Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 51.971
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5076, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033264

RESUMO

Proper threat-reward decision-making is critical to animal survival. Emerging evidence indicates that the motor system may participate in decision-making but the neural circuit and molecular bases for these functions are little known. We found in C. elegans that GABAergic motor neurons (D-MNs) bias toward the reward behavior in threat-reward decision-making by retrogradely inhibiting a pair of premotor command interneurons, AVA, that control cholinergic motor neurons in the avoidance neural circuit. This function of D-MNs is mediated by a specific ionotropic GABA receptor (UNC-49) in AVA, and depends on electrical coupling between the two AVA interneurons. Our results suggest that AVA are hub neurons where sensory inputs from threat and reward sensory modalities and motor information from D-MNs are integrated. This study demonstrates at single-neuron resolution how motor neurons may help shape threat-reward choice behaviors through interacting with other neurons.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Locomoção/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Viés , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Junções Comunicantes/metabolismo , Glicerol/farmacologia , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Optogenética , Concentração Osmolar , Receptores Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22492, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031284

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a rare adverse effect that has significant morbidity and mortality. MALA is a high anion gap (AG), nonosmolar acidosis. Associated osmolar-gap (OG) is rarely reported, so finding an OG may make the diagnosis of MALA challenging. PATIENT CONCERNS: Forty-five years' old type II diabetic patient on metformin presented to emergency with a two-day history of vomiting, watery diarrhea, and mild abdominal discomfort. On examinations, he looked dehydrated. Investigation revealed acute kidney injury (AKI) with a high lactic acid (LA) level of 24 mmol/L, pH of 6.8, AG of 40, and an OG of 20 mOsm/kg DIAGNOSES:: The presence of an OG made the diagnosis challenging; the history was negative for alcohol, osmolar substance, or illicit drug ingestion or use. The toxicology screen was negative. After ruling out plausible causes of AG and OG, MALA was deemed the likely reason for his presentation likely precipitated by dehydration and AKI. INTERVENTIONS: He underwent two sessions of hemodialysis, afterward managed with fluid hydration. OUTCOMES: On day 3, he was in the polyuric phase suggestive of acute tubular necrosis. His serum creatinine improved afterward with improved acidosis; after 8 days, he was discharged in stable condition. LESSONS: MALA is a rare side effect of metformin therapy. Acute kidney injury is a known precipitant of MALA. In our review, we highlight the association of MALA and the presence of an OG. We believe that treating physicians should be aware of this relationship to avoid delaying or overlooking such an important diagnosis.


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica/sangue , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Concentração Osmolar , Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base , Acidose Láctica/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126898, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957293

RESUMO

The utilization of Microcystis biomass is an urgent issue in the mitigation of cyanobacterial bloom. In this study, Microcystis-derived biochar (MB) and Fe3O4-modified biochar (Fe3O4/MB) were fabricated for the U(VI) elimination. The results showed that U(VI) sorption process by either MB or Fe3O4/MB was pH-dependent and ionic strength-independent. The maximum sorption capacity of MB was higher than that of Fe3O4/MB. According to the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, U(VI) sorption on both MB and Fe3O4/MB was mainly ascribed to the surface complexation between U(VI) and oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of MB. Fe3O4 particles on the surface of MB didn't provide extra active sites for the sorption of U(VI), but it enabled the adsorbent to be magnetically separated. Five consecutive sorption/desorption cycles verified the good reusability of Fe3O4/MB in this study. Therefore, the investigation is not only meaningful for the utilization of nuisance biomass from cyanobacterial blooms, but also provides novel adsorbents for the U(VI) removal from aqueous solutions.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Eutrofização , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Microcystis/química , Urânio/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Biomassa , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Modelos Teóricos , Concentração Osmolar
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4706, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943618

RESUMO

Yeast physiology is temporally regulated, this becomes apparent under nutrient-limited conditions and results in respiratory oscillations (YROs). YROs share features with circadian rhythms and interact with, but are independent of, the cell division cycle. Here, we show that YROs minimise energy expenditure by restricting protein synthesis until sufficient resources are stored, while maintaining osmotic homeostasis and protein quality control. Although nutrient supply is constant, cells sequester and store metabolic resources via increased transport, autophagy and biomolecular condensation. Replete stores trigger increased H+ export which stimulates TORC1 and liberates proteasomes, ribosomes, chaperones and metabolic enzymes from non-membrane bound compartments. This facilitates translational bursting, liquidation of storage carbohydrates, increased ATP turnover, and the export of osmolytes. We propose that dynamic regulation of ion transport and metabolic plasticity are required to maintain osmotic and protein homeostasis during remodelling of eukaryotic proteomes, and that bioenergetic constraints selected for temporal organisation that promotes oscillatory behaviour.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Células Eucarióticas/fisiologia , Proteostase/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Reatores Biológicos , Ritmo Circadiano , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ionomicina , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Chaperonas Moleculares , Concentração Osmolar , Pressão Osmótica , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma , Proteômica , Ribossomos , Leveduras/fisiologia
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105568, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791376

RESUMO

An emerging Multi-Ion Toxicity (MIT) model for assessment of environmental salt pollution is based on the premise that major ion toxicity to aquatic organisms is related to a critical disturbance of the trans-epithelial potential across the gills (ΔTEP), which can be predicted by electrochemical theory. However, the model has never been evaluated physiologically. We directly tested key assumptions by examining the individual effects of eight different salts (NaCl, Na2SO4, MgCl2, MgSO4, KCl, K2SO4, CaCl2, and CaSO4) on measured TEP in three different fish species (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas = FHM; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus = CC; bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus = BG). A geometric concentration series based on previously reported 96-h LC50 values for FHM was used. All salts caused concentration-dependent increases in TEP to less negative/more positive values in a pattern well-described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The ΔTEP responses for different salts were similar to one another within each species when concentrations were expressed as a percentage of the FHM LC50. A plateau was reached at or before 100 % of the LC50 where the ΔTEP values were remarkably consistent, with only 1.4 to 2.2-fold variation. This relative uniformity in the ΔTEP responses contrasts with 28-fold variation in salt concentration (in mmol L-1), 9.6-fold in total dissolved solids, and 7.9-fold in conductivity at the LC50. The Michaelis-Menten Km values (salt concentrations causing 50 % of the ΔTEPmax) were positively related to the 96-h LC50 values. ΔTEP responses were not a direct effect of osmolarity in all species and were related to specific cation rather than specific anion concentrations in FHM. These responses were stable for up to 24 h in CC. The results provide strong physiological support for the assumptions of the MIT model, are coherent with electrochemical theory, and point to areas for future research.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/fisiologia , Sais/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Eletrodos , Brânquias/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4222, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839436

RESUMO

Our understanding of Na+ homeostasis has recently been reshaped by the notion of skin as a depot for Na+ accumulation in multiple cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. The proposed water-independent nature of tissue Na+ could induce local pathogenic changes, but lacks firm demonstration. Here, we show that tissue Na+ excess upon high Na+ intake is a systemic, rather than skin-specific, phenomenon reflecting architectural changes, i.e. a shift in the extracellular-to-intracellular compartments, due to a reduction of the intracellular or accumulation of water-paralleled Na+ in the extracellular space. We also demonstrate that this accumulation is unlikely to justify the observed development of experimental hypertension if it were water-independent. Finally, we show that this isotonic skin Na+ excess, reflecting subclinical oedema, occurs in hypertensive patients and in association with aging. The implications of our findings, questioning previous assumptions but also reinforcing the importance of tissue Na+ excess, are both mechanistic and clinical.


Assuntos
Edema/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Edema/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Concentração Osmolar , Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461382, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823094

RESUMO

A method is described for the functionalization of magnetic carbon nanotubes to recognize aristolochic acid Ⅰ and Ⅱ. 3-Glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane was used as a coupling agent to immobilize adenine on a solid support. The morphology and structure of adenine-coated magnetic carbon nanotubes was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The adsorption performance of the adenine-coated magnetic carbon nanotubes was evaluated via adsorption isotherms, the kinetics and selectivity tests. The adsorption capacity of the adenine-functionalized sorbent for aristolochic acid Ⅰ was determined to be 24.5 µg mg-1. By combining magnetic solid phase extraction with HPLC detection, a method was developed to enrich and detect aristolochic acids used in traditional Chinese medicine. A satisfactory recovery (92.7 - 97.5% for aristolochic acid Ⅰ and 92.6 - 99.4% for aristolochic acid Ⅱ) and an acceptable relative standard deviation (<4.0%) were obtained.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Adsorção , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Férricos/síntese química , Compostos Férricos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Nanocompostos/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Concentração Osmolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/síntese química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
9.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008996, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841242

RESUMO

The utilization of different carbon sources in filamentous fungi underlies a complex regulatory network governed by signaling events of different protein kinase pathways, including the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways. This work unraveled cross-talk events between these pathways in governing the utilization of preferred (glucose) and non-preferred (xylan, xylose) carbon sources in the reference fungus Aspergillus nidulans. An initial screening of a library of 103 non-essential protein kinase (NPK) deletion strains identified several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) to be important for carbon catabolite repression (CCR). We selected the MAPKs Ste7, MpkB, and PbsA for further characterization and show that they are pivotal for HOG pathway activation, PKA activity, CCR via regulation of CreA cellular localization and protein accumulation, as well as for hydrolytic enzyme secretion. Protein-protein interaction studies show that Ste7, MpkB, and PbsA are part of the same protein complex that regulates CreA cellular localization in the presence of xylan and that this complex dissociates upon the addition of glucose, thus allowing CCR to proceed. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) A was also identified as part of this protein complex and shown to potentially phosphorylate two serine residues of the HOG MAPKK PbsA. This work shows that carbon source utilization is subject to cross-talk regulation by protein kinases of different signaling pathways. Furthermore, this study provides a model where the correct integration of PKA, HOG, and GSK signaling events are required for the utilization of different carbon sources.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Quinases da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Aspergillus nidulans/enzimologia , Repressão Catabólica/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Glicerol/metabolismo , Concentração Osmolar , Fosforilação/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Xilose/metabolismo
10.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461413, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823111

RESUMO

Innovations in extraction phases, extraction modes and hyphenated instrument configurations, are the most important issues to address for progress in the solid phase microextraction (SPME) methodology. In this regard, we have embarked on the development of a novel biocompatible 96-monolithic inorganic hollow fiber (96-MIHF) array as a new configuration for high-throughput SPME on a 96-well plate system. An arrangement of highly ordered 96 titania/Hydroxyapatite (TiO2/HAP) nanocomposite hollow fibers and corresponding stainless-steel needles on a Teflon plate holder were used as the extraction module. The inorganic hollow fibers were prepared via a rapid and reproducible template approach (Polypropylene hollow fiber) in combination with a sol-gel method in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as a network maker. The hollow fiber-shape sorbents were obtained with excellent precision by weight (RSD% = 4.98, n = 10) and length (RSD% = 1.08, n = 10) criteria. The proposed design can overcome a number of geometrically dependent drawbacks of conventional high-throughput SPME methods, mainly the ones related to sorbent amount and surface area due to possessing inner/outer surfaces without additional internal supports. The SPME platform, for the first time, was successfully applied for the extraction and preconcentration of doxorubicin from urine and water media without requiring sample preparation and free from significant matrix effect. The extracted analyte was analyzed by liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Highly satisfactory analytical figures of merit were obtained under optimized conditions. The limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and linearity of determination were 0.1 ng mL-1, 0.25 ng mL-1 and 0.25 to 4000 ng mL-1, respectively. The interday, intraday and inter sorbent precisions for three concentration levels ranged from 2.01 to 8.09 % (n = 3), 1.02 to 8.65 % (n = 5) and 0.99 to 1.02% (n = 15), respectively. The mean intra-well RSD value for 96 individual wells in 96-MIHF-SPME-LC-MS/MS (n = 3) at the medium concentration level was 7.81%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Doxorrubicina/urina , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Daunorrubicina/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Polipropilenos/química , Porosidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Water Res ; 185: 116239, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739702

RESUMO

Synthetic musks (SMs) are used extensively in household and personal care products and have acted significant concerns due to their environmental impacts and potential health effects. Here, we present a passive sampling approach based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for in situ measurement of SMs in urban wastewaters. XAD-2 binding gel, which has a rapid binding rate and high elution efficiency, was used in DGT device for the accumulation of six polycyclic musks and three nitro musks. The diffusion coefficients (D and DNL) of the SMs through agarose gel without and with a nylon filter membrane were 3.37-4.49 and 1.48-4.41 ×10-6cm2 s-1. The filter membrane caused an ~3 h lag phase and slowed the diffusion rates of the SMs through the diffusive phase. Solution pH (4.30-8.92), ionic strength (0.0001-0.5 M) and dissolved organic matter (0-20 mg L-1) showed no obvious influence on uptake of the SMs in DGT. The measured average SM concentrations in the effluent of wastewater treatment plants ranged from 0.45-696 ng/L for DGT deployment, without obvious membrane biofouling, and they were comparable to the concentrations determined by grab sampling. These results confirmed that the present method is reliable and convenient for in situ measurement of semivolatile hydrophobic SMs in complicated waters and is an available tool to investigate the environmental behaviors of SMs in the environment.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Difusão , Monitoramento Ambiental , Concentração Osmolar , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 904-910, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827223

RESUMO

AIM: While the heat during the summer season may dehydrate the elderly, little is known about the seasonal variation in dehydration. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation in hydration status among the community-dwelling elderly in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data collected after an overnight fast of adults aged ≥65 years who had no advanced kidney disease and underwent an annual health checkup at Nihon University Hospital between January and December 2019. Participants were classified according to their checkup date, whether summer (n = 265) or not summer (n = 638). The not summer group was subdivided into spring (n = 235), autumn (n = 213) and winter (n = 190). RESULTS: Among the four seasons, the spring group showed the highest levels of plasma osmolality (306.1 ± 3.9 mOsm/L), urine specific gravity (1.0172 ± 0.0058) and prevalence rates of urine specific gravity ≥1.020 (34.0%). However, seasonal differences were clinically mild, and >90% of participants showed plasma osmolality ≥300 mOsm/L, indicating dehydration, in all four seasons. The summer group showed lower urine specific gravity levels (1.0150 ± 0.0062 vs. 1.0165 ± 0.0064, P < 0.001) and prevalence rates of urine specific gravity ≥1.020 (22.6% vs. 30.4%, P = 0.023) than did the not summer group. The summer season was associated with low urine specific gravity levels even after adjusting for the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSION: Japanese elderly after overnight fast are more dehydrated during the spring rather than the summer. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 904-910.


Assuntos
Desidratação/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461354, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797834

RESUMO

The Al-doped mesoporous crystalline material-41 (Al-MCM-41) composite was prepared and applied as fiber coating material of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from human urine. Five PAHs including acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene are chosen as target analytes to evaluate the performance of the material by GC-FID analysis. The mesoporous Al-MCM-41 composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, and thermogravimetric analysis. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of HS-SPME were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the method exhibits ideal linearity for target analytes in the range of 0.3-600 ng⋅mL-1 with the coefficients (R2) equal or higher than 0.9906. The enrichment factors are calculated from 540 to 1760. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) are between the ranges of 0.06-0.18 and 0.3-0.9 ng⋅mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n = 5) of intra-day and inter-day are in the ranges of 1.08-7.49% and 2.84-18.3% respectively. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 3) is in the range of 6.47-13.9%. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of PAHs in human urine with reasonable recoveries which is ranging from 73.29 to 116.1%.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Dióxido de Silício/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Adsorção , Cristalização , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Porosidade , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
14.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127625, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758776

RESUMO

Ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) are widely used in drinking water treatment and wastewater recycling. However, limited information was available regarding their performance in removing trihalomethanes (THMs). The present study investigated the effect of feed solution characteristics and membrane fouling on THM removal by UF/NF/RO membranes. The results indicated that THMs were poorly removed by UF membrane, and the removal was dominated by hydrophobic adsorption. In contrast, high removal of THMs was observed for NF/RO membranes, which was contributed by both size exclusion and hydrophobic adsorption. By comparing the adsorption of THMs on NF/RO membranes at different feed concentration, it was found that the role of hydrophobic adsorption was more important at lower feed concentration. The removal of THMs by UF/NF/RO membranes increased with increasing feed concentration, which can be ascribed to the enhanced diffusion at higher concentration gradient. With increasing ionic strength, THM removal was decreased significantly for UF membrane, but the removal by NF/RO membranes remained largely unchanged. By comparing THM removal by clean and fouled membranes, the effect of membrane fouling was examined. The removal of most THMs (except trichloromethane) decreased after fouling for UF membrane, whereas decreased removal was only observed for iodinated THMs for fouled NF/RO membranes.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Filtração , Halogenação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Membranas Artificiais , Concentração Osmolar , Osmose , Reciclagem , Trialometanos , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Águas Residuárias
15.
Water Res ; 183: 116068, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619803

RESUMO

Saturated column experiments were conducted to systematically examine the influence of hydration on the detachment of nano- and micro-sized latex colloids (35 nm and 1 µm, respectively) from sand. The colloids were attached on the sand in primary minima (PM) using high ionic strength (IS) NaCl solutions. The PM were predicted to be shallower and located farther from sand surfaces with increasing IS due to the hydration force. Consequently, a greater amount of colloid detachment occurred in deionized water when the colloids were initially deposited at a higher IS. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) examinations showed that both nanoscale protruding asperities and large wedge-like valleys existed on the sand surface. The influence of these surface features on the interaction energies/forces was modeled by approximating the roughness as cosinoidal waves and two intersecting half planes, respectively. The PM were deep and attachment was irreversible at concave regions for all ISs, even if the hydration force was included. Conversely, colloids were weakly attached at protruding asperities due to a reduced PM depth, and thus were responsible for the detachment upon IS reduction. The AFM examinations confirmed that the adhesive forces were enhanced and reduced (or even completely eliminated) at concave and convex locations of sand surfaces, respectively. These results have important implications for surface cleaning and prediction of the transport and fate of hazardous colloids and colloid-associated contaminants in subsurface environments.


Assuntos
Coloides , Dióxido de Silício , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Concentração Osmolar , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Nature ; 583(7816): 421-424, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641825

RESUMO

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as the body's master circadian clock that adaptively coordinates changes in physiology and behaviour in anticipation of changing requirements throughout the 24-h day-night cycle1-4. For example, the SCN opposes overnight adipsia by driving water intake before sleep5,6, and by driving the secretion of anti-diuretic hormone7,8 and lowering body temperature9,10 to reduce water loss during sleep11. These responses can also be driven by central osmo-sodium sensors to oppose an unscheduled rise in osmolality during the active phase12-16. However, it is unknown whether osmo-sodium sensors require clock-output networks to drive homeostatic responses. Here we show that a systemic salt injection (hypertonic saline) given at Zeitgeber time 19-a time at which SCNVP (vasopressin) neurons are inactive-excited SCNVP neurons and decreased non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and body temperature. The effects of hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature were prevented by chemogenetic inhibition of SCNVP neurons and mimicked by optogenetic stimulation of SCNVP neurons in vivo. Combined anatomical and electrophysiological experiments revealed that osmo-sodium-sensing organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) neurons expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (OVLTGAD) relay this information to SCNVP neurons via an excitatory effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Optogenetic activation of OVLTGAD neuron axon terminals excited SCNVP neurons in vitro and mimicked the effects of hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature in vivo. Furthermore, chemogenetic inhibition of OVLTGAD neurons blunted the effects of systemic hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature. Finally, we show that hypertonic saline significantly phase-advanced the circadian locomotor activity onset of mice. This effect was mimicked by optogenetic activation of the OVLTGAD→ SCNVP pathway and was prevented by chemogenetic inhibition of OVLTGAD neurons. Collectively, our findings provide demonstration that clock time can be regulated by non-photic physiologically relevant cues, and that such cues can drive unscheduled homeostatic responses via clock-output networks.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Vias Neurais , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética , Organum Vasculosum/citologia , Organum Vasculosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Organum Vasculosum/enzimologia , Organum Vasculosum/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina Hipertônica/metabolismo , Solução Salina Hipertônica/farmacologia , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/farmacologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/citologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461307, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709350

RESUMO

In this study, the ultrasonic-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction (UA-d-SPE) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for the analysis of phthalate esters in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages (Rosa, Mentha, Cichorium). A new nanocomposite based on layered double hydroxide supported on graphene oxide was synthesized and modified by sulfonated polyaniline via a simple one-pot in-situ polymerization method. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite was confirmed by means of complementary techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of key parameters including adsorbent mass, type and amount of back extraction solvent, extraction and desorption time, pH of the solution and ionic strength were optimized and good precision and sensitivity were achieved. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection were between 0.06-0.3 ng mL-1 in aqueous solutions. The hybrid nanomaterial exhibited good adsorption ability toward phthalates in drinking water and distilled herbal beverages. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) for beverage samples varied from 0.1% to 9.9% (n = 3). The relative recoveries varied from 54.5% to 112.6%.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Bebidas/análise , Grafite/química , Hidróxidos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Adsorção , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanocompostos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Preparações de Plantas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solventes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1625: 461340, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709363

RESUMO

In this study, a magnetized polyethylene composite has been prepared using ball milling procedure and employed as an efficient sorbent in magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. This method has been utilized for the extraction and preconcentration of some pesticides from fruit juices prior to their quantification by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The prepared sorbent consisted of the natural iron oxide (obtained from sand) coated with polyethylene. In the present work, first a few mg of the magnetic composite is added into an aqueous solution containing the analytes and vortexed. After that the analytes are eluted with iso-propanol from the surface of the composite particles separated in the presence of a strong external magnetic field. For further enrichment of the analytes, 1,2-dibromoethane (at µL-level) as an extraction solvent is mixed with the obtained eluent and hastily injected into deionized water. The composite was characterized using techniques including vibrating sample magnetometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller nitrogen sorption, and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. Under optimal conditions, the method provided low limits of detection (0.94-1.9 µg L-1) and quantification (3.2-5.9 µg L-1), high enrichment factors (570-692), good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.994), and satisfactory repeatabilities (relative standard deviations ≤ 8% for intra- and inter-day precisions at a concentration of 15 µg L-1 of each analyte).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Magnéticos , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Polietileno/química , Polietileno/síntese química , Adsorção , Centrifugação , Cromatografia Gasosa , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida , Concentração Osmolar , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Extração em Fase Sólida , Solventes/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Tempo , Difração de Raios X
19.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 22(8): 1731-1742, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672306

RESUMO

A study on the sequestering ability between arsenate, AsO43-, and Cu2+ and Zn2+ in aqueous solution is reported. The results of the elaboration of potentiometric data include only species with 1 : 1 metal to ligand ratio for Cu2+-arsenate system, namely CuLH2, CuLH, CuL, and CuLOH (L = AsO43-). For the Zn2+-arsenate system, a speciation model with only two species with both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 metal to ligand ratios was obtained, namely ML and ML2. Spectrophotometric titrations were also employed in the study of the Cu2+-AsO43- system, and the results of the analysis of experimental data fully confirmed potentiometric ones. The potentiometric titrations were performed under different conditions of temperature (288.15 ≤ T/K ≤ 310.15, at I = 0.15 mol L-1) and ionic strength (0.15 ≤ I/mol L-1 ≤ 1 in NaCl). The dependence of formation constants of the complex species on ionic strength and temperature was also evaluated, as well as the enthalpy and entropy change values were obtained. Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LD MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were exploited to confirm Cu2+-AsO43- and Zn2+-AsO43- complex formation and to determine both their composition and structural characteristics. Simulation of speciation profiles under natural water conditions was performed. The sequestering ability of arsenate towards Cu2+ and Zn2+ was quantified under different conditions of pH, temperature and ionic strength, typical of several natural waters. Examples of arsenate distribution under seawater and freshwater conditions were reported.


Assuntos
Arseniatos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Arseniatos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Termodinâmica , Zinco
20.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127650, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693263

RESUMO

In recent years, the composite pollution of microplastics with organic pollutants and heavy metal ions in the water environment, including their combined toxicity, has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying the joint effect of antibiotics and heavy metals on the surface behavior of microplastics has not been reported. The primary purpose of this article was to analyze the adsorption of levofloxacin (OFL) onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in an aqueous solution. The adsorption behavior was studied using kinetics, thermodynamics, and isotherm models, and the effects of several environmental factors, such as ionic strength, fulvic acid, and heavy metals, were determined. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms models indicated that the whole adsorption process was controlled by both intraparticle and outer diffusion, as well as chemical adsorption, which was the dominant mechanism. Based on the results of the thermodynamic experiment, the adsorption process was a nonspontaneous and exothermic reaction process. Furthermore, the presence of Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cr3+ ions significantly promoted the adsorption of OFL, but the presence of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions inhibited its adsorption. At the same time, the presence of the ionic strength and fulvic acid remarkably restricted the adsorption process. These findings confirmed that electrostatic interactions, ion exchange, intermolecular hydrogen bonds, and halogen bond cooperation were the main adsorption mechanisms. This paper mainly discusses the interaction between combinations of pollutants with microplastics, which provides theoretical guidance for the interface behavior, migration and transformation of marine microplastics in the actual environment.


Assuntos
Levofloxacino/química , Metais Pesados/química , Microplásticos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Antibacterianos , Difusão , Poluentes Ambientais , Íons , Cinética , Concentração Osmolar , Plásticos/química , Cloreto de Polivinila , Termodinâmica , Água/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA