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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237520, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis. To study the effects of regular physical activity and exercise intensity on inflammation and clinical outcome, we examined inflammatory pathogenesis in an acute model of murine gout and analyzed human gout patient clinical data as a function of physical activity. METHODS: NF-κB-luciferase reporter mice were organized into four groups and exercised at 0 m/min (non-exercise), 8 m/min (low-intensity), 11 m/min (moderate-intensity), and 15 m/min (high-intensity) for two weeks. Mice subsequently received intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU) crystal injections (0.5mg) and the inflammatory response was analyzed 15 hours later. Ankle swelling, NF-κB activity, histopathology, and tissue infiltration by macrophages and neutrophils were measured. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 was quantified on peripheral monocytes/neutrophils by flow cytometry and both cytokines and chemokines were measured in serum or synovial aspirates. Clinical data and questionnaires accessing overall physical activity levels were collected from gout patients. RESULTS: Injection of MSU crystals produced a robust inflammatory response with increased ankle swelling, NF-κB activity, and synovial infiltration by macrophages and neutrophils. These effects were partially mitigated by low and moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, IL-1ß was decreased at the site of MSU crystal injection, TLR2 expression on peripheral neutrophils was downregulated, and expression of CXCL1 in serum was suppressed with low and moderate-intensity exercise. Conversely, the high-intensity exercise group closely resembled the non-exercised control group by nearly all metrics of inflammation measured in this study. Physically active gout patients had significantly less flares/yr, decreased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and lower pain scores relative to physically inactive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Regular, moderate physical activity can produce a quantifiable anti-inflammatory effect capable of partially mitigating the pathologic response induced by intra-articular MSU crystals by downregulating TLR2 expression on circulating neutrophils and suppressing systemic CXCL1. Low and moderate-intensity exercise produces this anti-inflammatory effect to varying degrees, while high-intensity exercise provides no significant difference in inflammation compared to non-exercising controls. Consistent with the animal model, gout patients with higher levels of physical activity have more favorable prognostic data. Collectively, these data suggest the need for further research and may be the foundation to a future paradigm-shift in conventional exercise recommendations provided by Rheumatologists to gout patients.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL1/sangue , Gota/terapia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/sangue , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Gota/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/patologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/patologia
2.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1022-1033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999189

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the significant risk factors that result in maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and exercise is known to exert cardioprotection. In this research, the cardioprotective function and exercise mechanisms were explored.The rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation. The rats that received TAC were randomly assigned to five groups: (1) rats subjected to a sham operation as control group (SC), (2) rats that underwent TAC group (TC), (3) TAC and moderate-intensity exercise group (TE), (4) TE plus 3-MA group (TEM), and (5) TE plus Compound C group (TEC). The heart function was measured via echocardiography. Histological analysis and relative protein testing were conducted to analyze collagen deposition and apoptosis. Furthermore, western blot was employed to measure the protein expression of relevant signaling pathways. Impaired cardiac function, interstitial fibrosis, enhanced apoptosis, and ER stress were observed in the TAC-induced left ventricular hypertrophy. Exercise attenuated TAC-induced cardiac dysfunction, interstitial fibrosis, and ER stress-related apoptosis. In addition, exercise significantly improved autophagy and upregulated AMPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, AMPK inhibitor Compound C repressed the activation of AMPK, and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine reversed exercise-induced autophagy. All of these abolished the protection of exercise against cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis induced by TAC.Our results indicated that 4 weeks of treadmill exercise could alleviate pressure overload-induced LV dysfunction and remodeling via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, which was induced by enhancing autophagy through the activation of AMPK.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Autofagia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/reabilitação , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/reabilitação , Animais , Apoptose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Remodelação Ventricular
4.
Life Sci ; 260: 118392, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898523

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to investigate the impact of cancer cachexia and previous aerobic exercise training (AET) on cardiac function and structure in tumor bearing mice. MAIN METHODS: Colon adenocarcinoma cells 26 (CT26) were subcutaneously injected in BALB/c mice to establish robust cancer cachexia model. AET was performed on a treadmill during 45 days, 60 min/5 days per week. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and cardiac morphology was assessed by light microscopy. The protein expression levels of mitochondrial complex were analyzed by Western blotting. The mRNA levels of genes related to cardiac remodeling and autophagy were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Our data confirms CT26 tumor bearing mice as a well-characterized and robust model of cancer cachexia. CT26 mice exhibited cardiac remodeling and dysfunction characterized by cardiac atrophy and impaired left ventricle ejection fraction paralleled by cardiac necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis. AET partially reversed the left ventricle ejection fraction and led to significant anti-cardiac remodeling effect associated reduced necrosis, inflammation and cardiac collagen deposition in CT26 mice. Reduced TGF-ß1 mRNA levels, increased mitochondrial complex IV protein levels and partial recovery of BNIP3 mRNA levels in cardiac tissue were associated with the cardiac effects of AET in CT26 mice. Thus, we suggest AET as a powerful regulator of key pathways involved in cardiac tissue homeostasis in cancer cachexia. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a robust model of cancer cachexia, as well as highlights the potential and integrative effects of AET as a preventive strategy for reducing cardiac damage in cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Caquexia/etiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Cardiopatias/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Caquexia/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238771, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956414

RESUMO

Canine obesity is associated with genetic, environmental, and behavioural factors, with the latter including both the behaviour of the dog and the owner. Knowledge about owner perception of canine obesity and its treatment can inform the development of new strategies to help prevent and manage this disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of dog owners regarding canine obesity and weight management. Dog owners residing in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) completed a questionnaire, either at home or in the waiting rooms of 3 veterinary hospitals. Owners determined their dog's body condition score (BCS), and this was compared with BCS determined by a veterinarian. Questionnaire findings from dogs that were in overweight (BCS 6-7/9) or obese (BCS (8-9/9) condition were compared with those in ideal weight (4-5/9) using chi-square tests and odds ratios. A total of 926 dogs were included, of which 480 (52%), 317 (34%) and 129 (14%) were in ideal, overweight and obese condition, respectively. Many owners under-estimated their dog's weight status, with the proportion increasing as the dog's weight status increased (ideal 60/480, 13%; overweight 174/317, 55%; obese 88/129, 68%; P<0.001). Although most owners (890/926, 96%) believed that canine obesity could pose health risks, the proportion that disagreed increased as weight status increased (ideal 12/480, 2%; overweight 14/317, 4%; 10/129, 8%; P = 0.006). Finally, although most owners (880/926, 95%) stated that they would let their dog undergo weight management, only a minority (182/926; 20%) believed that a trained professional was needed, and they had various misperceptions including potential cost and what the strategies that would be effective. Based on the findings of this study, it would be advisable for veterinarians to spend time addressing these misperceptions, in the hope of both improving awareness of obesity and the outcomes of weight management.


Assuntos
Obesidade/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Animais , Atitude , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Condicionamento Físico Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Redução de Peso
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946478

RESUMO

The effects of feeding frequency on postprandial response of circulating appetite-regulating hormones, insulin, glucose and amino acids, and on physical activity, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were studied in healthy adult cats. Two experiments were designed as a 2 x 3 replicated incomplete Latin square design. Eight cats, with an average body weight (BW) of 4.34 kg ± 0.04 and body condition score (BCS) of 5.4 ± 1.4 (9 point scale), were fed isocaloric amounts of a commercial adult maintenance canned cat food either once (0800 h) or four times daily (0800 h, 1130 h, 1500 h, 1830 h). Study 1 consisted of three 21-d periods. On day 14, two fasted and 11 postprandial blood samples were collected over 24 hours to measure plasma concentrations of ghrelin, GLP-1, GIP, leptin, PYY, insulin and amino acids, and whole blood glucose. Physical activity was monitored from day 15 to 21 of each period. In Study 2 indirect calorimetry was performed on the last day of each period. Body weight was measured weekly and feed intake recorded daily in both experiments. No effect of feeding regimen on BW was detected. Cats eating four times daily had lesser plasma concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 (P<0.05) and tended to have lesser plasma PYY concentrations (P<0.1). Plasma leptin and whole blood glucose concentrations did not differ between regimens (P>0.1). Cats fed once daily had a greater postprandial plasma amino acid response, and greater plasma ghrelin and insulin concentrations (P<0.05). Physical activity was greater in cats fed four times (P<0.05), though energy expenditure was similar between treatments at fasting and in postprandial phases. Finally, cats eating one meal had a lower fasting respiratory quotient (P<0.05). Overall, these data indicate that feeding once a day may be a beneficial feeding management strategy for indoor cats to promote satiation and lean body mass.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Regulação do Apetite , Gatos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Hormônios/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Apetite , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/metabolismo , Gatos/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Hormônios/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Respiração
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23932-23941, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900951

RESUMO

DICER is a key enzyme in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Here we show that aerobic exercise training up-regulates DICER in adipose tissue of mice and humans. This can be mimicked by infusion of serum from exercised mice into sedentary mice and depends on AMPK-mediated signaling in both muscle and adipocytes. Adipocyte DICER is required for whole-body metabolic adaptations to aerobic exercise training, in part, by allowing controlled substrate utilization in adipose tissue, which, in turn, supports skeletal muscle function. Exercise training increases overall miRNA expression in adipose tissue, and up-regulation of miR-203-3p limits glycolysis in adipose under conditions of metabolic stress. We propose that exercise training-induced DICER-miR-203-3p up-regulation in adipocytes is a key adaptive response that coordinates signals from working muscle to promote whole-body metabolic adaptations.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/deficiência , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Feminino , Glicólise , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ribonuclease III/deficiência , Ribonuclease III/genética
8.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 202-206, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981272

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and resveratrol on janus kinase 2(JAK2) and transforming growth factor-ß1(TGF-ß1) in renal tissue of type 2 diabetes rats and its mechanism. Methods: The model of type 2 diabetic rats was established through SD rats fed high-fat diet for 5 weeks together with intraperitoneal infecting after a low dose of STZ. The rats were randomly divided into diabetic control group(DC), diabetic exercise group(DE), diabetic resveratrol group(DR), diabetic exercise and resveratrol group(DER), normal control group(NC), 12 rats in each group. Exercise-related groups performed 8 weeks treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day). Resveratrol was administered to drug-related groups for 8 weeks (45 mg/kg, 7 day/week). Eight weeks later, we examined blood glucose concentrations, 24 h microalbuminuria(UA), serum creatinine(Scr), blood urea nitrogen(BUN), and the expressions of TGF-ß1, janus kinase 2(JAK2) and JAK2 mRNA in renal tissue. Results: After eight weeks of intervention, compared with NC group, the concentrations blood glucose, 24 h UA, Scr, BUN, the expressions of TGF-ß1, JAK2 and JAK2 mRNA were increased significantly in DC group(P<0.05). Compared with DC group, the concentrations of blood glucose, 24 h UA, Scr, BUN, the expressions of TGF-ß1, JAK2 and JAK2 mRNA were decreased significantly in DE group, DR group and DER group(P<0.05). Conclusion: Exercise, resveratrol and combined intervention may decrease the expressions of JAK2 mRNA, JAK2 and TGF-ß1, which further attenuate renal injury for type 2 diabetes. The renal protective effect produced by exercise and resveratrol combined intervention is better than that produced by exercise or resveratrol intervention alone.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Janus Quinase 2 , Rim , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Resveratrol , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/enzimologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
9.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(8): 1192-1199, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of aerobic exercise combined with huwentoxin-I (HWTX-I)-mediated Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway on phase II detoxification enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 and their protective effects against obstructive jaundice (OJ)-induced central nervous system injury in mice. METHODS: 50 male KM mice were randomly divided into blank group (GO), model group (M), aerobic exercise group (T), HWTX-I group (H), and aerobic exercise combined with HWTX-I group (TH). Mouse models of OJ were established with surgical suture for 72 h in the mice in all the groups except for the blank control group. The mice received interventions by aerobic exercise and tail vein injection of HWTX-I (0.05 µg/g) and were assessed by behavioral observation, Clark's neurological function scores, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), brain tissue Nissl staining, hippocampal tissue Western blotting, and liver tissue mRNA expression profiling and sequencing. RESULTS: The mice in group M had obvious jaundice symptoms after the operation with significantly increased Clark's neurological score (P < 0.01). Compared with those in group M, the mice in group T, group H, and group TH showed significantly decreased serum levels of ALT, AST, TBIL, and TBA (P < 0.01) with increased contents of 5-HT and BDNF and decreased contents of S100B and NSE in the hippocampus (P < 0.01). Synergistic effects between aerobic exercise and HWTX-I were noted on the above parameters except for the liver function indicators. Interventions with aerobic exercise and HWTX-I, alone or in combination, obviously lessened pathologies in the brain tissue induced by OJ, and the combined treatment produced the strongest effect. The treatment also increased the expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1 mRNA and protein in brain tissues (P < 0.01 or 0.05) with a synergistic effect between aerobic exercise and HWTX-I. Illumina high-throughput sequencing showed that the differentially expressed factors participated mainly in such neural regulatory pathways as neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, GABAergic synapses, dopaminergic synapses, synaptic vesicle circulation, and axon guidance, involving tissue cell neuronal signal transduction, apoptosis inhibition, immune response, and toxicity. Aerobic exercise and HWTX-I synergistically increased the accumulation of the signal pathways related with neuron damage repair and proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic exercise combined with HWTX-I can up-regulate the expression of phase Ⅱ detoxification enzymes HO-1 and NQO1 through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway to protect the central nervous system against OJ-induced damage in mice.


Assuntos
Icterícia Obstrutiva , Traumatismos do Sistema Nervoso , Animais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch , Masculino , Desintoxicação Metabólica Fase II , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Proteínas de Répteis , Venenos de Aranha
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239473, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia patients experience cardiovascular complications in addition to musculoskeletal pain. This study aimed to investigate the cardiac effects of a prolonged shallow water gait in a fibromyalgia-induced young mouse model. METHODS: To produce a fibromyalgia mouse model, wild-type mice were administered an intraperitoneal injection of reserpine once a day for three days, and two primary experiments were performed. First, three types of gait tests were performed before and after the reserpine injections as follows: (i) 5 minutes of free gait outside the water, (ii) 1 minute of free gait in shallow warm water, and (iii) 5 minutes of free gait in shallow warm water. Second, electrocardiogram recordings were taken before and after the three gait tests. The average heart rate and heart rate irregularity scores were analyzed. RESULTS: Exercise-induced cardiac arrhythmia was observed at 1-minute gait in shallow water during the acute stage of induced FM in young mice. Further, both cardiac arrhythmia and a decrease in HR have occurred at 5-minute gait in shallow water at the same mice. However, this phenomenon was not observed in the wild-type mice under any test conditions. CONCLUSION: Although a short-term free gait in shallow warm water may be advantageous for increasing the motor activity of FM-model mice, we should be aware of the risk of prolonged and excessive exercise-induced cardiac arrhythmia. For gait exercises in shallow water as a treatment in FM patients. We suggest a gradual increase in exercise duration may be warranted.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Marcha/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Reserpina/farmacologia
13.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 161-164, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744012

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the effects of 10-week swimming training on blood pressure and prethrombotic state in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Eighteen 10-week-old male SHR were randomly divided into control group (8 rats) and training group (10 rats). The SHR training group underwent weightless swimming training for 10 weeks, five times a week, 60 minutes a time, and blood pressure was measured every two weeks. The platelet aggregation rate, von willebrand factor(vWF), tissue plasminogen activator(t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor -1(PAI-1) in plasma were measured after 10 weeks of training. Results: Compared with the control group, blood pressure in SHR training group was decreased significantly(P<0. 05) after 4-week of swimming training, and blood pressure, platelet aggregation rate, plasma vWF level, PAI-1 activity were decreased significantly(P<0. 01), while plasma t-PA activity was increased significantly (P<0. 01) after 10-week of swimming training. Conclusion: Suitable swimming training will effectively reduce the blood pressure of SHR and has a significant effect if persisting in training for 4 weeks, and it also can improve pre-thrombotic state, prevent hypertensive thrombotic complications significantly in SHR.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Natação
14.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 165-170, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744013

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of resistance exercise on mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of aging rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups, 2-month sedentary control group (C1; n=10), 2-month with resistance training group (R1; n=10), 6-month sedentary control group (C2; n=10), 6-month with resistance training group (R2; n =10 ). Rats in R1 and R2 groups were arranged for resistance training for 8 weeks. This program consisted of interval running on a treadmill, speed 15 m·min-1, 35° incline, duration 15 s, interval 30 s, 4 times/group, 3 groups/cycle, 2 cycles per day, 6 days per week, a total of 8 weeks. The expressions of mitochondrial fusion protein 2(Mfn2) and dynamin-related protein 1(DRP1) in rat quadriceps were detected by Western blot, and the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ concentration were measured by flow cytometry. Results: ①Compared with C1 group, the expression of DRP1 protein in R1 group was increased (P<0. 01), and the Mfn2 protein in R1 group had no significant difference, both DRP1 and Mfn2 protein in C2 group were decreased (P<0. 01);compared with C2 group, the DRP1 and Mfn2 protein in R2 group were similarly increased (P<0. 01, P<0. 05);compared with R1 group, the DRP1 and Mfn2 protein in R2 group were both decreased (P<0. 01). ② Compared with C1 group, the Ca2+ content of R1 group was decreased (P<0. 01) and the Ca2+ content of C2 group was increased (P<0. 01);Compared with C2 group, the content of Ca2+ in R2 group was decreased (P<0. 01);compared with R1 group, the Ca2+ content in R2 group was increased (P<0. 01). ③ Compared with C1 group, the ROS content in R1 group was increased, but there was no significant difference, while the ROS content in C2 group was increased (P<0. 01);compared with C2 group, ROS content in R2 group was decreased (P<0. 01); compared with R1 group, the ROS content in R2 group was increased (P<0. 01). ④ Compared with group C1, the levels of ΔΨm in C2 group was decreased (P<0. 01);Compared with C2 group, The ΔΨm of R2 group was increased(P<0. 01); Compared with group R1, the ΔΨm of R2 group was decreased, but there was no statistical difference. Conclusion: During the aging process of rats, mitochondria of quadriceps femoral muscle showed Ca2+ accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased fusion protein and other phenomena, and resistance training could effectively improve these changes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Mitocôndrias Musculares/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Treinamento de Resistência , Animais , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Life Sci ; 261: 118298, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822717

RESUMO

AIMS: 1) Characterize the progression of exercise intolerance in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice and 2) evaluate the therapeutic effect of aerobic exercise training (AET) on counteracting skeletal and cardiac dysfunction in PH. MAIN METHODS: Wild type C57BL6/J mice were studied in two different time points: 2 months and 4 months. Exercise tolerance was evaluated by graded treadmill exercise test. The AET was performed in the last month of treatment of 4 months' time point. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area was assessed by immunofluorescence. The diameter of cardiomyocytes and pulmonary edema were quantified by staining with hematoxylin-eosin. The variables were compared among the groups by two-way ANOVA or non-paired Student's t-test. Significance level was set at p < 0.05. KEY FINDINGS: After 2 months of MCT treatment, mice presented pulmonary edema, right cardiac dysfunction and left ventricle hypertrophy. After 4 months of MCT treatment, mice showed pulmonary edema, right and left cardiac dysfunction and remodeling associated with exercise intolerance and skeletal muscle atrophy. AET was able to reverse cardiac left ventricle dysfunction and remodeling, prevent exercise intolerance and skeletal muscle dysfunction. Thus, our data provide evidence of skeletal muscle abnormalities on advanced PH. AET was efficient in inducing an anti-cardiac remodeling effect besides preventing exercise intolerance. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a robust model of PH in mice, as well as highlights the importance of AET as a preventive strategy for exercise intolerance and, skeletal and cardiac muscle abnormalities in PH.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Teste de Esforço , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780776

RESUMO

Overweight/obese dogs are at increased risk of health issues and it is up to the dog owner to uphold successful weight management. In children, overweight relates to their parent's permissive style of parenting. We predicted that permissive dog-directed parenting likewise associates with a dog being overweight (including obesity). If styles in parenting dogs indeed associate with a dog's overweight, these may provide action points for effective weight management. For 2,303 Dutch dog owners, answers on their dog's (nine-point scale) body condition scores were compared to ways of parenting the dog. We used an adapted version of the 32-item Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire and compared the distributions of dog counts across aggregated body condition score categories of underweight (scores one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/obese (scores six to nine) with Chi-square tests across the quartiles of a given parenting style. Overweight/obese dogs were overrepresented in the quartile of dog owners with the highest level of permissive parenting, which is in line with findings on parenting styles and overweight/obesity in children. Supplementary logistic regression analyses on the likelihood of dogs being overweight/obese (i.e. having a body condition score of six or higher) confirmed the importance of parenting and identified the risk factors of dogs having little exercise, being of older age, neutered or owned by someone with lower level education. Our results indicate that strategies to promote proper weight management in dogs could benefit from addressing especially a dog owner's permissiveness in parenting his/her dog.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/patologia , Permissividade , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Países Baixos , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857763

RESUMO

Exercise exerts a beneficial effect on the major pathological and clinical symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease in humans and mouse models of the disease. While numerous mechanisms for such benefits from exercise have been proposed, a clear understanding of the causal links remains elusive. Recent studies also suggest that cerebral blood flow in the brain of both Alzheimer's patients and mouse models of the disease is decreased and that the cognitive symptoms can be improved when blood flow is restored. We therefore hypothesized that the mitigating effect of exercise on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease may be mediated through an increase in the otherwise reduced brain blood flow. To test this idea, we performed a pilot study to examine the impact of three months of voluntary wheel running in a small cohort of ~1-year-old APP/PS1 mice on short-term memory function, brain inflammation, amyloid deposition, and baseline cerebral blood flow. Our findings that exercise led to a trend toward improved spatial short-term memory, reduced brain inflammation, markedly increased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and a reduction in hippocampal amyloid-beta deposits are consistent with other reports on the impact of exercise on the progression of Alzheimer's related symptoms in mouse models. Notably, we did not observe any impact of wheel running on overall baseline blood flow nor on the incidence of non-flowing capillaries, a mechanism we recently identified as one contributing factor to cerebral blood flow deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Overall, our findings add to the emerging picture of differential effects of exercise on cognition and blood flow in Alzheimer's disease pathology by showing that capillary stalling is not decreased following exercise.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/metabolismo , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Terapia por Exercício , Presenilina-1/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Neurogênese , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Projetos Piloto , Presenilina-1/genética , Transgenes
19.
Gene ; 760: 145018, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758580

RESUMO

Protein turnover is a process that is regulated by several factors and can lead to muscle hypertrophy or atrophy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) and eccentric resistance exercise on variables related to protein turnover in rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly assigned into four groups of eight, including control, control-HMB, exercise, and exercise-HMB. Animals in HMB groups received 340 mg/kg/day for two weeks. Animals in the exercise groups performed one session of eccentric resistance exercise consisting of eight repetitions descending from a ladder with a slope of 80 degree, with an extra load of two times body weight (100% 1RM). Twenty-four hours after the exercise session, triceps brachii muscle and serum were collected for further analysis. Exercise and HMB-FA induced lower muscle myostatin and higher muscle Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), P70-S6 kinase 1 gene expression, as well as higher serum irisin and IGF-1 concentrations. Exercise alone induced higher caspase-3 and caspase-8 gene expression while HMB-FA alone induced lower caspase 3 gene expression. HMB-FA supplement increased the effect of exercise on muscle FNDC5, myostatin, and P70-S6 kinase 1 gene expression. The interaction of exercise and HMBFA resulted in an additive effect, increasing serum irisin and IGF-1 concentrations. In conclusion, a 2-week HMB-FA supplementation paired with acute eccentric resistance exercise can positively affect some genes related to muscle protein turnover.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Valeratos/farmacologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fibronectinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Genes Reguladores/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Miostatina/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 258: 118225, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771557

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was considering the effects of taurine supplementation with combined aerobic and resistance training (CARE) on myocardial apoptosis and Protein Kinase B (akt) level changes in diabetic rat. MAIN METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided in to 5 groups of 8 animals in each: 1) control, 2) Diabetes Mellitus (DM), 3) DM with taurine supplementation (DM/T), 4) DM with CARE (DM/CARE), and 5) DM with combination of taurine and CARE (DM/T/CARE). DM was induced by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotine amid (NA) for 2, 3, 4 and 5 groups. Supplement groups received taurine in gavage, 100 mg/kg of body weight, 6 day per weeks, 8 weeks. CARE was performed at maximal speed and 1RM (40-60% of maximum for both). KEY FINDINGS: The results of this study showed that DM significantly increased blood glucose and caspase 3, caspase 9 expressions and apoptosis cells in heart tissue and reduced Akt expression (p < 0.001). However, taurine and CARE interventions significantly decreased apoptosis markers (caspase 3 and caspase 9) and significantly increased Akt in heart of diabetic rats compare to DM groups (p < 0.05). The highest improvement observed in DM/T/CARE group (p < 0.05). SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, it seems that the use of taurine with combined aerobic and exercise training minimize the cardiac damage caused by diabetes (especially apoptosis) trough increasing protein kinase Akt expression. This could improve cardiac remodeling after diabetes. However, more research is needed, especially on the human samples.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/biossíntese , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/terapia , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/tendências , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
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