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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190025, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059133

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the perceptions of the family members of users of a children's psychosocial care center, regarding the facilitating factors and the difficulties in the communication with the health professionals. Method: a qualitative and descriptive study conducted with 25 family members of users of a children's psychosocial care center in a city of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Data collection took place between April and July 2017 using focus groups and a semi-structured script for the implementation of group sessions. Data was analyzed according to content analysis, thematic category. Results: two categories emerged from the analysis: Professional-Family relationship and Suggestions to enhance communication, which included practicalities and difficulties in communication. The data showed that the professional-family relationship refers to the professionals' positive actions, which facilitate communication, and to their negative actions, which means offering a distant and dehumanized care and failing to provide guidance. The suggestions to enhance communication were directed to the interventions focused on the family and on the dynamics and management of the service. Conclusion: there is a need for collaboration among management, staff and family members, which can contribute to a better health care and to building more solidary and dialogical relationships.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de los familiares de los usuarios de un centro de atención psicosocial infanto-juvenil, en relación con los factores facilitadores y las dificultades de la comunicación con los profesionales de la salud. Método: estudio cualitativo y descriptivo realizado con 25 familiares de usuarios de un centro de atención psicosocial infanto-juvenil en un municipio de Minas Gerais (Brasil). Los datos se recolectaron entre los meses de abril y junio de 2017 por medio de grupos focalizados, con la aplicación de un guión semiestructurado para desarrollar las sesiones grupales. Los datos se analizaron conforme al análisis de contenido, con la modalidad temática. Resultados: a partir del análisis surgieron dos categorías: Relación profesional-familia y Sugerencias para potenciar la comunicación; ambas abarcaron facilidades y dificultades en la comunicación. Los datos evidenciaron que la relación profesional-familia se refiere tanto a las acciones positivas de los profesionales, que facilitan la comunicación, como a sus acciones negativas, que significan ofrecer una atención distante y poco humanizada con escasa orientación. Las sugerencias para potenciar la comunicación estuvieron dirigidas a las intervenciones enfocadas en la familia y en la dinámica y organización del servicio. Conclusión: se hace evidente que es necesaria una aproximación entre la administración, el equipo de profesionales y los familiares, lo que puede ayudar a mejorar los cuidados en salud y hacer posible que se establezcan relaciones más solidarias y con más diálogo.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as percepções dos familiares de usuários de um centro de atenção psicossocial infantojuvenil, em relação aos fatores facilitadores e dificultadores da comunicação com os profissionais de saúde. Método: estudo qualitativo, descritivo, realizado com 25 familiares de usuários de um centro de atenção psicossocial infantojuvenil, em um município de Minas Gerais (Brasil). A coleta de dados ocorreu entre os meses de abril a julho de 2017, por meio de grupos focais, aplicando-se roteiro semiestruturado para desenvolvimento das sessões grupais. Os dados foram analisados segundo a análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática. Resultados: da análise emergiram duas categorias: Relação profissional-família e Sugestões para potencializar a comunicação, as quais abrangeram facilidades e dificuldades na comunicação. Os dados evidenciaram que a relação profissional-família diz respeito às ações positivas dos profissionais que facilitam a comunicação, e às ações negativas atuação distante, pouco humanizado, com escassez de orientação. As sugestões para potencializar a comunicação foram direcionadas às intervenções focadas na família e na dinâmica e organização do serviço. Conclusão: evidencia-se a necessidade de aproximação entre gerência, equipe de profissionais e familiares; o que pode contribuir para melhoria do cuidado em saúde e para a construção de relações mais solidárias e dialógicas.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Cuidadores , Comunicação , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Relações Profissional-Família , Assistência à Saúde , Relações Familiares
2.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(8): 59-61, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced assisted living facilities (ALF) to implement strict social isolation for residents. Social isolation in the geriatric population is known to negatively impact health. Here, we describe how ALFs in Rhode Island utilized device donations received from Connect for COVID-19, a nationwide nonprofit organization which has mobilized medical students to gather devices for donations to care centers. METHODS: Rhode Island ALFs were contacted to determine if they were interested in receiving smart device donations. After donations were made, an impact survey was electronically administered. Primary Results: A total of 11 facilities completed the survey with a response rate of 24% (11/46). The facilities were located throughout all five counties in Rhode Island, with the majority located in Providence County. All but one of the facilities that responded to the survey (n=10, 90.9%) have used the devices to allow residents to video-call their family members. Seven responses (63.6%) indicated that devices were used for more than one purpose. Primary Conclusions: Smart devices were well received by Rhode Island ALFs and used for purposes beyond video conference calls. ALFs should consider advertising the need for devices to encourage community donations. Future studies should investigate the direct impact that digital connectivity has had on Rhode Island ALF residents.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Smartphone , Computadores de Mão , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Rhode Island
4.
Air Med J ; 39(5): 340-342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012469

RESUMO

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus was identified as the cause of a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. It subsequently spread throughout China and around the world, quickly becoming a public health emergency. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 a pandemic. This article explores the preparation and early experiences of a large Canadian critical care transport program during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic focused on 6 broad strategic objectives centered around staff welfare, regular and transparent communication, networking, evidenced-based approach to personal protective equipment, agile mission planning, and an expedited approach to clinical practice and policy updates and future state modeling.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Disseminação de Informação , Liderança , Pandemias , Transferência de Pacientes/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral , Transporte de Pacientes/organização & administração , Medicina Aeroespacial , Resgate Aéreo , Ambulâncias , Betacoronavirus , Colúmbia Britânica , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Resiliência Psicológica
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1620-1625, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterised by abnormal development in the first two years of life and impairment with respect to the following three areas: social interactions, communication, and behaviour. The disorder is more common in males than females. The aim: The study was conducted to assess the effects of sensory integration therapy on selected fitness skills in autistic children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study assessed a group of 20 children (15 boys and 5 girls) aged 3 to 10 years. All children were diagnosed with autism and underwent 2-year therapy. The children showed impaired sensory modulation with abnormal stimulus reception and processing in the tactile, auditory, vestibular (balance), olfactory, and gustatory sensory systems. The study assessed fitness skills and their correlations with sensory integration therapy used in the children. The assessment used the Sensorimotor Development Questionnaire developed by Zbigniew Przyrowski and selected tests from "Obserwacja Kliniczna" as well as history-taking conducted with the parents. The following aspects were analysed: muscle tone, static balance, dynamic balance, jumping on two legs, jumping on one leg, catching and throwing a ball, and self-care activities, such as putting on shoes. RESULTS: Results: Sensory integration therapy contributed to an improvement in motor, sensory, cognitive, emotional, communication, and social development in the study patients. CONCLUSION: Conclusion: The use of sensory integration effectively supports sensory processes in autistic children.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
7.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1663-1667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine learners' (doctors) needs and draw up proposals for upgrading educational communication processes in the "provider-consumer" system of educational services. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The biblio-semantic, biostatistic and sociological methods were used. 754 author questionnaires were processed. RESULTS: Results: The socio-professional characteristics of learning service consumers at Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education were analyzed as well as studied their proposals. Evaluating communication interactions in the "provider-consumer" system of educational services concerned determining the most comfortable organizational modes of education for a consumer, making a careful analysis of the learning service characteristics by "accessibility" and "effectiveness" criteria. The determination methodology and research results can be used by universities and colleges regardless of the educational program specialization. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Ensuring the educational communication processes effectiveness in the "provider-consumer" system of educational services is achieved by studying learners' adaptation according to such principal criteria as organizational modes of education, the learning service accessibility and effectiveness. The learning service providers adjust customer requirements to the capabilities of a particular educational institution (personnel availability, facilities and resources etc.) and so that they ensure competitiveness.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Médicos , Humanos
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3864-3868, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018844

RESUMO

Augmentative and alternative communication devices (AAC) can help support communication for millions of people who have differences in speech and language abilities. Existing commercial devices do not meet all the diverse needs of some individuals. Interviews and surveys were conducted with individuals who have speech or language challenges (n=4 interviews; n=15 survey respondents), or their loved ones (n=9 interviews, n=49 survey respondents). Summaries of communication practices, usage preferences, and ratings of hypothetical devices are shown. We consolidate and present qualitative feedback on user difficulties and likes for types of available commercial devices. The collected quantitative data has been de-identified and published and may be useful for others working with AAC devices and users. Building on our results, we discuss how three directions for impactful AAC development - customizable input, context-aware output, and personalized devices - could help meet the needs expressed by survey respondents in the context of technological advancements and research in the field.


Assuntos
Idioma , Fala , Conscientização , Comunicação , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1295-1298, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999207

RESUMO

Health professionals should adopt best practices that are cognizant of the communication skills of their patients. Pharmacists should be knowledgeable about hearing disabilities to effectively provide medication education to deaf and hard-of-hearing (HH) patients. The Act for Eliminating Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities requires pharmacists to take the appropriate actions to their patients. However, awareness about the appropriate actions for eliminate discrimination has not increased among medical professionals. This survey examined the knowledge about hearing disabilities, practice of appropriate actions and confidence in medication education to deaf and HH patients on 216 pharmacists in Yahata Pharmaceutical Association in November 2019. Pharmacists had poor awareness about hearing disabilities and about 30% of participants misunderstood appropriate actions in communication to deaf and HH patients. Practice of appropriate action in medication education were taken by only about half of the participants. In particular, placing Ear symbol had not be taken at all. Participants felt that they could provide medication education sufficiently by written materials in spite of poor understanding about the literacy of deaf individuals. On the other hand, they felt unconfident due to lack of understanding about hearing disabilities and how to communicate with their patients. This survey suggests that pharmacists need to learn about hearing disabilities for effective communication and practice of appropriate action in medication education to patients with hearing disabilities. Learning hearing disabilities may enable them to take the actions that are necessary to eliminate discrimination and enhance their confidence in providing medication education.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Autoimagem , Competência Clínica , Compreensão , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2893-2896, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018611

RESUMO

Face to face communication is interactive, and involves continuous feedforward and feedback of information, thoughts, and feelings to the opposite party. To accurately assess the neural processing underlying these interactions, synchronous and simultaneous recording of the brain activity from both parties is needed, a method known as hyperscanning. Here, we investigated the neural processing underlying nonverbal face-to-face communication using a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) hyperscanning system, comprising two fiber optically connected MEGs. Eight pairs of subjects participated. Each individual in each pair viewed a combined 80 randomized 20 s trials of 40 real-time and 40 recorded (hereafter, real and simulated, respectively) videos of the opposite party's face. Non-verbal communication through actions such as gaze, eye blinks, and facial expression was intrinsically only possible during real videos. After each trial, subjects individually subjectively discriminated whether the viewed video was real or simulated. Overall subjective discrimination accuracies were slightly but significantly above chance level. Statistical analysis of brain activity revealed a significant three way interaction between theta-band rhythm amplitude, video type, and subjective discrimination response in the right frontal cortex. Additionally, when subjects responded that videos were simulated, theta activity was significantly lower for real videos compared with simulated videos (p = 0.01). This result not only demonstrates the importance of right frontal theta activity during non-verbal communication, but also indicates the existence of unconscious, semi-automated neural processing during non-verbal communication that underlies one's ability to subjectively discriminate whether or not the opposite party is real.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Magnetoencefalografia , Comunicação , Expressão Facial , Comunicação não Verbal
11.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; sept. 11, 2020.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119287

RESUMO

Com milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo em quarentena ou em isolamento físico, as fronteiras fechadas e as restrições a viagens, as tecnologias da informação (TI) ganharam espaço como os principais meios de comunicação e interação. Saúde digital e os respectivos conceitos vêm à tona sempre que se aborda a resposta dos sistemas de saúde à pandemia. Apesar de serem conhecidos há muito tempo, a situação atual alçou estes conceitos ao primeiro plano de todas as discussões e da tomada de decisão sobre resposta à pandemia.


Con millones de personas en todo el mundo en cuarentena o aislamiento físico, con los cierres de fronteras y con las restricciones a los viajes, las tecnologías de la información se han convertido en el principal medio de interacción y comunicación. De pronto, la salud digital y los conceptos afines han aparecido en todas las conversaciones relativas a la respuesta de los sistemas de salud contra la pandemia. Y a pesar de ser conceptos de larga data, la situación actual los ha puesto en el primer plano de todos los debates y las decisiones acerca de la respuesta a la pandemia.


As millions of people around the world are quarantined or in physical isolation, with border closings and restrictions in travel, Information Technologies (IT) have become the main means of interaction and communication. Suddenly, Digital Health and related concepts have begun to appear in every conversation related to the Health Systems' response to the pandemic. And despite being longstanding concepts, the current situation has elevated them to the forefront of all discussions and decision-making about the pandemic response.


Assuntos
Isolamento Social , Quarentena , Telemedicina , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde/organização & administração , Administração das Tecnologias da Informação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(3): 644-655, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121790

RESUMO

O presente artigo aborda a cultura e a medicina dos povos tradicionais afro-brasileiros como determinantes sociais da saúde em diferentes grupos étnicos, suas relações existentes com processos comunicativos e a efetivação de políticas públicas, especialmente a denominada Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas em Saúde e Complementares no Sistema Único de Saúde, assim como o campo da educação patrimonial em saúde. A partir das análises de narrativas do projeto na área de comunicação e saúde por meio das linguagens das artes, realizado na Fundação Oswaldo Cruz entre 2004 e 2008, em articulação com as questões da tese de doutorado sobre as memórias da diversidade sociocultural dos povos tradicionais em suas artes de cura na Jurema Sagrada, em desenvolvimento na Pós-Graduação em Memória Social da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, este texto indica pontos importantes acerca dos processos de comunicação na educação em saúde mediante o mapeamento dos territórios do saber como estratégias de memórias e resistências de grupos étnicos.


This article examines both culture and medicine practice by the traditional Afro-Brazilian people as health social determinants in different ethnic groups, their relations with communicative processes and the implementation of public policies, specially the Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas em Saúde e Complementares no SUS (National policy of integrative and complementary health practice by SUS), and the field of heritage of health education. It is based on the narrative analysis of the project developed by Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) from 2004 to 2008 in the communication and health area by means of art languages, related to issues proposed on PhD thesis about memories of the cultural and social diversity revealed by traditional people in its cure arts in Jurema Sagrada, in phase of development through the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Memória Social (Postgraduate program in social memory at Unirio - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. This text points out important issues about communication processes in health education through mapping of knowledge territories as strategies for memory and resistance of ethnic groups.


Este artículo analiza la cultura y la medicina de los pueblos tradicionales afro-brasileños como determinantes sociales de la salud en diferentes grupos étnicos, sus relaciones existentes con procesos comunicativos y la implementación de políticas públicas, especialmente la Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas em Saúde e Complementares no SUS (Política nacional de prácticas integrales y complentarias de salud en el SUS) y el campo de la educación patrimonial de la salud. Él se basa en el análisis de narrativas del proyecto en comunicación y salud a través de los lenguajes de las artes, realizado en la Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) en el periodo de 2004 hasta 2008, relacionado con las cuestiones de tesis doctoral sobre las memorias de la diversidad sociocultural de pueblos tradicionales revelada en sus artes curativas en Jurema Sagrada, en desarrollo en el Programa de Pós-Graduação em Memória Social (Programa de posgrado en memoria social) de la Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Unirio). El presente texto apunta cuestiones importantes sobre los procesos de comunicación en la educación en salud a través de la esquematización de los territorios del saber como estrategias de memorias e resistencia de los grupos étnicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Comunicação , Terapias Espirituais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Sistema Único de Saúde , Narração , Comunicação em Saúde
16.
Simul Healthc ; 15(5): 303-309, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Working under extreme stress can cause medical professionals to deviate from clinical guidelines even if they know of their existence, let alone in situations such as COVID-19 where guidelines are unclear, fluid, and resources limited. In situ simulation has been proven an effective tool for training medical professionals during previous healthcare crises, eg, Ebola, influenza, as well as for assessing the preparedness of centers by identifying potential latent safety threats. In this article, we describe our ongoing simulation activities to ensure that our staff is best prepared to adapt to the challenges of COVID-19. METHODS: This is a prospective preparedness assessment and training intervention at a tertiary care academic center in Lebanon during the COVID-19 pandemic. In situ simulations followed by debriefing with good judgment occur daily involving native teams of 3 to 5 professionals in the newly established COVID intensive care unit and wards, the adult and pediatric intensive care unit and wards, and the emergency department. The simulations are assessed by the instructor using the Simulation Team Assessment Tool and by the participants using the Simulation Effectiveness Tool. Transcripts of recorded simulation debriefings are analyzed for content for latent safety threats using the SHELL Framework (Software-Hardware-Equipment-Liveware). RESULTS: In 2 weeks, we conducted 15 simulations with 106 participants and 47 observers. Simulation Team Assessment Tool scores show an overall improvement across the hospital over time [101.5 ± 13 (80-134)]. Participants' feedback on the Simulation Effectiveness Tool has been predominantly positive on the educational and practical benefits of the simulation activity. Data from debriefings and observations demonstrated the following categories of latent safety threats: inadequate preparedness on infection control, uncertainty of guidelines on oxygen supplementation and intubation protocols, lack of leadership and communication, overall panic, and others. CONCLUSIONS: Our single-center preparedness intervention demonstrated multiple latent safety threats in relation to COVID-19, which can be recognized through simulation before translating into actual patient care.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Liderança , Líbano/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(12): 1283-1288, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911555

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is affecting care for high-risk newborns in ways that will likely be sustained beyond the initial pandemic response. These novel challenges present an urgent imperative to understand how COVID-19 impacts parent, family, and infant outcomes. We highlight three areas that warrant targeted attention: (1) inpatient care: visitation policies, developmental care, and communication practices; (2) outpatient care: high-risk infant follow-up and early intervention programs; and (3) parent psychosocial distress: mental health, social support, and financial toxicity. Changes to care delivery in these areas provide an opportunity to identify and implement novel strategies to provide family-centered care during COVID-19 and beyond. KEY POINTS: · The COVID-19 pandemic is influencing care delivery for high-risk newborns and their families.. · Rapid changes to care delivery are likely to be sustained beyond the initial pandemic response.. · We have an urgent imperative to understand how COVID-19 impacts infant, parent, and family outcomes..


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Hospitalização , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Assistência Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Saúde Mental , Política Organizacional , Pediatria , Relações Profissional-Família , Risco , Apoio Social , Telemedicina , Telefone , Comunicação por Videoconferência , Visitas a Pacientes
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24144-24153, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934147

RESUMO

Voluntary physical distancing is essential for preventing the spread of COVID-19. We assessed the role of political partisanship in individuals' compliance with physical distancing recommendations of political leaders using data on mobility from a sample of mobile phones in 3,100 counties in the United States during March 2020, county-level partisan preferences, information about the political affiliation of state governors, and the timing of their communications about COVID-19 prevention. Regression analyses examined how political preferences influenced the association between governors' COVID-19 communications and residents' mobility patterns. Governors' recommendations for residents to stay at home preceded stay-at-home orders and led to a significant reduction in mobility that was comparable to the effect of the orders themselves. Effects were larger in Democratic- than in Republican-leaning counties, a pattern more pronounced under Republican governors. Democratic-leaning counties also responded more strongly to recommendations from Republican than from Democratic governors. Political partisanship influences citizens' decisions to voluntarily engage in physical distancing in response to communications by their governor.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Liderança , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Política Pública , Fatores de Tempo , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898146

RESUMO

Learning to avoid harmful consequences can be a costly trial-and-error process. In such situations, social information can be leveraged to improve individual learning outcomes. Here, we investigated how participants used their own experiences and others' social cues to avoid harm. Participants made repeated choices between harmful and safe options, each with different probabilities of generating shocks, while also seeing the image of a social partner. Some partners made predictive gaze cues towards the harmful choice option while others cued an option at random, and did so using neutral or fearful facial expressions. We tested how learned social information about partner reliability transferred across contexts by letting participants encounter the same partner in multiple trial blocks while facing novel choice options. Participants' decisions were best explained by a reinforcement learning model that independently learned the probabilities of options being safe and of partners being reliable and combined these combined these estimates to generate choices. Advice from partners making a fearful facial expression influenced participants' decisions more than advice from partners with neutral expressions. Our results showed that participants made better decisions when facing predictive partners and that they cached and transferred partner reliability estimates into new blocks. Using simulations we show that participants' transfer of social information into novel contexts is better adapted to variable social environments where social partners may change their cuing strategy or become untrustworthy. Finally, we found no relation between autism questionnaire scores and performance in our task, but do find autism trait related differences in learning rate parameters.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comunicação , Biologia Computacional , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19788, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Korea is among the best-performing countries in tackling the coronavirus pandemic by using mass drive-through testing, face mask use, and extensive social distancing. However, understanding the patterns of risk perception could also facilitate effective risk communication to minimize the impacts of disease spread during this crisis. OBJECTIVE: We attempt to explore patterns of community health risk perceptions of COVID-19 in South Korea using internet search data. METHODS: Google Trends (GT) and NAVER relative search volumes (RSVs) data were collected using COVID-19-related terms in the Korean language and were retrieved according to time, gender, age groups, types of device, and location. Online queries were compared to the number of daily new COVID-19 cases and tests reported in the Kaggle open-access data set for the time period of December 5, 2019, to May 31, 2020. Time-lag correlations calculated by Spearman rank correlation coefficients were employed to assess whether correlations between new COVID-19 cases and internet searches were affected by time. We also constructed a prediction model of new COVID-19 cases using the number of COVID-19 cases, tests, and GT and NAVER RSVs in lag periods (of 1-3 days). Single and multiple regressions were employed using backward elimination and a variance inflation factor of <5. RESULTS: The numbers of COVID-19-related queries in South Korea increased during local events including local transmission, approval of coronavirus test kits, implementation of coronavirus drive-through tests, a face mask shortage, and a widespread campaign for social distancing as well as during international events such as the announcement of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organization. Online queries were also stronger in women (r=0.763-0.823; P<.001) and age groups ≤29 years (r=0.726-0.821; P<.001), 30-44 years (r=0.701-0.826; P<.001), and ≥50 years (r=0.706-0.725; P<.001). In terms of spatial distribution, internet search data were higher in affected areas. Moreover, greater correlations were found in mobile searches (r=0.704-0.804; P<.001) compared to those of desktop searches (r=0.705-0.717; P<.001), indicating changing behaviors in searching for online health information during the outbreak. These varied internet searches related to COVID-19 represented community health risk perceptions. In addition, as a country with a high number of coronavirus tests, results showed that adults perceived coronavirus test-related information as being more important than disease-related knowledge. Meanwhile, younger, and older age groups had different perceptions. Moreover, NAVER RSVs can potentially be used for health risk perception assessments and disease predictions. Adding COVID-19-related searches provided by NAVER could increase the performance of the model compared to that of the COVID-19 case-based model and potentially be used to predict epidemic curves. CONCLUSIONS: The use of both GT and NAVER RSVs to explore patterns of community health risk perceptions could be beneficial for targeting risk communication from several perspectives, including time, population characteristics, and location.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Ferramenta de Busca , Adolescente , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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