped to build the foundation of the field, results are often characterized by inconsistent and contradictory findings, with small-stakes lies under lab conditions detected at rates little better than guessing. We examine whether a full body motion capture suit, which records the position, velocity, and orientation of 23 points in the subject's body, could yield a better signal of deception. Interviewees of South Asian (n = 60) or White British culture (n = 30) were required to either tell the truth or lie about two experienced tasks while being interviewed by somebody from their own (n = 60) or different culture (n = 30). We discovered that full body motion-the sum of joint displacements-was indicative of lying 74.4% of the time. Further analyses indicated that including individual limb data in our full body motion measurements can increase its discriminatory power to 82.2%. Furthermore, movement was guilt- and penitential-related, and occurred independently of anxiety, cognitive load, and cultural background. It appears that full body motion can be an objective nonverbal indicator of deceit, showing that lying does not cause people to freeze.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cultura , Decepção , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Comunicação não Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214819, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986241

RESUMO

Grunting in tennis is a widespread phenomenon and whether it influences opponents' predictions of ball trajectory-and if so, why-is subject of ongoing debate. Two alternative hypotheses have been proposed to explain why grunting may impede opponents' predictions, referred to as the distraction account (i.e., grunts capture attentional resources necessary for anticipation) and the multisensory integration account (i.e., auditory information from the grunt systematically influences ball trajectory prediction typically assumed to rely on visual information). To put these competing hypotheses to test, in the current study we presented tennis players with a series of temporally occluded video clips of tennis rallies featuring experimentally amplified, attenuated, or muted grunting sounds. Participants were asked to predict the ball landing position. Results indicated that higher grunt intensities yielded judgments of longer ball trajectories whereas radial prediction errors were not affected. These results are clearly at odds with the distraction account of grunting, predicting increased prediction errors after higher intensity grunts. In contrast, our findings provide strong support for the multisensory integration account by demonstrating that grunt intensity systematically influences judgments of ball trajectory.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Tênis/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Som , Tênis/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo
17.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213034, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830931

RESUMO

Despite widespread evidence that nonverbal components of human speech (e.g., voice pitch) communicate information about physical attributes of vocalizers and that listeners can judge traits such as strength and body size from speech, few studies have examined the communicative functions of human nonverbal vocalizations (such as roars, screams, grunts and laughs). Critically, no previous study has yet to examine the acoustic correlates of strength in nonverbal vocalisations, including roars, nor identified reliable vocal cues to strength in human speech. In addition to being less acoustically constrained than articulated speech, agonistic nonverbal vocalizations function primarily to express motivation and emotion, such as threat, and may therefore communicate strength and body size more effectively than speech. Here, we investigated acoustic cues to strength and size in roars compared to screams and speech sentences produced in both aggressive and distress contexts. Using playback experiments, we then tested whether listeners can reliably infer a vocalizer's actual strength and height from roars, screams, and valenced speech equivalents, and which acoustic features predicted listeners' judgments. While there were no consistent acoustic cues to strength in any vocal stimuli, listeners accurately judged inter-individual differences in strength, and did so most effectively from aggressive voice stimuli (roars and aggressive speech). In addition, listeners more accurately judged strength from roars than from aggressive speech. In contrast, listeners' judgments of height were most accurate for speech stimuli. These results support the prediction that vocalizers maximize impressions of physical strength in aggressive compared to distress contexts, and that inter-individual variation in strength may only be honestly communicated in vocalizations that function to communicate threat, particularly roars. Thus, in continuity with nonhuman mammals, the acoustic structure of human aggressive roars may have been selected to communicate, and to some extent exaggerate, functional cues to physical formidability.


Assuntos
Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Agressão , Percepção Auditiva , Tamanho Corporal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Fala , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 98: 320-332, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832924

RESUMO

Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked genetic disorder that occurs predominantly in females. The clinical picture associated with RTT is defined by core and supportive consensus criteria, with a period of behavioural regression being a conditio sine qua non. This review sheds light on atypical neurofunctions and potential behavioural biomarkers before the onset of regression. The main focus lies on (a) motor development, especially on purposeful hand movements and the occurrence of stereotypies; and (b) speech-language and socio-communicative development. We outline potentially specific atypical behavioural patterns in these domains (e.g., vocalisations on inspiratory airstream) and different developmental traits of regression: (i) non-achievement of certain milestones: 'regression', here, might point to the fact that the lack of respective behavioural patterns appeared more and more worrisome with increasing age; and (ii) developmental milestones were achieved and functions deteriorate or even get lost during regression. To conclude, we are not quite there yet, but seem to be on the right track towards defining new and reliable neurofunctional markers for early detection of RTT.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Comunicação/fisiopatologia , Comunicação não Verbal/fisiologia , Síndrome de Rett/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Estereotipado/fisiologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Comportamento Social
19.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (235): 71-82, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183988

RESUMO

Con este artículo se pretende explicar los principales conceptos que están en la base de la aplicación de la psicomotricidad en el área de la psicogeriatría. Se abordarán las bases fundamentales del dominio científico de la psicomotricidad (conexión cuerpo-mente-relación), la especificidad de la relación entre terapeuta y paciente, la formación del psicomotricista y sus marcos profesionales. Se explicarán los efectos del envejecimiento en el sistema psicomotor (especialmente en la selección, programación y ejecución motora), indicando puntos fundamentales en el desempeño al nivel del equilibrio estático y dinámico, del tono, de la marcha, de la coordinación global e fina, de la estructuración espacial e temporal, de la noción y esquema corporal, de la percepción e integración sensorial y finalmente de la comunicación verbal y no verbal. También se explicitarán los principales síntomas psicomotores de síndromes neurodegenerativos como la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias. Seguidamente, se abordará la evaluación psicomotora de personas mayores, principalmente la aplicación de la versión portuguesa del Éxamen Geronto Psychomoteur1. Serán aclarados los principales objetivos de la intervención psicomotora y cómo se la encuadra, planea y ejecuta en el contexto de un equipo interdisciplinario de psicogeriatría. Por fin, se presentará la estructura general de una sesión de intervención psicomotora y los principales materiales utilizados


This article aims to explain the main concepts that are at the base of the application of psychomotricity in the psychogeriatric area. The fundamental bases of the scientific domain of psychomotricity (body-mind-relationship), the specificity of the relationship between psychomotor-therapist and patient, the training of the psychomotor therapist and its professional frameworks will be addressed. The effects of aging in the psychomotor system will be explained (especially in the selection, programming and motor execution), indicating fundamental points in the performance at the level of static and dynamic balance, tone, gait, global and fine coordination, spatial and temporal structuring, body notion and schema, sensory perception and integration', and finally of verbal and non-verbal communication. The main psychomotor symptoms of neurodegenerative syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias will also be explained. Next, psychomotor assessment of older people will be addressed, mainly the application of the Portuguese version of the Éxamen Geronto Psychomoteur1. The main objectives of the psychomotor intervention and how it is framed, planned and executed in the context of an interdisciplinary psychogeriatric team will be clarified. Finally, the general structure of a psychomotor intervention session and the main materials used will be presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Agitação Psicomotora/diagnóstico , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/instrumentação , Demência/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Transtornos Psicomotores/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/métodos , Psicopatologia/métodos , Transtornos Psicomotores/psicologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742651

RESUMO

In psychotherapy, movement synchrony seems to be associated with higher patient satisfaction and treatment outcome. However, it remains unclear whether movement synchrony rated by humans and movement synchrony identified by automated methods reflect the same construct. To address this issue, video sequences showing movement synchrony of patients and therapists (N = 10) or not (N = 10), were analyzed using motion energy analysis. Three different synchrony conditions with varying levels of complexity (naturally embedded, naturally isolated, and artificial) were generated for time series analysis with windowed cross-lagged correlation/ -regression (WCLC, WCLR). The concordance of ratings (human rating vs. automatic assessment) was computed for 600 different parameter configurations of the WCLC/WCLR to identify the parameter settings that measure movement synchrony best. A parameter configuration was rated as having a good identification rate if it yields high concordance with human-rated intervals (Cohen's kappa) and a low amount of over-identified data points. Results indicate that 76 configurations had a good identification rate (IR) in the least complex condition (artificial). Two had an acceptable IR with regard to the naturally isolated condition. Concordance was low with regard to the most complex (naturally embedded) condition. A valid identification of movement synchrony strongly depends on parameter configuration and goes beyond the identification of synchrony by human raters. Differences between human-rated synchrony and nonverbal synchrony measured by algorithms are discussed.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Relações Interpessoais , Comunicação não Verbal , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Movimento , Psicoterapia , Gravação em Vídeo
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