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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140189, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886968

RESUMO

Childhood diarrhea has been one of the major public health concerns in countries that have limited resources like Ethiopia. Understanding the association between childhood diarrhea and meteorological factors would contribute to safeguard children from adverse health effects through early warning mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed at exploring the association between childhood diarrhea and meteorological factors to enable reducing health risks. A retrospective study design was used to explore the association between meteorological factors and childhood diarrhea in southwestern Ethiopia from 2010 to 2017. Mann Kendall trend test and Spearman's correlation were computed to test the association of childhood diarrhea and meteorological factors. The space-time permutation model was used to identify the risky periods, seasons with most likely clusters, and high childhood diarrhea. Similarly, a negative binomial regression model was fitted to determine the predictability of meteorological factors for childhood diarrhea. The highest childhood diarrhea morbidity was 92.60 per 1000 per under five children. The risk of childhood diarrhea increased by 16.66% (RR: 1.1666; 95% CI: 1.164-1.168) per increase in 1 °C temperature. Furthermore, rainfall was found to be a significant risk factor of childhood diarrhea, with 0.16% (RR: 1.00167; 95% CI: 1.001306-1.001928) per 1 mm increase in rainfall. The temperature was positively correlated with the occurrence of childhood diarrhea. But the association with rainfall showed spatial variability. The space-time permutation model revealed that dry season was found to be a high-risk period with excess childhood diarrhea. The results showed that the observed association between meteorological factors and childhood diarrhea could be used as evidence for early warning systems for the prevention of childhood diarrhea.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Criança , Etiópia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957282

RESUMO

The unique maneuverability, ease of deployment, simplicity in logistics, and relatively low costs of multicopters render them effective vehicles for low atmospheric research. While many efforts have contributed to the fundamental success of atmospheric applications of multicopters in the past, several challenges remain, including limited measurable variables, possible response-delay in real-time observations, insufficient measurement accuracy, endurance of harsh conditions and tolerance towards interferences. To address these challenges and further fortify the applicability in diversified research disciplines, this study developed an optimized multicopter UAV sounding technique (MUST). The MUST serves as an integrated platform by combining self-developed algorithms, optimized working environments for sensors/monitors, and retrofitted sampling devices to probe a comprehensive set of atmospheric variables. These variables of interest include meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind direction and speed), the chemical composition (speciated VOCs, CO, CO2, CH4, CO2 isotopologues, O3, PM2.5, and black carbon), and the radiation flux, as well as visible and thermal images. The aim of this study is to achieve the following objectives: 1. to easily probe a comprehensive set of near-surface atmospheric variables; 2. to improve data quality by correcting for sensors' delay in real-time observations and minimizing environmental interferences; and 3. to enhance the versatility and applicability of aerial measurements by incorporating necessary hardware and software. Field launching cases from the surface to a maximum height of 1000 m were conducted to validate the robustness of the integrated MUST platform with sufficient speed, accuracy and resolution for the target variables.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Meteorologia , Vento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21469, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769879

RESUMO

Influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease that poses a threat to public health. We assessed the association between atmospheric visibility and influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) in Wuxi city, China.Daily meteorological data, ILI activity, and influenza virus infection rates were collected between 31 December 2012 and 31 December 2017. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to analyze the exposure-lag-response of ILI and influenza activity and daily average visibility.A total of 12,800 cases were detected; 1046 cases (8.17%) were of Flu-A and 527 (4.12%) were of Flu-B infection. Our analysis suggested a non-linear relationship between atmospheric visibility and influenza: U-shaped for ILI, and L-shaped for Flu-A and Flu-B. Comparing low visibility (2.5 km) to ILI cases, the risk appeared between day 1 and day 2. For Flu-A, the risk appeared between days 5 and 9, whereas for Flu-B, the risk effect was much stronger and had a longer reaction delay, staying above zero until day 9. The protective effects of high visibility (14 km) on ILI and Flu-B occurred the same day or one day later. However, we found no association between high visibility and Flu-A.In conclusion, our study contributes novel evidence for the effects of atmospheric visibility on influenza. These findings are important for the development of influenza surveillance and early warning systems in Wuxi city.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenzavirus A , Influenzavirus B , Conceitos Meteorológicos , China , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Dinâmica não Linear , Estações do Ano
5.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842189

RESUMO

Objective:To explore the correlation between acute otitis media(AOM), acute pharyngitis(AP) and allergic rhinitis(AR) and environmental-meteorological factors in children in Lanzhou. Method:Data were collected in 2015-2017 from the outpatient department and emergency department of Otolaryngology of one hospital in Lanzhou. The association between clinical data and the environmental meteorological factors during the same period, including the air quality index(AQI), PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, O3, average temperature, average air pressure, average wind speed, average humidity in Lanzhou, was analyzed. Result:The incidence of AOM was positively correlated with AQI, PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, average air pressure, and was negatively correlated with O3, average wind speed and average air temperature, but not correlated with average humidity. The incidence of AP was positively correlated with average temperature and average humidity, and not correlated with other 9 factors. The incidence of AR was correlated with all 10 environmental meteorological factors except for O3.The number of children with AOM, AP and AR varied with different seasons. Environmental meteorological factors have single lag and cumulative lag effects on the incidence of children with AOM, AP and AR, and difference between the single lag and cumulative lag time was observed. Conclusion:There may be some correlation between the environmental meteorological factors and the incidence of AOM, AP, AR in children, and there is a lag effect. The incidence of pediatric AOM, AP and AR is affected by seasonal factors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Otorrinolaringopatias , Criança , China , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Vento
6.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003176, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of global warming, studies have turned to assess the temporal trend of the association between temperature and health outcomes, which can be used to reflect whether human beings have adapted to the local temperature. However, most studies have only focused on hot temperature and mortality. We aim to investigate the temporal variations in the association between ambient temperature and hospitalisations for cardiovascular diseases in Queensland, Australia from 1995 to 2016. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on 1,855,717 cardiovascular hospitalisations (mean age: 65.9 years, 42.7% female) from all 443 postal areas in Queensland, Australia between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2016. Grid-level meteorological data were downloaded from scientific information for landowners. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design fitted with a conditional quasi-Poisson regression model and time-varying distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to evaluate the association between temperature and cardiovascular hospitalisations and the temporal trends of the associations. Stratified analyses were performed in different age, sex, and climate zones. In all groups, relative risks (RRs) of cardiovascular hospitalisations associated with high temperatures (heat effects) increased, but cold effects showed a decreasing trend from 1995 to 2016. The increasing magnitude of heat effects was larger (p = 0.002) in men than in women and larger (p < 0.001) in people aged ≤69 years than in those aged ≥70 years. There was no apparent difference amongst different climate zones. The study was limited by the switch from ICD-9 to ICD-10 coding systems, by being unable to separate first-time hospitalisation from repeated hospitalisations, and possibly by confounding by air pollution or by influenza infections. CONCLUSION: The impacts of cold temperatures on cardiovascular hospitalisations have decreased, but the impacts of high temperatures have increased in Queensland, Australia. The findings highlight that Queensland people have adapted to the impacts of cold temperatures, but not high temperatures. The burden of cardiovascular hospitalisations due to high temperatures is likely to increase in the context of global warming.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Queensland/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140881, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674022

RESUMO

The role of meteorological factors in the transmission of the COVID-19 still needs to be determined. In this study, the daily new cases of the eight severely affected regions in four countries of South America and their corresponding meteorological data (average temperature, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average wind speed, visibility, absolute humidity) were collected. Daily number of confirmed and incubative cases, as well as time-dependent reproductive number (Rt) was calculated to indicate the transmission of the diseases in the population. Spearman's correlation coefficients were assessed to show the correlation between meteorological factors and daily confirmed cases, daily incubative cases, as well as Rt. In particular, the results showed that there was a highly significant correlation between daily incubative cases and absolute humidity throughout the selected regions. Multiple linear regression model further confirmed the negative correlation between absolute humidity and incubative cases. The absolute humidity is predicted to show a decreasing trend in the coming months from the meteorological data of recent three years. Our results suggest the necessity of continuous controlling policy in these areas and some other complementary strategies to mitigate the contagious rate of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , América do Sul , Temperatura
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140935, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688005

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally and the meteorological factors vary greatly across the world. Understanding the effect of meteorological factors and control strategies on COVID-19 transmission is critical to contain the epidemic. Using individual-level data in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and the number of confirmed cases in other regions, we explore the effect of temperature, relative humidity, and control measures on the spread of COVID-19. We find that high temperature mitigates the transmission of the disease. High relative humidity promotes COVID-19 transmission when temperature is low, but tends to reduce transmission when temperature is high. Implementing classical control measures can dramatically slow the spread of the disease. However, due to the occurrence of pre-symptomatic infections, the effect of the measures to shorten treatment time is markedly reduced and the importance of contact quarantine and social distancing increases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Hong Kong , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Singapura
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 473-480, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-584900

RESUMO

Pandemic enveloped RNA Novel Corona Virus' 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) appears as a beating reed which induce overwhelming outbreak all over the world since November 2019 to till date. Inherent Immunity developed by traditional food habit, exposure to various antigens and vitamin D induced sunlight exposure. Meteorological parameters are the important factors which influencing the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) like infectious disease. Aim of this review to enhance our knowledge and explore the association among build up immunity, weather parameters and Corona virus disease (COVID-19) death. In this review we emphasize role of meteorological factor included degree of sun exposure and effect of temperature on enveloped lipid bi-layer structure of Novel corona virus. These meteorological factors and inherent immunity may have impact on SARS-CoV-2 incidence among South East Asian including Bangladeshi. In summary, this study suggests that temperature-humidity variation, inherent immunity and lower life expectancy of South East Asia may be important.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Sistema Imunitário , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(4): 1203-1212, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530195

RESUMO

Qilian Mountains is an important water conservation area in Northwest China, which is the boundary between the first and second steps of China's topography and is sensitive to climate change. Based on the data of temperature, precipitation, normal difference vegetation index (NDVI), and digital elevation model (DEM) data, we analyzed NDVI change and its relationship with temperature and precipitation along the elevation, slope and slope aspect in the southern slope of Qilian Mountains using tendency analysis method, wavelet analysis and correlation analysis. The results showed that, from 1998 to 2017, NDVI value of the growing season presented increasing trend by a rate of 0.023·10 a-1. Changes of NDVI differed at different elevations, slopes and slope aspects. NDVI increased first and then decreased with elevation. The vegetation coverage at 2700-3700 m was good, and degraded in the area of >4700 m. NDVI reduced with the increases of slope, which showed little difference in different slope aspects but was better in sunny slope than in shade slope. NDVI of the growing season was closely related with temperature and precipitation. NDVI, temperature and precipitation in growing season all had a 14-year cycle. Vegetation at different elevations, slopes and slope aspects was differently affected by temperature and precipitation. Vegetation in areas with altitude <3700 m, >4700 m, slope <25° and each slope direction was more sensitive to precipitation.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conceitos Meteorológicos , China , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 473-480, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506109

RESUMO

Pandemic enveloped RNA Novel Corona Virus' 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) appears as a beating reed which induce overwhelming outbreak all over the world since November 2019 to till date. Inherent Immunity developed by traditional food habit, exposure to various antigens and vitamin D induced sunlight exposure. Meteorological parameters are the important factors which influencing the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) like infectious disease. Aim of this review to enhance our knowledge and explore the association among build up immunity, weather parameters and Corona virus disease (COVID-19) death. In this review we emphasize role of meteorological factor included degree of sun exposure and effect of temperature on enveloped lipid bi-layer structure of Novel corona virus. These meteorological factors and inherent immunity may have impact on SARS-CoV-2 incidence among South East Asian including Bangladeshi. In summary, this study suggests that temperature-humidity variation, inherent immunity and lower life expectancy of South East Asia may be important.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Sistema Imunitário , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140348, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569904

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which first emerged in Hubei province, China, has become a pandemic. However, data regarding the effects of meteorological factors on its transmission are limited and inconsistent. A mechanism-based parameterisation scheme was developed to investigate the association between the scaled transmission rate (STR) of COVID-19 and the meteorological parameters in 20 provinces/municipalities located on the plains in China. We obtained information on the scale of population migrated from Wuhan, the world epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak, into the study provinces/municipalities using mobile-phone positioning system and big data techniques. The highest STRs were found in densely populated metropolitan areas and in cold provinces located in north-eastern China. Population density had a non-linear relationship with disease spread (linearity index, 0.9). Among various meteorological factors, only temperature was significantly associated with the STR after controlling for the effect of population density. A negative and exponential relationship was identified between the transmission rate and the temperature (correlation coefficient, -0.56; 99% confidence level). The STR increased substantially as the temperature in north-eastern China decreased below 0 °C (the STR ranged from 3.5 to 12.3 when the temperature was between -9.41 °C and -13.87 °C), whilst the STR showed less temperature dependence in the study areas with temperate weather conditions (the STR was 1.21 ± 0.57 when the temperature was above 0 °C). Therefore, a higher population density was linearly whereas a lower temperature (<0 °C) was exponentially associated with an increased transmission rate of COVID-19. These findings suggest that the mitigation of COVID-19 spread in densely populated and/or cold regions will be a great challenge.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China , Cidades , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517125

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, has been rapidly increasing in the United States. Boroughs of New York City, including Queens county, turn out to be the epicenters of this infection. According to the data provided by the New York State Department of Health, most of the cases of new COVID-19 infections in New York City have been found in the Queens county where 42,023 people have tested positive, and 3221 people have died as of 20 April 2020. Person-to-person transmission and travels were implicated in the initial spread of the outbreaks, but factors related to the late phase of rapidly spreading outbreaks in March and April are still uncertain. A few previous studies have explored the links between air pollution and COVID-19 infections, but more data is needed to understand the effects of short-term exposures of air pollutants and meteorological factors on the spread of COVID-19 infections, particularly in the U.S. disease epicenters. In this study, we have focused on ozone and PM2.5, two major air pollutants in New York City, which were previously found to be associated with respiratory viral infections. The aim of our regression modeling was to explore the associations among ozone, PM2.5, daily meteorological variables (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, absolute humidity, cloud percentages, and precipitation levels), and COVID-19 confirmed new cases and new deaths in Queens county, New York during March and April 2020. The results from these analyses showed that daily average temperature, daily maximum eight-hour ozone concentration, average relative humidity, and cloud percentages were significantly and positively associated with new confirmed cases related to COVID-19; none of these variables showed significant associations with new deaths related to COVID-19. The findings indicate that short-term exposures to ozone and other meteorological factors can influence COVID-19 transmission and initiation of the disease, but disease aggravation and mortality depend on other factors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias
14.
Science ; 369(6504): 702-706, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554754

RESUMO

The absence of motor vehicle traffic and suspended manufacturing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China enabled assessment of the efficiency of air pollution mitigation. Up to 90% reduction of certain emissions during the city-lockdown period can be identified from satellite and ground-based observations. Unexpectedly, extreme particulate matter levels simultaneously occurred in northern China. Our synergistic observation analyses and model simulations show that anomalously high humidity promoted aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, along with stagnant airflow and uninterrupted emissions from power plants and petrochemical facilities, contributing to severe haze formation. Also, because of nonlinear production chemistry and titration of ozone in winter, reduced nitrogen oxides resulted in ozone enhancement in urban areas, further increasing the atmospheric oxidizing capacity and facilitating secondary aerosol formation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Material Particulado/análise , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Umidade , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio , Pandemias , Dióxido de Enxofre/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Vento
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 37022-37035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577970

RESUMO

This study is aimed at defining the relationship between a set of environmental factors and childhood HFMD and then at estimating the related effect. The 16 environmental factors included meteorological, air pollution, and sunspot. A traditional TSR modified by using susceptible-infectious-recovery models and distribution lag nonlinear model was applied to estimate the short-term effects of daily environmental factors on children HFMD occurrence in 2014-2018 with adjustment of potential confounding factors. A total of 70,027 children aged 0-15 years with HFMD were enrolled. No significant effect was observed for daily sunspot numbers and average visibility. We found positive effects of the ambient average temperature, with an approximately m-shaped curve of the overall cumulative relationship, peaking at 25.6 °C with a relative risk (RR) of 1.45 (95% confidence intervals 1.21-1.73). The largest RR value of hot effect was achieved on the current day and then decreased by 2 days (total group, male group, and scatter group) or 1 day (female group and nursery group), and the effect lasted about 6 to 8 days from the lag 4 or lag 6 day. A greater association of temperature with HFMD for the female group and the scattered group was observed. This study suggests that ambient average temperature might be a risk factor for children HFMD in Tianjin. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Atividade Solar , Temperatura
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512940

RESUMO

In the real world, dynamic changes in air pollutants and meteorological factors coexist simultaneously. Studies identifying the effects of individual pollutants on acute exacerbation (AE) of asthma may overlook the health effects of the overall combination. A comprehensive study examining the influence of air pollution and meteorological factors is required. Asthma AE data from emergency room visits were collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Complete monitoring data for air pollutants (SO2; NO2; O3; CO; PM2.5; PM10) and meteorological factors were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency monitoring stations. A bi-directional case-crossover analysis was used to investigate the effects of air pollution and meteorological factors on asthma AE. Among age group divisions, a 1 °C temperature increase was a protective factor for asthma ER visits with OR = 0.981 (95% CI, 0.971-0.991) and 0.985 (95% CI, 0.975-0.994) for pediatric and adult patients, respectively. Children, especially younger females, are more susceptible to asthma AE due to the effects of outdoor air pollution than adults. Meteorological factors are important modulators for asthma AE in both asthmatic children and adults. When studying the effects of air pollution on asthma AE, meteorological factors should be considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adolescente , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126870, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353811

RESUMO

Ambient particle (PM2.5) samples were collected in three East Asian cities (Beijing, China; Seoul, South Korea; Nagasaki, Japan) from December 2014 to November 2015 to quantitatively investigate airborne bacteria at the phylum level. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria represented the top five airborne bacterial phyla in all three cities. The most dominant airborne phylum, Proteobacteria, was more prevalent during the winter (at rates of 67.2%, 79.9%, and 87.0% for Beijing, Seoul, and Nagasaki, respectively). Correlations among airborne bacteria and environmental factors including PM2.5, its major chemical constituents, and meteorological factors were calculated. Temperature correlated negatively with Proteobacteria but positively with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The abundance of Cyanobacteria correlated positively with particulate NO3- and SO42- levels in Beijing (R = 0.46 and R = 0.35 for NO3- and SO42-, respectively) but negatively in Seoul (R = -0.14 and R = -0.19 for NO3- and SO42-, respectively) and Nagasaki (R = -0.05 and R = -0.03 for NO3- and SO42-, respectively). Backward trajectory analysis was applied for 72 h and three clusters were classified in each city. Five dominant bacteria and other bacterial groups showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in local clustering, as compared to the long-range transport clusters from Beijing. The proportions of the five bacterial phyla in Seoul were significantly different in each cluster. A local cluster in Nagasaki had higher ratios of all major airborne bacterial phyla, except Proteobacteria.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Bactérias , Bacteroidetes , Pequim , China , Cidades , Poeira/análise , Japão , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Proteobactérias , Estações do Ano , Seul
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407405

RESUMO

Intercropping legumes with cereals has been a common cropping system in short-season rainfed environments due to its increased productivity and sustainability. Intercropping barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) could increase the grain yield of barley and improve resource use efficiency of the intercropping system. However, non-optimum planting geometry has been a hurdle in the adaptation of barley-based cropping systems. This study was aimed at optimizing the planting geometry, and assess the productivity and profitability of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. Ten different planting geometries, differing in number of rows of barley, width and number of irrigation furrows and planting method were tested. Intercropping barley with Egyptian clover improved 56-68% grain yield of barley compared with mono-cropped barley. Barley remained dominant crop in terms of aggressiveness, relative crowding coefficient and competitive ratio. The amount of water used was linearly increased with increasing size of barley strip from 3 to 8 rows. The highest water use efficiency (4.83 kg/cf3) was recorded for 8-row barley strip system with 120 cm irrigation furrows compared to rest of the planting geometries. In conclusion, 8-rows of barley planted on beds with Egyptian clover in 120 cm irrigation furrows had the highest net income and cost benefit ratio. Therefore, it is recommended that this planting geometry can be used for better economic returns of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. However, barley strips with >8 rows were not included in this study, which is limitation of the current study. Therefore, future studies with >8 barley rows in strip should be conducted to infer the economic feasibility and profitability of wider barley strips.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Clima Desértico , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical , Agricultura/economia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Solo , Água
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 728: 138548, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread infectious disease in China. Associated meteorological factors have been widely studied, but their attributable risks have not been well quantified. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to quantify the HFMD burden attributable to temperature and other meteorological factors. METHODS: The daily counts of HFMD and meteorological factors in all 574 counties of East China were obtained for the period from 2009 to 2015. The exposure-lag-response relationships between meteorological factors and HFMD were quantified by using a distributed lag non-linear model for each county and the estimates from all the counties were then pooled using a multivariate mete-regression model. Attributable risks were estimated for meteorological variables according to the exposure-lag-response relationships obtained before. RESULTS: The study included 4,058,702 HFMD cases. Non-optimal values of meteorological factors were attributable to approximately one third of all HFMD cases, and the attributable numbers of non-optimal ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine hours were 815,942 (95% CI: 796,361-835,888), 291,759 (95% CI: 226,183-358,494), 92,060 (95% CI: 59,655-124,738) and 62,948 (95% CI: 20,621-105,773), respectively. The exposure-response relationship between temperature and HFMD was non-linear with an approximate "M" shape. High temperature had a greater influence on HFMD than low temperature did. There was a geographical heterogeneity related to water body, and more cases occurred in days with moderate high and low temperatures than in days with extreme temperature. The effects of meteorological factors on HFMD were generally consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Non-optimal temperature is the leading risk factor of HFMD in East China, and moderate hot and moderate cold days had the highest risk. Developing subgroup-targeted and region-specific programs may minimize the adverse consequences of non-optimum weather on HFMD risk.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , China , Humanos , Incidência , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Fatores de Risco , Temperatura , Vento
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233280, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437386

RESUMO

A new version of the fuzzy logic model, called the co-active neuro fuzzy inference system (CANFIS), is introduced for predicting standardized precipitation index (SPI). Multiple scales of drought information at six meteorological stations located in Uttarakhand State, India, are used. Different lead times of SPI were computed for prediction, including 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months, with inputs abstracted by autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial-ACF (PACF) analysis at 5% significance level. The proposed CANFIS model was validated against two models: classical artificial intelligence model (e.g., multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN)) and regression model (e.g., multiple linear regression (MLR)). Several performance evaluation metrices (root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, coefficient of correlation, and Willmott index), and graphical visualizations (scatter plot and Taylor diagram) were computed for the evaluation of model performance. Results indicated that the CANFIS model predicted the SPI better than the other models and prediction results were different for different meteorological stations. The proposed model can build a reliable expert intelligent system for predicting meteorological drought at multi-time scales and decision making for remedial schemes to cope with meteorological drought at the study stations and can help to maintain sustainable water resources management.


Assuntos
Secas , Lógica Fuzzy , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Secas/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Modelos Lineares , Aprendizado de Máquina , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Multivariada , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recursos Hídricos
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