Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 177
Filtrar
1.
JAMA ; 322(23): 2353, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846007
2.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830918

RESUMO

Most research on the effects of disclosure on close relationships have been done using offline disclosure. However, disclosure done online has disparate features and thus its effects on relationships may also differ. In five studies and using primes emulating Facebook timelines and messages, we compared the effects of disclosure depth on intimacy and satisfaction in online vs. offline contexts, in romantic vs. friend relationships, and with differing content (self- vs. partner-focused). After demonstrating consistent differences, we examined one mechanism that accounted for the differential effects of online vs. offline disclosure in romantic relationships: perceived inclusivity of the recipients. Results revealed that greater disclosure was associated with higher relational intimacy and satisfaction when done offline (Studies 1 and 4), and lower intimacy and satisfaction when done online (Studies 1-4), in both the discloser (Study 1) and his or her partner (Studies 2-4). The negative association between online disclosure and intimacy was present in romantic relationships, but not in friendships (Study 1). Importantly, this effect only appeared when perceived inclusivity of recipients was high (Study 4). Focusing the online disclosure content on the partner/relationship dissipated its negative effects (Study 5). Together, these studies extend further knowledge on how the effects of disclosure are contextualized, and suggest that disclosure done publicly online may be detrimental to romantic relationships.


Assuntos
Revelação/tendências , Satisfação Pessoal , Mensagem de Texto/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação/história , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais/história , Masculino , Autorrevelação , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mensagem de Texto/tendências , Revelação da Verdade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544658

RESUMO

Why a species as successful as Homo sapiens should spend so much time in fiction, in telling one another stories that neither side believes, at first seems an evolutionary riddle. Because of the advantages of tracking and recombining true information, capacities for event comprehension, memory, imagination, and communication evolved in a range of animal species-yet even chimpanzees cannot communicate beyond the here and now. By Homo erectus, our forebears had reached an increasing dependence on one another, not least in sharing information in mimetic, prelinguistic ways. As Daniel Dor shows, the pressure to pool ever more information, even beyond currently shared experience, led to the invention of language. Language in turn swiftly unlocked efficient forms of narrative, allowing early humans to learn much more about their kind than they could experience at first hand, so that they could cooperate and compete better through understanding one another more fully. This changed the payoff of sociality for individuals and groups. But true narrative was still limited to what had already happened. Once the strong existing predisposition to play combined with existing capacities for event comprehension, memory, imagination, language, and narrative, we could begin to invent fiction, and to explore the full range of human possibilities in concentrated, engaging, memorable forms. First language, then narrative, then fiction, created niches that altered selection pressures, and made us ever more deeply dependent on knowing more about our kind and our risks and opportunities than we could discover through direct experience. WIREs Cogn Sci 2018, 9:e1444. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1444 This article is categorized under: Cognitive Biology > Evolutionary Roots of Cognition Linguistics > Evolution of Language Neuroscience > Cognition.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Linguagem/história , Narração , Revelação da Verdade , Evolução Biológica , Cognição , Compreensão , História Antiga , Humanos , Aprendizagem
5.
Med Humanit ; 43(2): 99-100, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28559367

RESUMO

The links between mental state and art in all its various forms and media have long been of interest to historians, critics, artists, patients and doctors. Photographs of patients constitute an extensive but largely unexplored archive that can be used to recover patient experience in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The camera and the photograph became tools to communicate information about mental ill health between doctors, their patients and their colleagues. They were published in textbooks and journals, exhibited, exchanged and pasted into medical case books alongside case notes. But they were also used by patients to communicate their own experiences, identity and sense of self. This article uses published and case book photographs from c. 1885-1910 to examine the networks of communication between different stakeholders and discourses.


Assuntos
Atitude , Transtornos Mentais/história , Fotografação/história , Comunicação/história , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental
6.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(3): 307-325, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28571509

RESUMO

The introduction to this special issue argues that network breakdowns play an important and unacknowledged role in the shaping and emergence of scientific knowledge. It focuses on transnational scientific networks from the early modern Republic of Letters to 21st-century globalized science. It attempts to unite the disparate historiography of the early modern Republic of Letters, the literature on 20th-century globalization, and the scholarship on Actor-Network Theory. We can perceive two, seemingly contradictory, changes to scientific networks over the past four hundred years. At the level of individuals, networks have become increasing fragile, as developments in communication and transportation technologies, and the emergence of regimes of standardization and instrumentation, have made it easier both to create new constellations of people and materials, and to replace and rearrange them. But at the level of institutions, collaborations have become much more extensive and long-lived, with single projects routinely outlasting even the arc of a full scientific career. In the modern world, the strength of institutions and macro-networks often relies on ideological regimes of standardization and instrumentation that can flexibly replace elements and individuals at will.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Relações Interprofissionais , Ciência/história , Tecnologia/história , Historiografia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Rede Social/história
9.
Soc Stud Sci ; 47(3): 326-352, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032525

RESUMO

Rome has long been central to the story of Galileo's life and scientific work. Through an analysis of the metadata of Galileo's surviving letters, combined with a close reading of the letters themselves, we discuss how Galileo used correspondence to build a Roman network. Galileo initially assembled this network around the members of the Lincean Academy, a few carefully nurtured relationships with important ecclesiastics, and the expertise of well positioned Tuscan diplomats in the Eternal City. However, an analysis of Galileo's correspondence in the aftermath of the trial of 1633 provides us with a unique opportunity to interrogate how his altered circumstances transformed his social relations. Forced to confront the limitations on his activities imposed by Catholic censure and house arrest, Galileo experienced the effects of these restrictions in his relationships with others and especially in his plans for publication. In the years following 1633, Galileo turned his epistolary attention north to the Veneto and to Paris in order to publish his Two New Sciences. While Galileo's Lincean network and papal contacts in Rome were defunct after 1633, we see how Rome remained important to him as the site of a number of Roman disciples who would continue his intellectual project long after his own death.


Assuntos
Astronomia/história , Catolicismo/história , Relações Interprofissionais , Religião e Ciência , Rede Social/história , Comunicação/história , Correspondência como Assunto/história , História do Século XVII , Itália
10.
Perm J ; 20(3): 15-219, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352417

RESUMO

Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Relações Médico-Paciente , Revelação da Verdade , História do Século XX , Estados Unidos
11.
Trends Immunol ; 37(6): 347-349, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27156780

RESUMO

In clinical practice, a successful patient-physician partnership can improve the outcome of treatment, especially in cases of chronic disease or cancer. To establish this partnership, physicians must explain treatment options and potential outcomes, but how to best do this when treatment is based on scientific principles and findings that the lay patient will not be familiar with? Here we present a paradigm for patient-physician communication using the immunotherapy of cancer as a model. In this context, we argue for the importance of incorporating techniques in communicating science with patients into the training of early career physicians.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/história , Relações Médico-Paciente , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Nuncius ; 31(1): 78-106, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27071301

RESUMO

Science in the early modern world depended on openness in scholarly communication. On the other hand, a web of commercial, political, and religious conflicts required broad measures of secrecy and confidentiality; similar measures were integral to scholarly rivalries and plagiarism. This paper analyzes confidentiality and secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchange via letters and drawings. We argue that existing approaches to understanding knowledge exchange in early modern Europe--which focus on the Republic of Letters as a unified entity of corresponding scholars--can be improved upon by analyzing multilayered networks of communication. We describe a data model to analyze circles of confidence and cultures of secrecy in intellectual and technological knowledge exchanges. Finally, we discuss the outcomes of a first experiment focusing on the question of how personal and professional/official relationships interact with confidentiality and secrecy, based on a case study of the correspondence of Hugo Grotius.


Assuntos
Arte , Comunicação/história , Confidencialidade , Correspondência como Assunto/história , Conhecimento , Ciência , Tecnologia , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos
13.
Notes Rec R Soc Lond ; 70(4): 343-59, 2016 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124255

RESUMO

Focusing on the editors, journalists and authors who worked on the new 'popular science' periodicals and books from the 1860s to the 1880s, this piece will discuss how they conceived of their readers as co-participants in the creation of knowledge. The transformation of nineteenth-century publishing opened up opportunities for making science more accessible to a new polity of middle and working class readers. Editors, journalists and authors responded to the communications revolution, and the larger developments that accompanied it, by defining the exemplary scientist in opposition to the emerging conception of the professional scientist, by rejecting the notion that the laboratory was the sole legitimate site of scientific discovery and by experimenting with new ways of communicating scientific knowledge to their audience.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Editoração/história , Ciência/história , Comunicação/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Cultura Popular
15.
Bull Hist Med ; 89(3): 379-405, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26521666

RESUMO

Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Conhecimento , Reprodução , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , América do Norte
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 138: 136-43, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26093071

RESUMO

This paper examines the origins of consumerist discourse in health care from a communication perspective via a historical textual analysis of health writing in popular magazines from 1930 to 1949. The focus is on Consumers Union's Consumer Reports and the American Medical Association's lay health magazine, Hygeia. Findings from Consumer Reports show that the consumer movement of the 1930s-40s staunchly advocated for universal health insurance. Whereas consumer rights language nowadays tends towards individual choice and personal responsibility, consumerism in health care during that era articulated ideas about consumer citizenship, framing choice and responsibility in collectivist terms and health care as a social good. This paper also illuminates the limits and weaknesses of a central tenet in consumerism-freedom of choice-by analyzing stories in Hygeia about the doctor-patient relationship. A textual analysis finds that the AMA's justification in the 1930s-40s against socialized medicine, i.e., the freedom to choose a doctor, was in practice highly controlled by the medical profession. Findings show that long before the rhetoric of the "empowered consumer" became popular, some patients exercised some choice even in an era when physicians achieved total professional dominance. But these patients were few and tend to occupy the upper socioeconomic strata of US society. In reality choice was an illusion in a fee-for-service era when most American families could not afford the costs of medical care.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Assistência à Saúde/história , National Health Insurance, United States/história , American Medical Association/história , Bibliometria , Comportamento de Escolha , História do Século XX , Humanos , Direitos do Paciente/história , Autonomia Pessoal , Relações Médico-Paciente , Medicina Estatal/história , Estados Unidos
17.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0120771, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25875371

RESUMO

Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena.


Assuntos
Comunicação/história , Grupos Étnicos , Linguagem/história , Região do Caribe , Cultura , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Oceano Índico
18.
Appetite ; 94: 21-5, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25801669

RESUMO

This paper investigates the communication of canned foods in Flanders between 1945 and 1960. It forwards the antinomy between convenience and care as theoretical framework, it uses three women's magazines as source material, and it subjects this material to the technique of close reading. The results show that the discursive construction of canned foods differs according to the ideology of the magazines. Whereas the agrarian periodical discarded canned foods as careless convenience that menaced the idea of the good housewife, the socialist and the commercial publications undeniably accepted them as caring convenience that could facilitate the household chores of working women. The analysis, thus, deals with the ideological aspect of convenience food, an aspect that has only rarely been examined.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/história , Alimentos em Conserva/história , Marketing/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Bélgica , Comunicação/história , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos
20.
Med Hist ; 59(1): 63-82, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25498438

RESUMO

In his personal notebooks, the little known Bohemian physician Georg Handsch (1529-c. 1578) recorded, among other things, hundreds of vernacular phrases and expressions he and other physicians used in their oral interaction with patients and families. Based primarily on this extraordinary source, this paper traces the terms, concepts and images to which sixteenth-century physicians resorted when they explained the nature of a patient's disease and justified their treatment. At the bedside and in the consultation room, Handsch and his fellow physicians attributed most diseases to a local accumulation of impure, putrid or otherwise pathological humours. The latter were commonly said to result, in turn, from an insufficient concoction and assimilation of food and drink in the stomach and the liver or from an obstruction of the humoral flow inside the body and across its borders. By contrast, other notions and explanatory models, which had a prominent place in contemporary learned medical writing, hardly played a role at all in the physicians' oral communication. Specific disease terms were rarely used, a mere imbalance of the four natural humours in the body was almost never inculpated, and the patient's personal life-style and other non-naturals did not attract much attention either. These striking differences between the ways in which physicians explained the patients' diseases in their daily practice and the explanatory models we find in contemporary textbooks, are attributed, above all, to the physicians' precarious situation in the early modern medical marketplace. Since dissatisfied patients were quick to turn to another healer, physicians had to explain the disease and justify their treatment in a manner that was comprehensible to ordinary lay people and in line with their expectations and beliefs, which, at the time, revolved almost entirely around notions of impurity and evacuation.


Assuntos
História do Século XVI , Filosofia Médica/história , Relações Médico-Paciente , Terminologia como Assunto , Comunicação/história , Humanos , Teoria Humoral
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA