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1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(2): 310-320, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971826

RESUMO

Renal vascular sclerosis caused by aging plays an important role in the occurrence and development of chronic kidney disease. Clinical studies have confirmed that endurance exercise is able to delay the aging of skeletal muscle and brain tissue. However, to date, few studies have assessed whether endurance exercise is able to improve the occurrence of renal vascular sclerosis caused by natural aging and its related mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of aerobic endurance exercise on renal vascular sclerosis in aged mice and its effect on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. The results suggested that aerobic endurance exercise preserved kidney morphology and renal function. Glomerular basement membrane thickness was evidently increased, podocyte foot processes were effaced in aged mice, and aerobic endurance exercise significantly ameliorated the overall lesion range. The protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and JG12 was lower in the senile control group (OC group). The protein expression of VEGF and JG12 was significantly increased after aerobic endurance exercise. Furthermore, aerobic endurance exercise resulted in downregulation of Bax, Caspase 3, IL-6, and senescent cells and upregulation of Bcl-2. The upregulation of PI3K and its downstream signal molecules AKT and mTOR after aerobic endurance exercise was further observed. Our observations indicated that aerobic endurance exercise may inhibit renal vascular sclerosis in aged mice by regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esclerose/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Circulação Renal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
2.
Int Heart J ; 61(1): 138-144, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875620

RESUMO

Exercise preconditioning may protect against cardiac injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but the mechanism is unresolved. The aim of this study is to explore whether the general control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) kinase gene is associated with the protective effect of exercise preconditioning. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J (n = 40) and GCN2 knockout (KO) (n = 40) mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS (L), exercise preconditioning (E), and exercise preconditioning LPS (EL). Mice in the exercise groups performed exercise for eight weeks. After exercise, all mice were given an equal volume of LPS or saline (10 µg/g). We measured the cardiac function using echocardiography and then collected heart tissue. Exercise preconditioning improved cardiac inflammation (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α) and cardiac dysfunction (ejection fraction, fraction shortening) in C57 mice induced by LPS and also decreased the expression levels of GCN2, phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Moreover, GCN2 KO decreased inflammation and cardiac dysfunction induced by LPS in sedentary mice. The inflammation and cardiac dysfunction in the GCN2 KO EL group were lower than in the C57 EL group, and the expression of GCN2, p-eIF2α, and ATF4 in the GCN2 KO EL group was lower than in the C57 EL group. Exercise preconditioning alleviated cardiac injury induced by LPS. GCN2 KO also improved cardiac injury. Exercise preconditioning promoted the effect of GCN2 KO in alleviating cardiac injury, and the GCN2 and eIF2α/ATF4 pathways play an important role in the process.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Cardíacos/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Traumatismos Cardíacos/induzido quimicamente , Traumatismos Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 238: 116964, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639398

RESUMO

AIMS: The main aim of this study was to investigate the moderate versus high-load resistance training on muscle strength, hypertrophy and protein synthesis signaling in rats. METHODS: Twenty rats were randomly allocated into three groups as follow: control group (C, n = 6), high-load training (HL, n = 7) and moderate-load training (ML, n = 7). A ladder climb exercise was used to mimic resistance exercise. ML resistance training consisted of a moderate load, allowing performance at higher volume of load inherent to higher number of repetitions (8-16 climbing). HL resistance training consisted of progressively increase training load, with low volume of load (4-8 climbing). C group remained with physical activity restricted to their cage space. This experiment was conducted over a six-weeks period. Forty-eight hours after the last resistance training session the animals were euthanized for tissue collection. RESULTS: Both HL and ML regimens promoted similar increases in muscle strength, elevated protein synthesis signaling demonstrated by increased skeletal muscle total/phosphorylated P-70S6K ratio and similar increases in plantaris and FHL muscle hypertrophy, all compared to control. All these similarities were demonstrated even though testosterone/cortisol ratio was higher in HL group compared to ML and control. ML regimen caused higher total training volume and soleus muscle hypertrophy, which was not demonstrated in HL group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, results suggest that both HL and ML induce muscle hypertrophy and increase on strength in a similar way. ML moreover seems to favor slow fiber hypertrophy due the higher training volume.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20190068, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508664

RESUMO

To investigate the mechanism of different exercise patterns on neurological function after focal cerebral ischaemia in rats. Rats with focal cerebral cerebral ischaemia were randomly divided into an aerobic exercise group, an exhaustive exercise group and a control group, with 8 rats in each group. A score for nerve function in each group was calculated, and the ultrastructure of nerve cells was observed. Levels of NO and NOS in the brain motor area of the ​​rats were measured in each group. The aerobic exercise group had lower nerve function scores than the exhaustive exercise group and higher scores than the control group (P<0.05). Under transmission electron microscopy, irregular shapes and organs were observed in nerve cells in the control group, while regular cell shapes and organs were observed in the aerobic exercise group. The aerobic exercise group and exhaustive exercise group had higher measures of NO content, NOS activity and eNOS, nNOS and iNOS gene expression than the control group, but eNOS expression in the aerobic exercise group and iNOS expression in the exhaustive exercise group were clearly higher according to RT-PCR (P<0.05). Aerobic exercise can promote the expression of NOS, mainly in eNOS, which can promote nerve repair.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(6): 779-789, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3' UTR of the Dystrophia Myotonica-Protein Kinase (DMPK) gene. While multiple organs are affected, more than half of mortality is due to muscle wasting. METHODS: It is unclear whether endurance exercise provides beneficial effects in DM1. Here, we show that a 10-week treadmill endurance exercise program leads to beneficial effects in the HSALR mouse model of DM1. RESULTS: Animals that performed treadmill training displayed reduced CUGexp RNA levels, improved splicing abnormalities, an increase in skeletal muscle weight and improved endurance capacity. DISCUSSION: These results indicate that endurance exercise does not have adverse effects in HSALR animals and contributes to beneficial molecular and physiological outcomes.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Miotônica/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Tecido Adiposo , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Composição Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Miotônica/patologia , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 329, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equine water treadmills (WTs) are growing in popularity because they are believed to allow for high resistance, low impact exercise. However, little is known about the effect of water height on limb loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of water height and speed on segmental acceleration and impact attenuation during WT exercise in horses. Three uniaxial accelerometers (sampling rate: 2500 Hz) were secured on the left forelimb (hoof, mid-cannon, mid-radius). Horses walked at two speeds (S1: 0.83 m/s, S2: 1.39 m/s) and three water heights (mid-cannon, carpus, stifle), with a dry WT control. Peak acceleration of each segment was averaged over five strides, attenuation was calculated, and stride frequency was estimated by the time between successive hoof contacts. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the effects of water height, speed, and accelerometer location on peak acceleration, attenuation and stride frequency (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Peak acceleration at all locations was lower with water of any height compared to the dry control (p < 0.0001). Acceleration was reduced with water at the height of the stifle compared to mid-cannon water height (p = 0.02). Water at the height of the stifle attenuated more impact than water at the height of the cannon (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Water immersion during treadmill exercise reduced segmental accelerations and increased attenuation in horses. WT exercise may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of lower limb injuries in horses.


Assuntos
Extremidades/fisiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Água , Aceleração , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Marcha , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116629, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276687

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effects of moderate aerobic physical training on cardiac function and morphology as well as on the levels of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) of animals infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. MAIN METHODS: Twenty-eight male C57BL/6 mice were distributed into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary infected (CHC) and trained infected (CHT). The infection was performed by intraperitoneal injection of trypomastigote forms and the animals were adapted to treadmill in the week before the beginning of the training protocol, initiated 45 days post infection. Maximal exercise test (TEM) was performed at the baseline as well as at the end of the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks of training. At the end of the 12th week, all animals were evaluated for cardiac morphology and function by echocardiography. KEY FINDINGS: CHC group showed a larger area of right ventricle (RVA), increased end-systolic volume and reduction in ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and fractional area change (FAC). The training reduced the RVA and improved the FAC of chagasic animals. GDNF level was higher in TC and CHC groups compared to SC in heart and BDNF levels were higher in CHC compared to SC in heart and serum. SIGNIFICANCE: Physical training ameliorated the cardiac function of infected animals and promoted adjusts in BDNF and GDNF levels. These findings evidenced these neurotrophins as possible biomarkers of cardiac function responsive to exercise stimulus.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/análise , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco , Doença de Chagas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/análise , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Crescimento Neural/análise , Fator de Crescimento Neural/fisiologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade
8.
Life Sci ; 232: 116604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260684

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
9.
Biol Res Nurs ; 21(5): 500-509, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288563

RESUMO

Pain can have negative, physiological and psychological impacts on pregnancy. Pregnant women are fearful of using pain medication because of teratogenic effects. In this study, we evaluated whether exercise could lower pain sensitivity in pregnant mice with neuropathic pain and reduce the negative effects of maternal pain on newborns. We randomly assigned 32 female mice to one of four groups (eight mice/group): Sham surgery with standard environment (SE) or enriched environment (EE) or spare nerve injury (SNI) with SE or EE. Mice in EE groups had access to an exercise wheel. Mothers were evaluated for mechanical sensitivity with Von Frey filaments and for exercise performance with computerized running wheels. Mice were impregnated 2 weeks after the initiation of EE. Pups were weighed and measured for length at birth and evaluated for negative geotaxis, righting, forelimb grasping, rooting, and crawling at 3 days postpartum and for crawling at 6 days postpartum. Following euthanasia, mothers' frontal cortexes were analyzed for selected neuropeptides. After exercise exposure, only SNI-SE females remained neuropathic. Exercise levels were similar between EE groups. Some brain neuropeptides (endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin) from SNI females showed significant differences with exercise. Number of pups was significantly smaller in the SNI-SE group. Significantly more pups died at birth in the SNI-SE group, but pup behavior tests (except righting) were similar across groups. Exercise can reduce neuropathic pain in pregnant mice. Neuropathic pain does not impact motor neurodevelopment of mice pups but does appear to affect litter size and neonatal mortality.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neuralgia/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Prenhez , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor , Gravidez , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(7): 2155-2171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161451

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Exercise shows promise as a treatment option for addiction; but in order to prevent relapse, it may need to be introduced early in the course of treatment. OBJECTIVE: We propose that exercise, by upregulating dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)-nucleus accumbens (NAc) transmission, offsets deficits in pathways targeting glutamate, BDNF, and dopamine during early abstinence, and in doing so, normalizes neuroadaptations that underlie relapse. METHODS: We compared the effects of exercise (wheel running, 2-h/day) during early (days 1-7), late (days 8-14), and throughout abstinence (days 1-14) to sedentary conditions on cocaine-seeking and gene expression in the dmPFC and NAc core of male rats tested following 24-h/day extended-access cocaine (up to 96 infusions/day) or saline self-administration and protracted abstinence (15 days). Based on these data, we then used site-specific manipulation to determine whether dmPFC metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGlu5) underlies the efficacy of exercise. RESULTS: Exercise initiated during early, but not late abstinence, reduced cocaine-seeking; this effect was strongly associated with dmPFC Grm5 expression (gene encoding mGlu5), and modestly associated with dmPFC Grin1 and Bdnf-IV expression. Activation of mGlu5 in the dmPFC during early abstinence mimicked the efficacy of early-initiated exercise; however, inhibition of these receptors prior to the exercise sessions did not block its efficacy indicating that there may be redundancy in the mechanisms through which exercise reduces cocaine-seeking. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that addiction treatments, including exercise, should be tailored for early versus late phases of abstinence since their effectiveness will vary over abstinence due to the dynamic nature of the underlying neuroadaptations.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recidiva , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Autoadministração
11.
Life Sci ; 231: 116542, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176781

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effect of 150 min vs. 300 min of weekly moderate intensity exercise training on the activation of the opioid system and apoptosis in the hearts of a diet-induced obesity model. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed with either control (CON) or high fat (HF) diet for 32 weeks. At the 20th week, HF group was subdivided into sedentary, low (LEV, 150 min·week-1) or high (HEV, 300 min·week-1) exercise volume. After 12 weeks of exercise, body mass gain, adiposity index, systolic blood pressure, cardiac morphometry, apoptosis biomarkers and opioid system expression were evaluated. RESULTS: Sedentary animals fed with HF presented pathological cardiac hypertrophy and higher body mass gain, systolic blood pressure and adiposity index than control group. Both exercise volumes induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy, restored systolic blood pressure and improved adiposity index, but only 300 min·week-1 reduced body mass gain. HF group exhibited lower proenkephalin, PI3K, ERK and GSK-3ß expression, and greater activated caspase-3 expression than control group. Compared to HF, no changes in the cardiac opioid system were observed in the 150 min·week-1 of exercise training, while 300 min·week-1 showed greater proenkephalin, DOR, KOR, MOR, Akt, ERK and GSK-3ß expression, and lower activated caspase-3 expression. CONCLUSION: 300 min·week-1 of exercise training triggered opioid system activation and provided greater cardioprotection against obesity than 150 min·week-1. Our findings provide translational aspect with clinical relevance about the critical dose of exercise training necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk factors caused by obesity.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Receptores Opioides/fisiologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Encefalinas/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Coração/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 61: 90-96, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103832

RESUMO

Recent studies have investigated the effectiveness of aerobic exercise to improve physical and mental health outcomes in schizophrenia; however, few have explicitly explored the impact of aerobic exercise on neural microstructure, which is hypothesized to mediate the behavioral changes observed. Neural microstructure is influenced by numerous genetic factors including DISC1, which is a major molecular scaffold protein that interacts with partners like GSK3ß, NDEL1, and PDE4. DISC1 has been shown to play a role in neurogenesis, neuronal migration, neuronal maturation, and synaptic signaling. As with other genetic variants that present an increased risk for disease, mutations of the DISC1 gene have been implicated in the molecular intersection of schizophrenia and numerous other major psychiatric illnesses. This study investigated whether short-term exercise recovers deficits in neural microstructure in a novel genetic Disc1 svΔ2 rat model. Disc1 svΔ2 animals and age- and sex-matched controls were subjected to a treadmill exercise protocol. Subsequent ex-vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) compared neural microstructure in regions of interest (ROI) between sedentary and exercise wild-type animals and between sedentary and exercise Disc1 svΔ2 animals. Short-term exercise uncovered no significant differences in neural microstructure between sedentary and exercise control animals but did lead to significant differences between sedentary and exercise Disc1 svΔ2 animals in neocortex, basal ganglia, corpus callosum, and external capsule, suggesting a positive benefit derived from a short-term exercise regimen. Our findings suggest that Disc1 svΔ2 animals are more sensitive to the effects of short-term exercise and highlight the ameliorating potential of positive treatment interventions such as exercise on neural microstructure in genetic backgrounds of psychiatric disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 3181-3189, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Modern medicine has suggested exercise therapy is one of the main treatments for postoperative rehabilitation of tumors. It can influence the recovery of cancer patients by changing the body's material metabolism and energy metabolism. However, studies on metabolic changes of exercise therapy on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after surgery are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of aerobic exercise on mice after orthotopic HCC surgery by serum metabolomics test and explore the related mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 60 C57Bl/6 mice were used to establish an orthotopic xenograft model of H22 mouse hepatoma cells. Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups and it was found that the metabolic products of the early postoperative exercise group and sedentary group mainly included L-tryptophan, citric acid, and other energy-related metabolites. RESULTS Energy metabolites, such as succinic acid of the high-intensity exercise group were increased after surgery, whereas phospholipid metabolites, including phosphatidylethanolamine (18: 0/0: 0), were decreased. In the moderate-intensity exercise group, the change tendency was consistent, and the level of various metabolites decreased. CONCLUSIONS Thus, it is likely that aerobic exercise reduced the degree of postoperative stress responses and improved energy metabolism in mice. The underlying mechanism involves improving the tricarboxylic acid cycle, intervening in energy metabolism, reorganization caused by the tumor, reducing the abnormal increase of phospholipase activity caused by the stress of liver cancer, reducing the level of hemolytic phospholipids, thereby inhibiting mitochondrial pathway-initiated apoptosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Globinas/metabolismo , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
14.
Geroscience ; 41(2): 165-183, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076998

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, contributes to frailty, functional decline, and reduced quality of life in older adults. Exercise is a recognized therapy for sarcopenia and muscle dysfunction, though not a cure. Muscle power declines at an increased rate compared to force, and force output declines earlier than mass. Thus, there is a need for research of exercise focusing on improving power output and functionality in older adults. Our primary purpose was proof-of-concept that a novel individualized power exercise modality would induce positive adaptations in adult mice, before the exercise program was applied to an aged cohort. We hypothesized that after following our protocol, both adult and older mice would show improved function, though there would be evidence of anabolic resistance in the older mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (12 months of age at study conclusion) were randomized into control (n = 9) and exercise (n = 6) groups. The trained group used progressive resistance (with a weighted harness) and intensity (~ 4-10 rpm) on a custom motorized running wheel. The mice trained similarly to a human workout regimen (4-5 sets/session, 3 sessions/week, for 12 weeks). We determined significant (p < 0.05) positive adaptations post-intervention, including: neuromuscular function (rotarod), strength/endurance (inverted cling grip test), training physiology (force/power output per session), muscle size (soleus mass), and power/velocity of contraction (in vitro physiology). Secondly, we trained a cohort of older male mice (28 months old at conclusion): control (n = 12) and exercised (n = 8). While the older exercised mice did preserve function and gain benefits, they also demonstrated evidence of anabolic resistance.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Sarcopenia/reabilitação , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Tissue Cell ; 57: 57-65, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947964

RESUMO

We investigated the protective effects of swimming exercise on high-fat diet-induced heart and aorta damage by evaluating oxidative stress and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO) system. Sprague Dawley rats were fed either standard chow (STD, 6% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) for 18 weeks, with half of the animals trained by daily swimming sessions (EXC; 1 h per day for 5 days/week) for the last 6 weeks of the experimental period and half kept sedentary (SED). Heart and aorta tissues were prepared for routine light and electron microscopy evaluation. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) distribution in the tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. Biochemical examinations, including blood serum lipid profiles, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and tissue NO levels were measured. Deteriorated heart and aorta morphology, increased MDA levels and iNOS-immunoreactivity (iNOS-ir), as well as decreased GSH, NO, SOD, and eNOS-ir parameters were observed in the HFD + SED group. These morphological and biochemical parameters were ameliorated in the HFD + EXC group. Our study revealed that obesity-induced iNOS activation and increased oxidative stress in cardiac and aorta tissues. Exercise protected the obesity-induced cardiac and aortic tissue damage by modulating oxidant/antioxidant balance via involvement of the NO system.


Assuntos
Aorta/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Coração , Obesidade/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aorta/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(9): 1944-1953, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920487

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of 8-wk eccentric (ECC) versus concentric (CON) training using downhill and uphill running in rats on whole body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and energy expenditure. METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) control (CTRL), 2) +15% uphill-running slope (CON), 3) -15% downhill-running slope (ECC15), and 4) -30% downhill-running slope (ECC30). Those programs enabled to achieve conditions of isopower output for CON and ECC15 and of iso-oxygen uptake (V˙O2) for CON and ECC30. Trained rats ran 45 min at 15 m·min five times per week. Total body mass, fat body mass, and lean body mass (LBM) measured through EchoMRI™, and 24-h energy expenditure including basal metabolic rate (BMR) assessed using PhenoMaster/LabMaster™ cage system were obtained before and after training. At sacrifice, the right femur was collected for bone parameters analysis. RESULTS: Although total body mass increased in all groups over the 8-wk period, almost no change occurred for fat body mass in exercised groups (CON, -4.8 ± 6.18 g; ECC15, 0.6 ± 3.32 g; ECC30, 2.6 ± 6.01 g). The gain in LBM was mainly seen for ECC15 (88.9 ± 6.85 g) and ECC30 (101.6 ± 11.07 g). ECC was also seen to positively affect BMD. An increase in BMR from baseline was seen in exercise groups (CON, 13.9 ± 4.13 kJ·d; ECC15, 11.6 ± 5.10 kJ·d; ECC30, 18.3 ± 4.33 kJ·d) but not in CTRL one. This difference disappeared when BMR was normalized for LBM. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that for iso-V˙O2 training, the impact on LBM and BMD is enhanced with ECC as compared with CON, and that for isopower but lower V˙O2 ECC, an important stimulus for adaptation is still observed. This provides further insights for the use of ECC in populations with cardiorespiratory exercise limitations.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(2): 2513-2521, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915688

RESUMO

Bone tissue is known as a living dynamic and complex organ in response to physical activity and mechanical loading such as exercise training; thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different intensities of strength and endurance training on expression of some osteometabolic miRNAs and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in bone marrow of old male Wistar rats. To this end, a total number of 50 male Wistar rats (aged 23 months, 438.27 g) were obtained from Pasteur Institute of Iran. The rats were randomized into five groups (10 rats/per group) including moderate endurance training (MET), high-intensity endurance training (HET), moderate-intensity resistance training (MRT), high-intensity resistance training (HRT), and control (CON). The four training groups completed 8 weeks of a training program, 5 days a week, according to the study protocol. To evaluate miR-133a, miR-103a, miR-204, and other adipogenic and osteogenic genes such as RUNX2 and PPARγ via real-time PCR, total RNA including mRNA and miRNA was isolated from the bone marrow. The statistical analysis was then performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). No significant differences in miR-133a (p = 0.197), miR-103a (p = 0.302), miR-204 (p = 0.539), RUNX2 (p = 0.960), and PPARγ (P = 0.872) were observed between the intervention groups and the control one. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in bone force (p = 0.641), fracture energy (p = 0.982), stress (p = 0.753), module (p = 0.147), and elongation (p = 0.292) variables between the intervention groups and the control group. Investigating molecular and cellular changes in the bone after such exercises in longer time could provide clearer results about the beneficial or harmful effects of these types of exercises in healthy and passive elderly people.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Adipogenia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteogênese/genética , Osteogênese/fisiologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
18.
J Endocrinol ; 241(1): 59-70, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878016

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a positive correlation with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The aerobic training is an important tool in combating NAFLD. However, no studies have demonstrated the molecular effects of short-term strength training on the accumulation of hepatic fat in obese mice. This study aimed to investigate the effects of short-term strength training on the mechanisms of oxidation and lipid synthesis in the liver of obese mice. The short duration protocol was used to avoid changing the amount of adipose tissue. Swiss mice were separated into three groups: lean control (CTL), sedentary obese (OB) and strength training obese (STO). The obese groups were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and the STO group performed the strength training protocol 1 session/day for 15 days. The short-term strength training reduced hepatic fat accumulation, increasing hepatic insulin sensitivity and controlling hepatic glucose production. The obese animals increased the mRNA of lipogenic genes Fasn and Scd1 and reduced the oxidative genes Cpt1a and Ppara. On the other hand, the STO group presented the opposite results. Finally, the obese animals presented higher levels of lipogenic proteins (ACC and FAS) and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1ß), but the short-term strength training was efficient in reducing this condition, regardless of body weight loss. In conclusion, there was a reduction of obesity-related hepatic lipogenesis and inflammation after short-term strength training, independent of weight loss, leading to improvements in hepatic insulin sensitivity and glycemic homeostasis in obese mice. Key points: (1) Short-term strength training (STST) reduced fat accumulation and inflammation in the liver; (2) Hepatic insulin sensitivity and HPG control were increased with STST; (3) The content and activity of ACC and content of FAS were reduced with STST; (4) STST improved hepatic fat accumulation and glycemic homeostasis; (5) STST effects were observed independently of body weight change.


Assuntos
Gluconeogênese , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Lipogênese/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Oxirredução
19.
Neuroreport ; 30(7): 498-503, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882716

RESUMO

The deposition of amyloid-ß (Aß) is one of the major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a higher cholesterol level is involved in the deposition of Aß. Previous evidence suggested that exercise exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of AD models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a 12-week treadmill exercise program on Aß deposits in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice and the potential underlying mechanism. After 12 weeks of exercise, Aß deposits were significantly decreased in the hippocampus. Meanwhile, the amyloidogenic pathway of APP metabolism was inhibited, which was associated with a decrease in BACE1 expression. The APP metabolism mediated by the nonamyloidogenic pathway, as indicated by the increase in ADAM10 levels. Coincidentally, exercise reduced the cholesterol level, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the total cholesterol level and the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as a reduction in the number of lipid rafts, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the flotillin 1 level. These finding suggested that the 12-week treadmill exercise program reduced Aß deposition in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, possibly by regulating ADAM10 and BACE1 levels and by decreasing cholesterol-mediated lipid raft formation, indicating that exercise represents a therapeutic intervention to treat AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/biossíntese , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Presenilina-1 , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(7): 1387-1395, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724848

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer cachexia is characterized by loss of muscle mass and function. Increased protein catabolism, inflammation, impaired anabolism, and mitochondrial function markedly contribute to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Physical activity has been suggested as a useful tool to prevent or at least delay the onset and progression of cancer-induced muscle wasting. Two main types of exercise can be adopted, namely, resistance and endurance training. The present study is aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a combined (resistance + endurance) exercise protocol in preventing/reverting cancer-induced muscle wasting. METHODS: Mice bearing the C26 colon carcinoma have been used as a model of cancer cachexia. They have been exposed to combined exercise training during 6 wk (4 before tumor implantation, 2 during tumor growth). Climbing a 1-m ladder inclined at 85° has been used for resistance training, while aerobic (endurance) exercise has been carried out on the same day using a motorized wheel. RESULTS: In C26-bearing mice, both muscle mass and strength are improved by combined training, while just the latter increased in exercised healthy animals. Such a pattern is associated with modulations of two markers of autophagy, namely, LC3B-I/II ratio, increased in sedentary tumor hosts and reduced in exercised C26-bearing mice, and p62, steadily increased in both sedentary and trained tumor-bearing animals. Finally, combined training is not able to modify PGC-1α protein levels, but it improves succinate dehydrogenase activity, both reduced in the muscle of the C26 hosts. CONCLUSION: The data reported in the present study show that combined training improves muscle mass and function in the C26 hosts, likely modulating autophagy and improving mitochondrial function; these observations suggest that combined exercise might become part of a multimodal approach to treat cancer cachexia.


Assuntos
Caquexia/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma/complicações , Neoplasias do Colo/complicações , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Caquexia/etiologia , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Treinamento de Resistência , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo
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