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1.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 223-243, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403570

RESUMO

This qualitative study explores the social lives of older gay men. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 gay men over the age of 65 to elicit details about their relationships with other people. Findings paint a complex picture of older gay social life that is compounded by significant events affecting gay men from a particular socio-historical period. Three overarching themes emerged that capture the social lives of the participants: (1) coming of age as a gay man in the 20th century; (2) dealing with the aging body; and (3) enduring loss and the consequent impact on social life. The participants reported that being in a gay environment and closing the gay generational divide helped them adjust to their changing social lives in later life. This study adds to the ongoing discussion about the experiences of older gay men and makes suggestions for future research and practice considerations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Idoso , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Condições Sociais
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765535

RESUMO

The article determines the relevance of the research of morbidity of employees of the educational budget sphere. In the article it is noted that employees of the sphere of education are typical representatives of the system of budget financing. A wide range of parameters that can affect the health and well-being of teachers. Factors such as age, the frequency and chronic nature of diseases, work in a state of some malaise, pedagogical activity in unsatisfactory conditions, dissatisfaction with relations with colleagues and administration, loneliness, can make a different contribution to the processes of deterioration of health and state of health. Thus, the article determines that persons working in the field of education, more often than representatives of the compared groups, for the preservation and strengthening of their own health resort to walks in the fresh air, healthy eating and rest in a sanatorium. In turn, among the employees of the educational sphere is more common rejection of bad habits. The article makes an important conclusion that among the representatives of the educational sphere a quarter of the respondents experience constant malaise and fatigue after work, that is, more than half of the employees of the educational sphere are subject to significant emotional and even physical stress, leading to fatigue and further to diseases. The article presents the figures and the main conclusions of the study of medical and social factors of morbidity of employees of the educational public sector.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Setor Público , Condições Sociais , Humanos , Morbidade , Federação Russa
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765547

RESUMO

The article presents the course of life and various activities of S. I. Mitskevich, public physician, participant of revolutionary movement, Soviet health care professional. He was author of "The Memoirs of Public Physician"/ Не also studied psychoneurosis in the Trans-Polar Lands and founded leprosy and municipal hospital in the city of Sredne-Kolymsk.


Assuntos
Médicos , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Pessoal de Saúde , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Federação Russa , Condições Sociais
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 643, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598800

RESUMO

Today, armed conflict affects some twenty countries, covering an area making up 11% of the surface area of the Earth. Any degradation of nature in these areas represents a harmful depletion of the world's natural heritage. Despite this, environmental issues are neglected during these periods of conflict, considered secondary to the urgency of restoring peace and safeguarding human life. Yet their consequences are potentially severe. In these areas, it is future generations who will suffer the effects of the current devastation for a very long time. In this context, the method developed in this study, named (Geographic Information System) for Environmental Monitoring in Wartime, can be used to calculate a risk indicator for environmental degradation, spatial monitoring and risk management. This will make it possible to identify the main threats to protected areas, catalogue the damage caused to the environment by armed conflicts and create a dynamic risk map. In this paper, GIS-EMW has been applied to calculate a risk indicator for environmental degradation in Syria.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos , Condições Sociais , Síria
8.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109620, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569019

RESUMO

The primary objective of this research is to understand the role of community participation in green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) development. There is a lack of understanding about the interactions of technical and non-technical factors that promote or hinder GSI implementation and development. This work uses the qualitative case study methodology to fulfil the objective and answer the research questions. The case study is based on the Proctor Creek Watershed, Atlanta Georgia, a rapidly growing urban area located in the southeastern United States. Data sources include participant interviews, documents, and field notes. Findings reveal that community participation in this case is embedded in collaborative partnership efforts. Also, social conditions highly influence the participation processes by dictating the priorities the community develops during participation processes. Factors such as funding and political support, promote green stormwater infrastructure implementation along with community participation. Additionally, community education addresses the challenge of resistance to change, hence community education plays a role in its development and implementation.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Chuva , Georgia , Humanos , Condições Sociais
9.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 438-446, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040107

RESUMO

Distress has a potentiating effect on complications of heart disease. Early identification of distress and psychosocial management could help patients to deal with the disease and improve their quality of life. However, in Brazil, there is no specific instrument for evaluation of distress in cardiac patients. Objectives: To describe the validation process of the Screening Tool for Psychosocial Distress (STOP-D) for the Brazilian population. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study with a quantitative approach. A total of 144 patients (including outpatients and inpatients) were interviewed at the waiting room of the outpatient cardiology clinic or in cardiology wards. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected, and distress was assessed using two instruments - the Brazilian version of the STOP-D and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). First, we performed an exploratory factor analysis and analysis of the accuracy of the STOP-D score by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curvet. Results: The factorability analysis of the correlation matrix did not detect any factor that made the factorial solution unfeasible. The instrument showed a single-factor nature, confirmed by the criterion of eigenvalues, with an 85% accuracy in predicting distress. A cut-off point of 15.5 was chosen for distress using the ROC curve. Conclusions: The Brazilian version of the STOP-D is an adequate instrument for the screening of heart disease patient for distress. It can be easily used by any health professional and would contribute to the promotion of a comprehensive support to cardiac patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estresse Psicológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Estudos de Validação , Ansiedade , Condições Sociais , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Estatística , Inquéritos e Questionários , Curva ROC , Análise Fatorial , Triagem/métodos , Depressão , Estudo Observacional
10.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 5(2): 16-31, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1021746

RESUMO

Introdução:A Mortalidade Neonatal (MN) é o principal componente dos índices de Mortalidade Infantil (MI) representando no primeiro ano de vida, mais de 70% dos óbitos, com principal ocorrência entre os neonatais precoces.Objetivo:A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo delinear o Perfil da Mortalidade Neonatal no Estado de Alagoas, durante o período de 2008 a 2017. Método:Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagens quantitativas, do tipo retrospectivas, utilizando dados secundários disponibilizados pelo Setor de Vigilância de Óbitos da Secretária de Saúde do Estado de Alagoas (SESAU). Os dados selecionados foram referentes aos registros de óbitos neonatais ocorridos entre 0 a 28 dias incompletos de vida, registrados em Alagoas no período de 2008 a 2017. Para realização distribuições proporcionais foi utilizado o programa estatístico BioEstat versão 5.3. Resultadose Discussões:Os resultados revelaram no período do estudo 5.647 óbitos neonatais em Alagoas. Destes (12,6%) registrados em 2018. Sendo (55,6%) no sexo masculino, (25,5%) com peso entre 501 g<1kg, (77,5%) entre idade menor que 7 dias de vida, e como causa principal o Desconforto Respiratório do recém-nascido (19,6%).Conclusões:O conhecimento das características da Mortalidade Neonatal no Estado de Alagoas, contribui para a eliminação dos riscos e o alcance de uma assistência à saúde com equidade, possibilitando a formulação de ações que promovam a melhoria da assistência prestada ao neonato, reduzindo assim as Taxas de Mortalidade (AU).


Introduction:Neonatal Mortality (NM) isthe main component of Infant Mortality Indexes (IM), representing, in the first year of life, more than 70% of deaths, with a higher occurrence among early neonates.Objective:This study aims to delineate the Profile of Neonatal Mortality in the State of Alagoas, from 2008 to 2017. Methods:This is a descriptive study, with quantitative approaches, of the retrospective type, using secondary data provided by the Sector of Sanitary Surveillance of the Health Department of the State of Alagoas (SESAU). The selected data were related to the records of neonatal deaths occurred between 0 and 28 days of incomplete life, registered in Alagoas from 2008 to 2017. To perform proportional distributions, the statistical program BioEstat version 5.3 was used.Results:The results revealed in the study period 5,647 neonatal deaths in Alagoas. Of these (12.6%) registered in 2018. Being male (55.6%), (25.5%) with weight between 501g <1 kg, (77.5%)among children under 7 days, and the main cause of respiratorydiscomfort the newborn (19.6%).Conclusions:The knowledge of the characteristics of Neonatal Mortality in the State of Alagoas contributes to the elimination of risks and the reach of health care with equity, enabling the formulation of actions that promote the improvement of the care given to the newborn, reducing the rates of Mortality (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Perfil de Saúde , Brasil , Mortalidade Infantil , Mortalidade , Condições Sociais , Epidemiologia Descritiva
11.
Lancet ; 394(10202): 916-917, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526732
12.
Lancet ; 394(10202): 917, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526733
13.
Lancet ; 394(10202): 917-918, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526734
14.
Anthropol Anz ; 76(3): 223-231, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478053

RESUMO

In the last years, cases of violence against animals win often a main place in the everyday news. The way of abuse has different characters. Mostly the affected animals are living in the same places like humans. The result for the animal is often a long term health affection or even death. In a parallel way one gets the impression that also the cases of violence against children increase year after year. Surely the easy way to present cases of violence through the social media in our days bring them faster into our perception. But indeed it seems that the fact of animal or child abuse appears in a higher frequency and intensity compared to the past. A lot of factors play a role looking for an answer, like the age and the sex of the incriminated person, the geographic area, the stereotypes in a certain cultural circle, the social and economic status of the person. A main motive seems to be the feeling of dominance against weak persons or in general against objects. Cases of animal or children cruelty seem to have a higher frequency in lower life level classes. But also the violence of minors or children against animals has here a horrifying statistic. The phenomenon of neglect has to be described here as a form of violence. A comparison with the results of a statistic view including 315 cases of violence in different levels of an emergency station protocol comes also into discussion. Animals and children as victims of violence should not present a human biological necessity.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Características Culturais , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Condições Sociais , Violência
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465657

RESUMO

The most consecutive statement of biomedical ethics principles within educational process and the correct analysis of its problems in the context of rapid development and expansion of a scope of medical technologies are possible only on the basis of synthesis of philosophical, culturological, historical and theological knowledge. Otherwise, biomedical ethics could be substituted for deontology which utilitarian value is indisputable, but which has no sufficient universality in relation to various historical periods and sociocultural conditions. It becomes especially obvious during a globalization era when the states with various experience of cultural-historical development and level of economic potential are forced to create large regional associations for the benefit of the sustainable development. However the synthetic concept can exist only based on serious humanitarian preparation which it isn't necessary to for medical community even of developed countries within the existing educational standards. Dialectic approach, being «cleared¼ of the known ideological excesses, could become the compact, available and at the same time universal tool for forming of complete view of students on biomedical ethics, the analysis of its problems and implementation of its principles in dynamically changing conditions of modern society. Russian Federation naturally applying for a leader role of various regional political structures, in particular - in extremely diverse and therefore very difficult Asia-Pacific region, could offer foreign colleagues the general agenda in the field of biomedical ethics based on dialectic approach. Fields of Eastern Economic Forum which is annually held on the base of Far Eastern Federal University in Vladivostok could become the platform for the presentation of this agenda.


Assuntos
Bioética , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Federação Russa , Condições Sociais
16.
Public Health ; 174: 97-101, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of the Swedish public health policy is to create the right societal conditions for good and equitable health throughout the population and to reduce avoidable health inequalities within a generation. The objective of this article is to highlight the main findings of the Open Comparisons in Public Health (OCPH) 2019 study. STUDY DESIGN: The OCPH is a longitudinal indicator-based comparative study, encompassing 39 public health indicators with results from Sweden's 21 regions and 290 municipalities. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were used to compare results between municipalities, regions and time points. Correlation analysis was used to study the strength of the relationship between the results of municipalities and their socio-economic conditions. RESULTS: Across the population, levels of health are good and have, in some areas, improved over recent decades. However, some significant health disparities remain according to neighbourhood, sex, age and educational background. Health disparities related to the level of education are often larger than those between women and men, and there are larger differences within a region than between regions. Health disparities have, in some cases, increased, such as for life expectancy. CONCLUSION: If health equity is to be achieved, leaders at all levels must collaborate and advocate for political action and local efficient public health interventions to eliminate health disparities as a result of neighbourhood and social conditions.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Condições Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia
17.
Pediatrics ; 144(2)2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Poor neighborhood conditions have established associations with poorer child health, but little is known about protective factors that mitigate the effects of difficult neighborhood conditions. In this study, we tested if positive family relationships can buffer youth who live in dangerous and/or disorderly neighborhoods from poor asthma outcomes. METHODS: A total of 308 youths (aged 9-17) who were physician-diagnosed with asthma and referred from community pediatricians and/or family practitioners participated in this cross-sectional study. Neighborhood conditions around families' home addresses were coded by using Google Street View images. Family relationship quality was determined via youth interviews. Clinical asthma outcomes (asthma symptoms, activity limitations, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentile), asthma management behaviors (family response to asthma symptoms and integration of asthma into daily life), and asthma-relevant immunologic processes (lymphocyte T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokine production and sensitivity to glucocorticoid inhibition) were assessed via questionnaires, interviews, spirometry, and blood draws. RESULTS: Significant interactions were found between neighborhood conditions and family relationship quality (ß = |.11-.15|; P < .05). When neighborhood danger and/or disorder was low, family relationships were not associated with asthma. When neighborhood danger and/or disorder was high, better family relationship quality was associated with fewer asthma symptoms, fewer activity limitations, and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentile. Similar patterns emerged for asthma management behaviors. With immunologic measures, greater neighborhood danger and/or disorder was associated with greater T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokine production and reduced glucocorticoid sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: When youth live in dangerous and/or disorderly neighborhoods, high family relationship quality can buffer youth from poor asthma outcomes. Although families may not be able to change their neighborhoods, they may nonetheless be able to facilitate better asthma outcomes in their children through strong family relationships.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Características de Residência , Condições Sociais , Adolescente , Asma/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 17(6): 557-565, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dental health is associated with the growth and development, physical or psychological, of children. Although numerous preventive measures are available, dental caries among primary schoolchildren remains a public health concern in China. Understanding the disparity of children's dental health between rural and urban areas in China could provide further insight into the prevention of caries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the oral health of pupils aged 6-12 years in Pudong District (Shanghai) and Lichuan (Jiangxi Province) in China. A questionnaire survey was performed among children's guardians to identify the potential risk factors for childhood dental caries. RESULTS: A total of 1922 primary schoolchildren were included in this study, with 815 from Pudong and 1107 from Lichuan. The mean age of children from Pudong was 8.57 (SD = 1.61), which was statistically significantly lower than their counterpart from Lichuan (9.36 ± 1.75). The prevalence of caries in Pudong and Lichuan was 63.4% and 75.0%, respectively. Statistically significant differences of demographical and behavioural features were observed between schoolchildren in Pudong and Lichuan. In general, Lichuan children had a higher caries risk compared with their Pudong counterparts (OR = 3.43, 95%CI 2.65-4.28). Moreover, the non-parental caregivers, low family income, low parental educational level, as well as bad dietary habits, were identified as risk factors for caries. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood caries in the rural area was far more severe than that in the urban area. This disparity was determined by several factors such as the high proportion of left-behind children in the rural area (e.g. children who remain in rural regions of China while their parents leave to work in urban areas). Our government should put the prevention of caries among rural children at a higher priority in the near future to narrow the gap between rural and urban areas.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Prevalência , Condições Sociais
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 699, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of empirical studies focus on a single Social Determinant of Health (SDH) when analysing health inequalities. We go beyond this by exploring how the combination of education (micro level) and household arrangements (mezzo level) is associated with self-perceived health. METHODS: Our data source is the 2014 cross-sectional data from the European Survey of Living Conditions (EU-SILC). We calculate the predicted probabilities of poor self-perceived health for the middle-aged European population (30-59 years) as a function of the combination of the two SDHs. This is done separately for five European country groups (dual-earner; liberal; general family support; familistic; and post-socialist transition) and gender. RESULTS: We observe a double health gradient in all the country groups: first, there is a common health gradient by education (the higher the education, the lower the probability of poor health); second, household arrangements define a health gradient within each educational level according to whether or not the individual lives with a partner (living with a partner is associated with a lower probability of poor health). We observe some specificity in this general pattern. Familistic and post-socialist transition countries display large differences in the predicted probabilities according to education and household arrangements when compared with the other three country groups. Familistic and post-socialist transition countries also show the largest gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: Health differences in European populations seem to be defined, first, by education and, second, by living or not living with a partner. Additionally, different social contexts (gender inequalities, educational profile, etc.) in European countries change the influences on health of both the SDHs for both women and men.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Características da Família , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condições Sociais
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(12)2019 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234499

RESUMO

The increasingly aging society in developed countries has raised attention to the role of technology in seniors' lives, namely concerning isolation-related issues. Independent seniors that live alone frequently neglect meals, hydration and proper medication-taking behavior. This work aims at eating and drinking recognition in free-living conditions for triggering smart reminders to autonomously living seniors, keeping system design considerations, namely usability and senior-acceptance criteria, in the loop. To that end, we conceived a new dataset featuring accelerometer and gyroscope wrist data to conduct the experiments. We assessed the performance of a single multi-class classification model when compared against several binary classification models, one for each activity of interest (eating vs. non-eating; drinking vs. non-drinking). Binary classification models performed consistently better for all tested classifiers (k-NN, Naive Bayes, Decision Tree, Multilayer Perceptron, Random Forests, HMM). This evidence supported the proposal of a semi-hierarchical activity recognition algorithm that enabled the implementation of two distinct data stream segmentation techniques, the customization of the classification models of each activity of interest and the establishment of a set of restrictions to apply on top of the classification output, based on daily evidence. An F1-score of 97% was finally attained for the simultaneous recognition of eating and drinking in an all-day acquisition from one young user, and 93% in a test set with 31 h of data from 5 different unseen users, 2 of which were seniors. These results were deemed very promising towards solving the problem of food and fluids intake monitoring with practical systems which shall maximize user-acceptance.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Condições Sociais , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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