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1.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212751

RESUMO

In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the links between poor hygiene, unclean environments and human health cannot be overemphasised, particularly in South Africa with its high incidence of infectious diseases and overburdened health system. One very controllable factor that is often overlooked is the poor disposal of litter and waste management and its adverse effects on public health. By wearing masks, regular handwashing and sanitising, as well as making sure that neighbourhoods and public spaces are clean and safe, the spread of COVID-19 and other diseases can be prevented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Saúde Pública/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Condições Sociais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Due to the agricultural labor supply in the province of Huelva, the immigrant population has been growing, establishing a situation of irregularity that favors precarious work and hinders access to decent housing. Therefore, our objective was to identify the socio-sanitary needs of the immigrant population facing the living conditions with which they live in the irregular settlements of the province of Huelva. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study of mixed method on an estimated population of 2500 residents in 23 settlements. A quantitative study of socio-sanitary variables was carried out using a survey and observation guide, and a water, air and soil quality study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 inhabitants of the settlements until the saturation of the speeches. RESULTS: The settlements were located far away from the towns. Surrounded by garbage, without running water, electricity, sewer, toilets or showers. Its residents were stocked up on purchased food and water from fields, wells and public fountains, which they stored in jugs of plant protection products. They were mostly in an irregular situation. 49% had a health card and 48% ever went to a health center, declared mostly a good perception of health. They stood out as expressed needs: access to water (main demand), protection from the risk of fire, improvement of the irregular situation and the working conditions, and the need to help and to protect their family of origin. CONCLUSIONS: These living conditions belong to an underdeveloped environment within an advanced society, with access to water being the main problem. Legal irregularity is key for them, preventing them regularized employment contracts and the perception of being able to access to a better future. Their self-perception of health is good and they do not make a greater use of health services, despite the conditions in which they live.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
3.
Andes Pediatr ; 92(2): 174-181, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106155

RESUMO

The implications of closing educational establishments during the COVID-19 pandemic and the dis cussion about the opening of them, invite and require us to consider, from different positions and responsibilities, the changes that we must make as a society at the educational level. In this article, a group of health professionals collects information and reflects on the repercussions of returning or not to school activities, in terms of physical and emotional health and academic education. Based on what is known to be protective factors and possible threats to return, it is possible to conclude that each local reality must make its own informed decision, with the participation of all its members, seeking the common good, which favors students, protects teachers, and privileges the role of the educational system in socio-emotional learning. School is a space for containing the emotions and adaptation needs that students and their families have experienced in these uncertain times. We all have a level of responsibility in building a new civilization around these issues that link education, physical and mental health, social collaboration, and individual responsibility. Differences in people's living conditions and unequal opportunities have become more visible than before (others are still hidden) and create an opportunity for changes that we must face together.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Saúde do Adolescente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Criança , Educação à Distância , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Proteção da Criança , Chile/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Distanciamento Físico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Condições Sociais , Meio Social , Responsabilidade Social
4.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 23(1): 0-0, mar.-jun. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201952

RESUMO

Buscar el bienestar de la población y la equidad en salud requiere actuar sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud (DSS). El enfoque de salud en todas las políticas es el más idóneo para ello, y la evaluación del impacto en salud, la técnica cada vez más extendida, como instrumento de ayuda en la toma de decisiones. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer un análisis prospectivo del impacto que puede tener el Plan de Movilidad Urbana Sostenible de Almussafes en la salud y equidad en salud de su población. Para ello, se ha empleado la herramienta Fem Salut al nostre municipi? junto con técnicas participativas, poniendo en valor el papel tanto de profesionales y personal técnico municipal como de la propia ciudadanía. A partir del análisis de su discurso, y en base a la evidencia científica, se identificaron los principales impactos del Plan sobre los Determinantes Sociales de la Salud: disminución de la contaminación ambiental y acústica, incremento de los desplazamientos activos y del bienestar emocional, etc. También se recogieron recomendaciones de mejora para potenciar los impactos positivos y su distribución equitativa. La participación ciudadana es un elemento clave en la evaluación de impacto en salud (EIS) de las políticas no sanitarias, y el ámbito local ofrece una oportunidad única para incorporarla en el proceso de toma de decisiones. Con ello, es posible desarrollar políticas públicas saludables y equitativas


Seeking the well-being of the population and health equity requires acting on the social determinants of health. The Health in All Policies approach is the most suitable for this, and Health Impact Assessment is the increasingly widespread technique, as a tool to assist in decision-making. The main objective of this work is to perform a prospective analysis of the impact that the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan of Almussafes can have on the health and health equity of its population. For this purpose, the tool Fem Salut al nostre municipi? has been used, together with participatory techniques, which highlights the role of both professionals and municipal technical staff, as well as the role of citizens themselves. From the analysis of its discourse, and based on scientific evidence, the most important impacts of the Plan on the social determinants of health were identified: decrease in environmental and noise pollution, increase in active mobility and emotional well-being, among others. Recommendations for improvement to enhance positive impacts and their equitable distribution were also collected. Community participation is a key element in HIA of non-health policies, and the local scope offers a unique opportunity to incorporate this into the decision-making process. With HIA, it is possible to carry out healthy and equitable public policies


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Saúde da População Urbana/normas , Equidade em Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Identificação Social , Condições Sociais , Relações Interpessoais
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(2): e20200892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the impact of the Colombian Peace Agreement on the structural social determinants of health. METHODS: a descriptive, ecological study, based on documentary data from 2008 to 2018. The records of victims, epidemiological indicators, and structural social determinants of health in Colombia were analyzed. RESULTS: there was a correlation between the period in which the Peace Agreement process was developed and the indicators of structural determinants in health with p<0.05. With the Poisson regression analysis, the favorable correlations between the peace process and the determinants were confirmed, besides allowing the understanding of the changes in these indicators before the Peace Agreement. CONCLUSIONS: the implementation of the peace process has a positive impact on structural social determinants of health, which is observed by the beginning of the decrease of economic, educational, health, and social inequalities and inequities, a fact that offers the possibility of living in peace.


Assuntos
Condições Sociais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Colômbia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Global Health ; 17(1): 46, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183549

RESUMO

Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change. We will conclude by highlighting the roles that public health could play in allowing innovations to have more social value, especially during sanitary crises.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , COVID-19/terapia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Saúde Pública , Acesso à Informação , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Difusão de Inovações , Equidade em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Condições Sociais , Meio Social , Valores Sociais , Tecnologia , Vacinas
8.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112393, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831639

RESUMO

This study seeks to examine the extent to which the level of municipal environmental management affects and complies with the behavioral norms of urban communities (city norms), and to what extent these affect environmental behavior at the individual level. We used a two-step, mixed-methods approach: a quantitative study of a representative sample of the urban sector (n = 1000) in Israel, followed by a qualitative in-depth interview process (n = 20). Municipal environmental management was found to be strongly correlated with city norms. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the residents' environmental behavior was strongly influenced solely by city norms (and not by the municipal council's conduct). However, our interviews revealed that residents explicitly attributed their pro- or anti-environmental behavior almost solely to the municipal council's conduct (and not to city norms). These relative contributions of municipal environmental management versus city norms on environmental behavior varied across environmental domains. In the Discussion section, we offer an explanation to the seemingly contradictory findings, and offer specific recommendations for several actions and initiatives that local authorities can adopt to promote pro-environmental behavior among its residents' and thus reduce the ecological footprint of the city as a whole.


Assuntos
Condições Sociais , Cidades , Meio Ambiente , Israel , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Br Dent J ; 230(7): 429-434, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837339

RESUMO

Peacekeeping and the delivery of humanitarian aid is a vital component in the repertoire of any modern military and the UK has been at the forefront in contributing to these types of operation at an international level. When preparing for an enduring task such as peacekeeping, it is essential to consider all supporting components that can help deliver a common goal. Whether access to healthcare for the local population has collapsed or maintaining a healthy deployed force, dentistry will inevitably need to be considered and appropriate provision secured.This paper aims to look at the deployed dental support provided to recent peacekeeping interventions by the British Army.


Assuntos
Militares , Atenção à Saúde , Odontologia , Humanos , Condições Sociais
10.
Global Health ; 17(1): 46, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853631

RESUMO

Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change. We will conclude by highlighting the roles that public health could play in allowing innovations to have more social value, especially during sanitary crises.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica , COVID-19/terapia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Saúde Pública , Acesso à Informação , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Difusão de Inovações , Equidade em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Condições Sociais , Meio Social , Valores Sociais , Tecnologia , Vacinas
12.
Med Decis Making ; 41(4): 419-429, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733933

RESUMO

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continues to expand, policymakers are striving to balance the combinations of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to keep people safe and minimize social disruptions. We developed and calibrated an agent-based simulation to model COVID-19 outbreaks in the greater Seattle area. The model simulated NPIs, including social distancing, face mask use, school closure, testing, and contact tracing with variable compliance and effectiveness to identify optimal NPI combinations that can control the spread of the virus in a large urban area. Results highlight the importance of at least 75% face mask use to relax social distancing and school closure measures while keeping infections low. It is important to relax NPIs cautiously during vaccine rollout in 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante , Máscaras , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Condições Sociais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , População Urbana , Washington
13.
Med Decis Making ; 41(4): 419-429, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153779

RESUMO

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continues to expand, policymakers are striving to balance the combinations of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to keep people safe and minimize social disruptions. We developed and calibrated an agent-based simulation to model COVID-19 outbreaks in the greater Seattle area. The model simulated NPIs, including social distancing, face mask use, school closure, testing, and contact tracing with variable compliance and effectiveness to identify optimal NPI combinations that can control the spread of the virus in a large urban area. Results highlight the importance of at least 75% face mask use to relax social distancing and school closure measures while keeping infections low. It is important to relax NPIs cautiously during vaccine rollout in 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante , Máscaras , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Condições Sociais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , População Urbana , Washington
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 275: 113774, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085477

RESUMO

This study examines whether economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health. A social causation perspective suggests that exposure to economic hardship will harm well-being, but a social selection perspective suggests that the appearance of health effects of hardship during the pandemic are attributable to the increased risk of exposure to hardship associated with poor well-being at the start of the pandemic. We also propose a third perspective, economic selection, which suggests that economic hardship prior to the pandemic negatively affects health and increases risk of exposure to hardship during the pandemic; consequently, an association between health and economic hardship during the pandemic may be spurious, and entirely due to pre-existing levels of hardship. To test these competing perspectives, we use a longitudinal study based in Canada that began in late March of 2020 and followed respondents monthly in April, May, and June. Baseline psychological distress and self-rated health, as well as economic hardship prior to the pandemic, independently predict the accumulation of monthly periods of hardship from April to June. The accumulation of periods of hardship from April to June is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health in June. Controls for prior economic hardship and baseline health weaken the association between accumulation of periods of hardship and psychological distress, while also eliminating the association between accumulation of hardship and self-rated health. These findings favor a social causation perspective for psychological distress and a social selection perspective for self-rated health, with less evidence found in support of economic selection. This study took place during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, though, and associations with self-rated health may have become more evident as hardship further wore on individual well-being over a longer period of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Economia , Pandemias , Condições Sociais , Estresse Psicológico , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
15.
Psychiatriki ; 32(1): 15-18, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148408

RESUMO

As of the end of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 82 million verified infections and almost 1.8 million COVID-19-related deaths worldwide,1 resulting to an unprecedented public health response around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic, together with the applied multi-level restrictive measures, has generated a unique combination of an unpredictable and stressful biomedical and socioeconomic environment (i.e., syndemic),2 introducing real-life threat, involuntary and drastic every-day life-style changes with uncertain financial and future prospects, alongside with minimized coping and stress management possibilities.3 This combination of so many different and vital stressors may lead to acute as well as long-term, direct, indirect and even transgenerational unfavourable effects on physical and mental health and functioning, which might even represent the most precarious and still unpredictable public-health-related part of the pandemic.4 Thereby, specific population groups could be at particular risk of poor health outcomes in relation to applied public health measures.4, 5 However, not every individual will experience the same level of negative impact on health and well-being during the pandemic, as several additional national, socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, emotional and cognitive factors can moderate individual resilience and coping.6 Pandemic-related research should, thus, assess as many multidimensional risk and protective factors as possible in a longitudinal, large-scale and multi-national manner, enabling a profound and comprehensive understanding of the complex health and societal impact of the pandemic worldwide.7 Nevertheless, to date, most research findings are cross-sectional, report on small and non- representative samples from individual countries, or on specific population groups (e.g., health care workers, students, clinical populations) and usually assess only a very restricted set of outcomes and time-points. Thereby, only few studies assess coping strategies, medical history or detailed socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data. In addition, most studies leave behind linguistic differences, being available in one or at best two different languages. Such investigations of small outcome subsets within a narrow framework preclude a broader and clear understanding of the multifaceted pandemic impact on the general population and specific subgroups. Acknowledging these gaps in the existing literature, large- scale, collaborative research prospectively collecting and monitoring a broad range of real- time, multi-dimensional health-related, societal and behavioural outcome data from countries across the globe is currently explicitly needed. The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH- FIT) envisions to fill this gap. Based on an easy-to-access webpage (www.coh-fit.com), COH- FIT is the currently largest-scale known international collaborative study of over 200 researchers around the globe, prospectively collecting the biggest set of multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary data from 150 high, middle, and low-income countries in over 30 languages and in three different age groups (adults, adolescents, children) of the general population, focusing also on relevant at-risk subgroups. Albeit being a cross-sectional anonymous survey on an individual level, it is a longitudinal study on a population level, as data are collected continuously since April 2020 and until the WHO declares the end of the pandemic. In addition to snowball recruitment, this project also collects information from nationally representative samples. Furthermore, COH-FIT is the first study of this scale investigating pandemic effects on health and functioning measures between family members, while it also specifically assesses a large list of behavioral and coping factors (e.g., screen time, social media usage, physical activity, social interaction, religious practices, etc.) on outcomes of interest. COH-FIT also monitors changes in public health restrictive measures to enhance data harmonization across nations and time, and to better investigate their impact on physical and mental health, while it also collects information on changes in healthcare systems functioning. The COH-FIT project was worldwide first initiated in Greece after the ethics committee approval of the School of Medicine of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and is officially supported by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, European Psychiatric Association, World Association of Social Psychiatry, ECNP Network on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion, among many other national and international scientific associations. To date, COH-FIT has already collected >115,000 participations worldwide (>8,000 in Greece), but more participants are still needed, both during the second and third wave of the pandemic, as in the future, after the pandemic has ended. Currently, the COH-FIT survey actively collects the largest sample on multifactorial data on the impact of the COVD-19 pandemic on health and functioning not only in Greece, but around the globe. The elaborated design of COH-FIT and similar studies may allow a better identification of key parameters and population groups at increased risk during the pandemic, as well as potential targets for acute and long-term prevention or intervention strategies in the current as in possible future pandemics. A profound understanding of the health and societal impact of the pandemic could facilitate an optimized governmental, social and individual health preparedness during infection times8 and the bridging of individuals', societal and systemic needs and actions through multi-level guideline development with the aim to improve mental health outcomes globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções , Saúde Holística , Pandemias , Condições Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 275: 113774, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711676

RESUMO

This study examines whether economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health. A social causation perspective suggests that exposure to economic hardship will harm well-being, but a social selection perspective suggests that the appearance of health effects of hardship during the pandemic are attributable to the increased risk of exposure to hardship associated with poor well-being at the start of the pandemic. We also propose a third perspective, economic selection, which suggests that economic hardship prior to the pandemic negatively affects health and increases risk of exposure to hardship during the pandemic; consequently, an association between health and economic hardship during the pandemic may be spurious, and entirely due to pre-existing levels of hardship. To test these competing perspectives, we use a longitudinal study based in Canada that began in late March of 2020 and followed respondents monthly in April, May, and June. Baseline psychological distress and self-rated health, as well as economic hardship prior to the pandemic, independently predict the accumulation of monthly periods of hardship from April to June. The accumulation of periods of hardship from April to June is deleteriously associated with psychological distress and self-rated health in June. Controls for prior economic hardship and baseline health weaken the association between accumulation of periods of hardship and psychological distress, while also eliminating the association between accumulation of hardship and self-rated health. These findings favor a social causation perspective for psychological distress and a social selection perspective for self-rated health, with less evidence found in support of economic selection. This study took place during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, though, and associations with self-rated health may have become more evident as hardship further wore on individual well-being over a longer period of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Economia , Pandemias , Condições Sociais , Estresse Psicológico , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
17.
J Affect Disord ; 286: 142-148, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early life period provides a critical foundation for child health and development, and mothers exert great influence as primary caregivers. Previous studies have shown that single-motherhood is associated with negative child outcomes. In Japan, few studies have addressed the situation faced by single-mothers with young children, such as living conditions and mental health issues. METHODS: We utilized nationwide data from the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions (2016), collected by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and compared mothers from single-mother households with those from two-parent households, with further subdivision by intergenerational cohabitation. Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle habits, psychological distress, subjective health status, and stress were examined. RESULTS: We observed that single-mothers without intergenerational cohabitation seemed to experience harsh living conditions compared to other types of households. Severe psychological distress was observed in 11% of single-mothers without cohabitation compared with 6% among single-mothers with cohabitation and 4% among mothers of two-parent households. Multivariate analysis adjusting for demographic variables showed about a two-fold increased risk of severe psychological distress (OR=2.34, 95% CI: 1.71-3.22) associated with single-mothers without intergenerational cohabitation compared to mothers from two-parent household without cohabitation. Single-mothers without cohabitation tended to smoke and drink alcohol frequently and seemed sleep-deprived. LIMITATIONS: Due to the cross-sectional design, we could not make inference on causality. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted needs for targeted support for single-mothers without intergenerational cohabitation. Efforts in public health and other related fields may present opportunities to reduce negative intergenerational impacts of adversities among socially vulnerable families.


Assuntos
Mães , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Condições Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
18.
Psychiatriki ; 32(1): 15-18, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759804

RESUMO

As of the end of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 82 million verified infections and almost 1.8 million COVID-19-related deaths worldwide,1 resulting to an unprecedented public health response around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic, together with the applied multi-level restrictive measures, has generated a unique combination of an unpredictable and stressful biomedical and socioeconomic environment (i.e., syndemic),2 introducing real-life threat, involuntary and drastic every-day life-style changes with uncertain financial and future prospects, alongside with minimized coping and stress management possibilities.3 This combination of so many different and vital stressors may lead to acute as well as long-term, direct, indirect and even transgenerational unfavourable effects on physical and mental health and functioning, which might even represent the most precarious and still unpredictable public-health-related part of the pandemic.4 Thereby, specific population groups could be at particular risk of poor health outcomes in relation to applied public health measures.4, 5 However, not every individual will experience the same level of negative impact on health and well-being during the pandemic, as several additional national, socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, emotional and cognitive factors can moderate individual resilience and coping.6 Pandemic-related research should, thus, assess as many multidimensional risk and protective factors as possible in a longitudinal, large-scale and multi-national manner, enabling a profound and comprehensive understanding of the complex health and societal impact of the pandemic worldwide.7 Nevertheless, to date, most research findings are cross-sectional, report on small and non- representative samples from individual countries, or on specific population groups (e.g., health care workers, students, clinical populations) and usually assess only a very restricted set of outcomes and time-points. Thereby, only few studies assess coping strategies, medical history or detailed socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data. In addition, most studies leave behind linguistic differences, being available in one or at best two different languages. Such investigations of small outcome subsets within a narrow framework preclude a broader and clear understanding of the multifaceted pandemic impact on the general population and specific subgroups. Acknowledging these gaps in the existing literature, large- scale, collaborative research prospectively collecting and monitoring a broad range of real- time, multi-dimensional health-related, societal and behavioural outcome data from countries across the globe is currently explicitly needed. The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH- FIT) envisions to fill this gap. Based on an easy-to-access webpage (www.coh-fit.com), COH- FIT is the currently largest-scale known international collaborative study of over 200 researchers around the globe, prospectively collecting the biggest set of multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary data from 150 high, middle, and low-income countries in over 30 languages and in three different age groups (adults, adolescents, children) of the general population, focusing also on relevant at-risk subgroups. Albeit being a cross-sectional anonymous survey on an individual level, it is a longitudinal study on a population level, as data are collected continuously since April 2020 and until the WHO declares the end of the pandemic. In addition to snowball recruitment, this project also collects information from nationally representative samples. Furthermore, COH-FIT is the first study of this scale investigating pandemic effects on health and functioning measures between family members, while it also specifically assesses a large list of behavioral and coping factors (e.g., screen time, social media usage, physical activity, social interaction, religious practices, etc.) on outcomes of interest. COH-FIT also monitors changes in public health restrictive measures to enhance data harmonization across nations and time, and to better investigate their impact on physical and mental health, while it also collects information on changes in healthcare systems functioning. The COH-FIT project was worldwide first initiated in Greece after the ethics committee approval of the School of Medicine of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and is officially supported by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, European Psychiatric Association, World Association of Social Psychiatry, ECNP Network on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion, among many other national and international scientific associations. To date, COH-FIT has already collected >115,000 participations worldwide (>8,000 in Greece), but more participants are still needed, both during the second and third wave of the pandemic, as in the future, after the pandemic has ended. Currently, the COH-FIT survey actively collects the largest sample on multifactorial data on the impact of the COVD-19 pandemic on health and functioning not only in Greece, but around the globe. The elaborated design of COH-FIT and similar studies may allow a better identification of key parameters and population groups at increased risk during the pandemic, as well as potential targets for acute and long-term prevention or intervention strategies in the current as in possible future pandemics. A profound understanding of the health and societal impact of the pandemic could facilitate an optimized governmental, social and individual health preparedness during infection times8 and the bridging of individuals', societal and systemic needs and actions through multi-level guideline development with the aim to improve mental health outcomes globally.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções , Saúde Holística , Pandemias , Condições Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Med Sci Law ; 61(3): 208-214, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563103

RESUMO

Child labour is a global phenomenon occurring predominantly in countries with lower socioeconomic status and resources. Societal and familial poverty, loss or incapacitation/illness of parents, lack of social security and protection, and ignorance about the value of, or limited access to, education are among the myriad reasons for the involvement of children in the workforce. Child labour is a barrier to the development of individual children and their society and economy. Global estimates indicate that 152 million children (64 million girls and 88 million boys) are working, accounting for almost one in 10 of all children worldwide. Currently the COVID-19 health pandemic and the resulting economic and labour market consequences are having a major impact on people's lives and livelihoods. Unfortunately, impoverished families and their children are often the first to suffer, which may push many more vulnerable children into child labour situations. Child labour in India is more prevalent than in many other countries, with approximately 10 million children actively engaged in, or seeking, work. This paper focuses on the issue of child labour, its causes and its ill effects. Further, it also reviews the international legal framework relating to child labour and legislative issues in India. There is clearly an urgent need for this issue to be effectively addressed and resolved.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Condições Sociais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Soc Sci Med ; 272: 113740, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571943

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Different measures for quantifying the percentage of people with a disability in surveys result in diverging estimates of prevalence and disability-related inequalities. Thus understanding the implications of using different disability measures is of vital policy importance. This study is the first to investigate the within-survey variation in disability prevalence based on two internationally recognized measures: the Washington Group Short Set (WGSS) and the Global Activity Limitation Indicator (GALI). It is also the first to examine the disability-related inequality in voter turnout, based on official validated voter records. METHODS: We use data on 11,308 25-54-year-old respondents from the 2016 wave of the Survey of Health, Impairment and Living Conditions in Denmark (SHILD) to estimate the disability prevalence based on the WGSS and the GALI. Moreover, we investigate health characteristics of individuals with a disability according to the two measures and inequalities in two central social policy success parameters: voter turnout and employment. RESULTS: The WGSS estimates higher disability prevalence (10.6%) than the GALI (5.5%). Only 2.5% of the sample are in both groups, implying that largely, different individuals are defined as having a disability depending on which measure is used. The health profiles of the two groups also differ, as people with a GALI-defined disability are significantly more likely to report a severe mental illness or a major physical health problem. The GALI estimates indicate larger inequalities between people with and without a disability than the WGSS for the probability of being employed, whereas there are no significant differences for voter turnout. CONCLUSION: The choice of disability measure strongly influences within-survey estimates of disability prevalence, the health profile of the defined groups, and inequalities in outcomes. The WGSS underrepresents the number of people suffering from severe mental illness. Estimated inequalities in employment are larger for the GALI than for the WGSS.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Prevalência , Condições Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
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