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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361708

RESUMO

A convenient strategy for molecular editing of available ent-kauranic natural scaffolds has been developed based on radical mediated C-C bond formation. Iodine atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) followed by rapid ionic elimination and radical azidoalkylation were investigated. Both reactions involve radical addition to the exo-methylenic double bond of the parent substrate. Easy transformations of the obtained adducts lead to extended diterpenes of broad structural diversity and artificial diterpene-alkaloid hybrids possessing lactam and pyrrolidine pharmacophores. The cytotoxicity of selected diterpenic derivatives was examined by in vitro testing on several tumor cell lines. The terpene-alkaloid hybrids containing N-heterocycles with unprecedented spiro-junction have shown relevant cytotoxicity and promising selectivity indexes. These results represent a solid basis for following research on the synthesis of such derivatives based on available natural product templates.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/síntese química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alquilação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Azidas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Radicais Livres/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Iodo/química , Lactamas/química , Pirrolidinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361721

RESUMO

To improve the proinsecticidal activity and phloem mobility of amino acid-tralopyril conjugates further, nine conjugates were designed and synthesized by introducing glutamic acid to tralopyril, and the length of the linker between glutamic acid and tralopyril ranged from 2 atoms to 10 atoms. The results of insecticidal activity against the third-instar larvae of P. xylostella showed that conjugates 42, 43, 44,and 45 (straight-chain containing 2-5 atoms) exhibited good insecticidal activity, and their LC50 values were 0.2397 ± 0.0366, 0.4413 ± 0.0647, 0.4400 ± 0.0624, and 0.4602 ± 0.0655 mM, respectively. The concentrations of conjugates 43-45 were higher than that of conjugate 42 in the phloem sap at 2 h, and conjugate 43 showed the highest concentration. The introduction of glutamic acid can improve phloem mobility. The in vivo metabolism of conjugates 42 and 43 was investigated in P. xylostella, and the parent compound tralopyril was detected at concentrations of 0.5950 and 0.3172 nmol/kg, respectively. According to the above results, conjugates 42 and 43 were potential phloem mobile pro-insecticide candidates.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Biotransformação , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mariposas/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Floema/parasitologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443358

RESUMO

Plants are the everlasting source of a wide spectrum of specialized metabolites, characterized by wide variability in term of chemical structures and different biological properties such antiviral activity. In the search for novel antiviral agents against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) from plants, the phytochemical investigation of Scrophularia trifoliata L. led us to isolate and characterize four flavonols glycosides along with nine iridoid glycosides, two of them, 5 and 13, described for the first time. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the contents of a methanol extract of S. trifoliata leaves, in order to explore the potential antiviral activity against HIV-1. The antiviral activity was evaluated in biochemical assays for the inhibition of HIV-1Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity and HIV-1 Integrase (IN). Three isolated flavonoids, rutin, kaempferol-7-O-rhamnosyl-3-O-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucopyranoside, 8-10, inhibited specifically the HIV-1 IN activity at submicromolar concentration, with the latter being the most potent, showing an IC50 value of 24 nM.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/farmacologia , Scrophularia/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Folhas de Planta/química
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360977

RESUMO

Inhibition of ruminal microbial urease is of particular interest due to its crucial role in regulating urea-N utilization efficiency and nitrogen pollution in the livestock industry. Acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) is currently the only commercially available urease inhibitor, but it has adverse side effects. The urease accessory protein UreG, which facilitates the functional incorporation of the urease nickel metallocentre, has been proposed in developing urease inhibitor through disrupting urease maturation. The objective of this study was to screen natural compounds as potential urease inhibitors by targeting UreG in a predominant ruminal microbial urease. In silico screening and in vitro tests for potential inhibitors were performed using molecular docking and an assay for the GTPase activity of UreG. Chelerythrine chloride was selected as a potential urease inhibitor of UreG with an inhibition concentration IC50 value of 18.13 µM. It exhibited mixed inhibition, with the Ki value being 26.28 µM. We further explored its inhibition mechanism using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and we found that chelerythrine chloride inhibited the binding of nickel to UreG and induced changes in the secondary structure, especially the α-helix and ß-sheet of UreG. Chelerythrine chloride formed a pi-anion interaction with the Asp41 residue of UreG, which is an important residue in initiating the conformational changes of UreG. In conclusion, chelerythrine chloride exhibited a potential inhibitory effect on urease, which provided new evidence for strategies to develop novel urease inhibitors targeting UreG to reduce nitrogen excretion from ruminants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Rúmen/microbiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Benzofenantridinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361049

RESUMO

Nanotechnology in the field of drug delivery comes with great benefits due to the unique physicochemical properties of newly developed nanocarriers. However, they may come as well with severe toxicological side effects because of unwanted accumulation in organs outside of their targeted site of actions. Several studies showed an unintended accumulation of various nanocarriers in female sex organs, especially in the ovaries. Some led to inflammation, fibrosis, or decreasing follicle numbers. However, none of these studies investigated ovarian accumulation in context to both reproductive aging and particle size. Besides the influences of particle size, the biodistribution profile may be altered as well by reproductive aging because of reduced capacities of the reticuloendothelial system (RES), changes in sex steroid hormone levels as well as altering ovarian stromal blood flow. This systematic investigation of the biodistribution of intravenously (i.v) injected nanoemulsions revealed significant dependencies on the two parameters particle size and age starting from juvenile prepubescent to senescent mice. Using fluorescent in vivo and ex vivo imaging, prepubescent mice showed nearly no accumulation of nanoemulsion in their uteri and ovaries, but high accumulations in the organs of the RES liver and spleen independently of the particle size. In fertile adult mice, the accumulation increased significantly in the ovaries with an increased particle size of the nanoemulsions by nearly doubling the portion of the average radiant efficiency (PARE) to ~10% of the total measured signal of all excised organs. With reproductive aging and hence loss of fertility in senescent mice, the accumulation decreased again to moderate levels, again independently of the particle size. In conclusion, the ovarian accumulation of these nanocarriers depended on both the age plus the particle size during maturity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Animais , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Emulsões/farmacocinética , Emulsões/toxicidade , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Injeções Intravenosas , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baço/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Baço/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443486

RESUMO

Phosphorylation events catalyzed by protein kinases represent one of the most prevalent as well as important regulatory posttranslational modifications, and dysregulation of protein kinases is associated with the pathogenesis of different diseases. Therefore, interest in developing potent small molecule kinase inhibitors has increased enormously within the last two decades. A critical step in the development of new inhibitors is cell-free in vitro testing with the intention to determine comparable parameters like the commonly used IC50 value. However, values described in the literature are often biased as experimental setups used for determination of kinase activity lack comparability due to different readout parameters, insufficient normalization or the sheer number of experimental approaches. Here, we would like to hold a brief for highly sensitive, radioactive-based in vitro kinase assays especially suitable for kinases exhibiting autophosphorylation activity. Therefore, we demonstrate a systematic workflow for complementing and validating results from high-throughput screening as well as increasing the comparability of enzyme-specific inhibitor parameters for radiometric as well as non-radiometric assays. Using members of the CK1 family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases and established CK1-specific inhibitors as examples, we clearly demonstrate the power of our proposed workflow, which has the potential to support the generation of more comparable data for biological characterization of kinase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinase I/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Enzimáticos/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Técnicas In Vitro , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Fosforilação
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 228: 108142, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375652

RESUMO

We investigated the in vitro activity and selectivity, and in vivo efficacy of ravuconazole (RAV) in self-nanoemulsifying delivery system (SNEDDS) against Trypanosoma cruzi. Novel formulations of this poorly soluble C14-α-demethylase inhibitor may improve its efficacy in the experimental treatment. In vitro activity was determined in infected cardiomyocytes and efficacy in vivo evaluated in terms of parasitological cure induced in Y and Colombian strains of T. cruzi-infected mice. In vitro RAV-SNEDDS exhibited significantly higher potency of 1.9-fold at the IC50 level and 2-fold at IC90 level than free-RAV. No difference in activity with Colombian strain was observed in vitro. Oral treatment with a daily dose of 20 mg/kg for 30 days resulted in 70% of cure for RAV-SNEDDS versus 40% for free-RAV and 50% for 100 mg/kg benznidazole in acute infection (T. cruzi Y strain). Long-term treatment efficacy (40 days) was able to cure 100% of Y strain-infected animals with both RAV preparations. Longer treatment time was also efficient to increase the cure rate with benznidazole (Y and Colombian strains). RAV-SNEDDS shows greater efficacy in a shorter time treatment regimen, it is safe and could be a promising formulation to be evaluated in other pre-clinical models to treat T. cruzi and fungi infections.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Emulsões , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Miócitos Cardíacos , Nanoestruturas , Ratos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/toxicidade
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360883

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of colorectal cancer progression is crucial in the setting of strategies for its prevention. δ-Valerobetaine (δVB) is an emerging dietary metabolite showing cytotoxic activity in colon cancer cells via autophagy and apoptosis. Here, we aimed to deepen current knowledge on the mechanism of δVB-induced colon cancer cell death by investigating the apoptotic cascade in colorectal adenocarcinoma SW480 and SW620 cells and evaluating the molecular players of mitochondrial dysfunction. Results indicated that δVB reduced cell viability in a time-dependent manner, reaching IC50 after 72 h of incubation with δVB 1.5 mM, and caused a G2/M cell cycle arrest with upregulation of cyclin A and cyclin B protein levels. The increased apoptotic cell rate occurred via caspase-3 activation with a concomitant loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and SIRT3 downregulation. Functional studies indicated that δVB activated mitochondrial apoptosis through PINK1/Parkin pathways, as upregulation of PINK1, Parkin, and LC3B protein levels was observed (p < 0.0001). Together, these findings support a critical role of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis induced by δVB in SW480 and SW620 colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 3/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Valeratos/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361729

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR) is a type III copper oxidase present in fungi, plants and animals. The inhibitor of human TYR plays a vital role in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields by preventing synthesis of melanin in the skin. To search for an effective TYR inhibitor from various plant extracts, a kinetic study of TYR inhibition was performed with mushroom TYR. Among Panax ginseng, Alpinia galanga, Vitis vinifera and Moringa oleifera, the extracts of V. vinifera seed, A. galanga rhizome and M. oleifera leaf reversibly inhibited TYR diphenolase activity with IC50 values of 94.8 ± 0.2 µg/mL, 105.4 ± 0.2 µg/mL and 121.3 ± 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. Under the same conditions, the IC50 values of the representative TYR inhibitors of ascorbic acid and kojic acid were found at 235.7 ± 1.0 and 192.3 ± 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. An inhibition kinetics study demonstrated mixed-type inhibition of TYR diphenolase by A. galanga and V. vinifera, whereas a rare uncompetitive inhibition pattern was found from M. oleifera with an inhibition constant of Kii 73 µg/mL. Phytochemical investigation by HPLC-MS proposed luteolin as a specific TYR diphenolase ES complex inhibitor, which was confirmed by the inhibition kinetics of luteolin. The results clearly showed that studying TYR inhibition kinetics with plant extract mixtures can be utilized for the screening of specific TYR inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Luteolina/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Moringa oleifera/química , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/enzimologia , Alpinia/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Ácido Ascórbico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Luteolina/química , Luteolina/isolamento & purificação , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/isolamento & purificação , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Pironas/química , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Pironas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Sementes/química , Vitis/química
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443308

RESUMO

A new series of hybrid molecules containing cinnamic acid and 2-quinolinone derivatives were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass analyses. All the synthesized hybrid molecules were assessed for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against more than one cancer cell lines. Compound 3-(3,5-dibromo-7,8-dihydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoquinolin-1(2H)-ylamino)-3-phenylacrylic acid (5a) with IC50 = 1.89 µM against HCT-116 was proved to the most potent compound in this study, as compared to standard drug staurosporin. DNA flow cytometry assay of compound 5a revealed G2/M phase arrest and pre-G1 apoptosis. Annexin V-FITC showed that the percentage of early and late apoptosis was increased. The results of topoisomerase enzyme inhibition activity showed that the hybrid molecule 5a displays potent inhibitory activity compared with control.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/síntese química , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Quinolonas/síntese química , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cinamatos/química , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Quinolonas/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/farmacologia
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443314

RESUMO

Despite the common use of salens and hydroxyquinolines as therapeutic and bioactive agents, their metal complexes are still under development. Here, we report the synthesis of novel mixed-ligand metal complexes (MSQ) comprising salen (S), derived from (2,2'-{1,2-ethanediylbis[nitrilo(E) methylylidene]}diphenol, and 8-hydroxyquinoline (Q) with Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Al(III), and La(III). The structures and properties of these MSQ metal complexes were investigated using molar conductivity, melting point, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-VIS, mass spectra, and thermal analysis. Quantum calculation, analytical, and experimental measurements seem to suggest the proposed structure of the compounds and its uncommon monobasic tridentate binding mode of salen via phenolic oxygen, azomethine group, and the NH group. The general molecular formula of MSQ metal complexes is [M(S)(Q)(H2O)] for M (II) = Co, Ni, and Cd or [M(S)(Q)(Cl)] and [M(S)(Q)(H2O)]Cl for M(III) = La and Al, respectively. Importantly, all prepared metal complexes were evaluated for their antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The metal complexes exhibited high cytotoxic potency against human breast cancer (MDA-MB231) and liver cancer (Hep-G2) cell lines. Among all MSQ metal complexes, CoSQ and LaSQ produced IC50 values (1.49 and 1.95 µM, respectively) that were comparable to that of cisplatin (1.55 µM) against Hep-G2 cells, whereas CdSQ and LaSQ had best potency against MDA-MB231 with IC50 values of 1.95 and 1.43 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the metal complexes exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against a wide spectrum of both Gram-positive and -negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial and antifungal efficacies for the MSQ metal complexes, the free S and Q ligands, and the standard drugs gentamycin and ketoconazole decreased in the order AlSQ > LaSQ > CdSQ > gentamycin > NiSQ > CoSQ > Q > S for antibacterial activity, and for antifungal activity followed the trend of LaSQ > AlSQ > CdSQ > ketoconazole > NiSQ > CoSQ > Q > S. Molecular docking studies were performed to investigate the binding of the synthesized compounds with breast cancer oxidoreductase (PDB ID: 3HB5). According to the data obtained, the most probable coordination geometry is octahedral for all the metal complexes. The molecular and electronic structures of the metal complexes were optimized theoretically, and their quantum chemical parameters were calculated. PXRD results for the Cd(II) and La(III) metal complexes indicated that they were crystalline in nature.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Etilenodiaminas/síntese química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Oxiquinolina/síntese química , Oxiquinolina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Etilenodiaminas/química , Etilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ligantes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Oxiquinolina/química , Difração de Pó , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
12.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443427

RESUMO

Pterostilbene, a natural metabolite of resveratrol, has been indicated as a potent anticancer molecule. Recently, several pterostilbene derivatives have been reported to exhibit better anticancer activities than that of the parent pterostilbene molecule. In the present study, a series of pterostilbene derivatives were designed and synthesized by the hybridization of pterostilbene, chalcone, and cinnamic acid. The cytotoxic effect of these hybrid molecules was determined using two oral cancer cell lines, HSC-3 and OECM-1. (E)-3-(2-((E)-4-Hydroxystyryl)-4,6-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (4d), with IC50 of 16.38 and 18.06 µM against OECM-1 and HSC-3, respectively, was selected for further anticancer mechanism studies. Results indicated that compound 4d effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest via modulating p21, cyclin B1, and cyclin A2. Compound 4d ultimately induced cell apoptosis by reducing the expression of Bcl-2 and surviving. In addition, cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 were enhanced following the treatment of compound 4d with increased dose. To conclude, a number of pterostilbene derivatives were discovered to possess potent anticancer potentials. Among them, compound 4d was the most active, more active than the parent pterostilbene.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Chalcona/farmacologia , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chalcona/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Estilbenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443446

RESUMO

A novel series of proflavine ureas, derivatives 11a-11i, were synthesized on the basis of molecular modeling design studies. The structure of the novel ureas was obtained from the pharmacological model, the parameters of which were determined from studies of the structure-activity relationship of previously prepared proflavine ureas bearing n-alkyl chains. The lipophilicity (LogP) and the changes in the standard entropy (ΔS°) of the urea models, the input parameters of the pharmacological model, were determined using quantum mechanics and cheminformatics. The anticancer activity of the synthesized derivatives was evaluated against NCI-60 human cancer cell lines. The urea derivatives azepyl 11b, phenyl 11c and phenylethyl 11f displayed the highest levels of anticancer activity, although the results were only a slight improvement over the hexyl urea, derivative 11j, which was reported in a previous publication. Several of the novel urea derivatives displayed GI50 values against the HCT-116 cancer cell line, which suggest the cytostatic effect of the compounds azepyl 11b-0.44 µM, phenyl 11c-0.23 µM, phenylethyl 11f-0.35 µM and hexyl 11j-0.36 µM. In contrast, the novel urea derivatives 11b, 11c and 11f exhibited levels of cytotoxicity three orders of magnitude lower than that of hexyl urea 11j or amsacrine.


Assuntos
Entropia , Proflavina/síntese química , Ureia/síntese química , Fenômenos Químicos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Proflavina/química , Proflavina/farmacologia , Ureia/química , Ureia/farmacologia
14.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443462

RESUMO

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. is an endangered medicinal herb traditionally used against different ailments. The present study aimed to create new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of genetic transformation and the biological activities of this plant. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. These transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antioxidant activities, a range of in vivo assays, elemental analysis, polyphenol content, and different phytochemicals found through HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic standards, kaempferol was most abundant in all transgenic lines. Furthermore, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed maximum phenolics and flavonoids content among all tested plant extracts. ABRL3 also demonstrated the highest total antioxidant capacity (8.16 ± 1 µg AAE/mg), total reducing power, (6.60 ± 1.17 µg AAE/mg), DPPH activity (IC50 = 59.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL), hydroxyl ion scavenging (IC50 = 122.5 ± 0.90 µg/mL), and iron-chelating power (IC50 = 154.8 ± 2 µg/mL). Moreover, transformed plant extracts produced significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant activities in BALB/c mice models. In conclusion, transgenic regenerants of A. bracteosa pose better antioxidant and pharmacological properties under the effect of rol genes as compared to wild-type plants.


Assuntos
Ajuga/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Regeneração , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Bioensaio , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Elementos Químicos , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidróxidos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361789

RESUMO

Isobavachalcone (IBC) is an active substance from the medicinal plant Psoralea corylifolia. This prenylated chalcone was reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and anticancer activities. Multidrug resistance (MDR) associated with the over-expression of the transporters of vast substrate specificity such as ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) belongs to the main causes of cancer chemotherapy failure. The cytotoxic, MDR reversing, and ABCB1-inhibiting potency of isobavachalcone was studied in two cellular models: human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29 cell line and its resistant counterpart HT29/Dx in which doxorubicin resistance was induced by prolonged drug treatment, and the variant of MDCK cells transfected with the human gene encoding ABCB1. Because MDR modulators are frequently membrane-active substances, the interaction of isobavachalcone with model phosphatidylcholine bilayers was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Molecular modeling was employed to characterize the process of membrane permeation by isobavachalcone. IBC interacted with ABCB1 transporter, being a substrate and/or competitive inhibitor of ABCB1. Moreover, IBC intercalated into model membranes, significantly affecting the parameters of their main phospholipid phase transition. It was concluded that isobavachalcone interfered both with the lipid phase of cellular membrane and with ABCB1 transporter, and for this reason, its activity in MDR cancer cells was presumptively beneficial.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Chalconas/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoralea/química , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Ligação Competitiva , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chalconas/química , Chalconas/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células HT29 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ligação Proteica , Transgenes , Verapamil/farmacologia
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361797

RESUMO

Carpesium divaricatum Sieb. & Zucc., a traditional medicinal plant used as an inflammation-relieving remedy, is a rich source of terpenoids. At least 40 germacrane-type sesquiterpene lactones, representatives of four different structural groups, were isolated from the plant. Cytotoxicity against cancer cells in vitro is the most frequently described biological activity of the compounds. However, little is known about the selectivity of the cytotoxic effect. The anti-inflammatory activity of the germacranolides is also poorly documented. The objective of the present study was to assess the cytotoxic activity of selected C. divaricatum germacranolides-derivatives of 4,5,8,9-tetrahydroxy-3-oxo-germacran-6,12-olide towards cancer and normal cell lines (including cells of different p53 status). Moreover, to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of the compounds, the release of four proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines (IL-1ß, IL-8, TNF-α and CCL2) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human neutrophils was measured by ELISA. The investigated sesquiterpene lactones demonstrated nonselective activity towards prostate cancer (Du145 and PC3) and normal prostate epithelial cells (PNT2) as well as against melanoma cells (A375 and HTB140) and keratinocytes (HaCaT). Cytotoxic activity against osteosarcoma cells was independent of their p53 status. In sub-cytotoxic concentrations (0.5-2.5 µM) the studied compounds significantly decreased cytokine/chemokine release by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human leukocytes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/classificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/classificação , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Polônia , Cultura Primária de Células , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/classificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/imunologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443383

RESUMO

In the present endeavor, for the dataset of 219 in vitro MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell antagonists, a (QSAR) quantitative structure-activity relationships model has been carried out. The quantitative and explicative assessments were performed to identify inconspicuous yet pre-eminent structural features that govern the anti-tumor activity of these compounds. GA-MLR (genetic algorithm multi-linear regression) methodology was employed to build statistically robust and highly predictive multiple QSAR models, abiding by the OECD guidelines. Thoroughly validated QSAR models attained values for various statistical parameters well above the threshold values (i.e., R2 = 0.79, Q2LOO = 0.77, Q2LMO = 0.76-0.77, Q2-Fn = 0.72-0.76). Both de novo QSAR models have a sound balance of descriptive and statistical approaches. Decidedly, these QSAR models are serviceable in the development of MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell antagonists.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/patologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Algoritmos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Moleculares
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445763

RESUMO

Unfortunately, COVID-19 is still a threat to humankind and has a dramatic impact on human health, social life, the world economy, and food security. With the limited number of suggested therapies under clinical trials, the discovery of novel therapeutic agents is essential. Here, a previously identified anti-SARS-CoV-2 compound named Compound 13 (1,2,5-Oxadiazole-3-carboximidic acid, 4,4'-(methylenediimino) bis,bis[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]hydrazide) was subjected to an iterated virtual screening against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro using a combination of Ligand Designer and PathFinder. PathFinder, a computational reaction enumeration tool, was used for the rapid generation of enumerated structures via default reaction library. Ligand designer was employed for the computerized lead optimization and selection of the best structural modification that resulted in a favorable ligand-protein complex. The obtained compounds that showed the best binding to Mpro were re-screened against TMPRSS2, leading to the identification of 20 shared compounds. The compounds were further visually inspected, which resulted in the identification of five shared compounds M1-5 with dual binding affinity. In vitro evaluation and enzyme inhibition assay indicated that M3, an analogue of Compound 13 afforded by replacing the phenolic moiety with pyridinyl, possesses an improved antiviral activity and safety. M3 displayed in vitro antiviral activity with IC50 0.016 µM and Mpro inhibition activity with IC50 0.013 µM, 7-fold more potent than the parent Compound 13 and potent than the antivirals drugs that are currently under clinical trials. Moreover, M3 showed potent activity against human TMPRSS2 and furin enzymes with IC50 0.05, and 0.08 µM, respectively. Molecular docking, WaterMap analysis, molecular dynamics simulation, and R-group analysis confirmed the superiority of the binding fit to M3 with the target enzymes. WaterMap analysis calculated the thermodynamic properties of the hydration site in the binding pocket that significantly affects the biological activity. Loading M3 on zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) increased the antiviral activity of the compound 1.5-fold, while maintaining a higher safety profile. In conclusion, lead optimized discovery following an iterated virtual screening in association with molecular docking and biological evaluation revealed a novel compound named M3 with promising dual activity against SARS-CoV-2. The compound deserves further investigation for potential clinical-based studies.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/virologia , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206838

RESUMO

Polyphenols, widely distributed in the genus Melastoma plants, possess extensive cellular protective effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-obesity, which makes it a potential anti-inflammatory drug or enzyme inhibitor. Therefore, the aim of this study is to screen for the anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities of compounds from title plant. Using silica gel, MCI, ODS C18, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, as well as semipreparative HPLC, the extract of Melastoma normale roots was separated. Four new ellagitannins, Whiskey tannin C (1), 1-O-(4-methoxygalloyl)-6-O-galloyl-2,3-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-ß-d-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-6-O-(3-methoxygalloyl)-2,3-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-ß-d-glucose (3), and 1-O-galloyl-6-O-vanilloyl-2,3-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-ß-d-glucose (4), along with eight known polyphenols were firstly obtained from this plant. The structures of all isolates were elucidated by HRMS, NMR, and CD analyses. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW2 64.7 cells, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1-4, unfortunately, none of them exhibit inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production, their IC50 values are all > 50 µM. Anti-tyrosinase activity assays was done by tyrosinase inhibition activity screening model. Compound 1 showed weak tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 426.02 ± 11.31 µM. Compounds 2-4 displayed moderate tyrosinase inhibitory activities with IC50 values in the range of 124.74 ± 3.12-241.41 ± 6.23 µM. The structure-activity relationships indicate that hydroxylation at C-3', C-4', and C-3 in the flavones were key to their anti-tyrosinase activities. The successful isolation and structure identification of ellagitannin provide materials for the screening of anti-inflammatory drugs and enzyme inhibitors, and also contribute to the development and utilization of M. normale.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Melastomataceae/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/química , Células RAW 264.7
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206871

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Studies have shown that bradykinin (BK) is highly expressed in liver cancer. We designed the novel BK receptor inhibitors J051-71 and J051-105, which reduced the viability of liver cancer cells and inhibited the formation of cancer cell colonies. J051-71 and J051-105 reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells, which may be due to the inhibition of the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. In addition, these BK receptor inhibitors reversed the cell proliferation induced by BK in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells by downregulating B1 receptor expression. Inhibiting B1 receptor expression decreased the protein levels of p-ERK and reduced the malignant progression of HCC, providing a potential target for HCC therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/síntese química , Antagonistas dos Receptores da Bradicinina/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos
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