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1.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 407-415, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678798

RESUMO

Exercise preconditioning (EP) provides protective effects for acute cardiovascular stress; however, its mechanisms need to be further investigated. Autophagy is a degradation pathway essential for myocardium health. Therefore, we investigated whether intermittent myocardial ischemia-hypoxia affected Beclin1 and whether the changes in autophagy levels contribute to EP-induced early myocardial protective effects. Rats were trained on a treadmill using an EP model (four cycles of 10 minutes of running/10 minutes of rest). Exhaustive exercise (EE) was performed to induce myocardial injury. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and ischemia-hypoxia staining were used to evaluate myocardial injury and protection. Double-labeled immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were employed to examine related markers. EP attenuated the myocardial ischemic-hypoxic injury induced by EE. Compared with the control (C) group, the dissociations of Beclin1/Bcl-2 ratio and Beclin1 expression were both higher in all other groups. Compared with the C group, PI3KC3 and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were higher in all other groups, whereas LC3-II was higher in the EE and EEP + EE groups. p62 was higher in the EE group than in the C group but lower in the EEP + EE group than in the EE group. We concluded that EP increases Beclin1 via intermittent myocardial ischemia-hypoxia and induces autophagy, which exerts early myocardial protective effects and reduces the myocardial ischemic-hypoxic injury induced by exhaustive exercise.


Assuntos
Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Autofagia , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Life Sci ; 275: 119375, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737085

RESUMO

AIMS: Both aerobic exercise and glucosamine hydrochloride capsules (OTL) have a therapeutic effect on knee osteoarthritis, but their joint application has not been investigated. This study clarified the mechanism of the combined treatment in knee osteoarthritis. MAIN METHODS: Aerobic exercise and OTL were used alone or in combination to treat papain-induced knee osteoarthritis model rabbits. Pathological changes of cartilage tissues, inflammatory cytokine content, glycosaminoglycan, and expressions of collagen II, cartilage differentiation-related genes and circUNK were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, Mankin score, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, toluidine blue staining, Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The extracted chondrocytes were identified by Alcian Blue staining and immunohistochemistry and induced by iodoacetic acid (MIA) to establish osteoarthritis model. Effects of overexpressing or silencing circUNK on cell function and molecular changes in chondrocytes were analyzed by cell function experiments, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Rabbit modeling and intervention treatment were marked. KEY FINDINGS: Aerobic exercise or OTL treatment alone relieved the damage caused by knee osteoarthritis in terms of cartilage tissue lesions, Mankin score, inflammatory cytokine content, glycosaminoglycan, and expressions of collagen II, cartilage differentiation-related genes and circUNK. Combined application of aerobic exercise and OTL showed better synergistic treatment effects. Transfection of overexpressed circUNK could attenuate the MIA-induced effect on cell viability and apoptosis in chondrocytes by regulating genes related to differentiation and apoptosis. Aerobic exercise combined with glucosamine had a synergistic therapeutic effect on knee osteoarthritis. SIGNIFICANCE: Overexpressing circUNK protected osteoarthritis model cells by regulating cartilage differentiation- and apoptosis-related genes.


Assuntos
Glucosamina/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Coelhos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 721-727, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518125

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to understand the dynamic changes in daily step counts (DSC) during the development of chickens and to further explore the effects of exercise on the growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and tibial strength of cocks. A total of 600 (half male and half female) 1-day-old Wannan chickens with similar hatching weights were raised under the same rearing conditions. All birds were wing banded and housed in identical cages for from 1 to 8 wk in the experimental poultry house. The dimensions of the cages were 70 × 70 × 40 cm (length × width × height). At the age of 9 to 16 wk, these birds were reared in indoor pens (2 m × 2 m, 1,000 cm2 per bird). In addition, they also had a free-range grass paddock (20 m × 30 m, 1 m2 per bird). The DSC of male and female Wannan chicks were recorded from 70 to 112 d by using a pedometer. At 112 d of age, based on the average DSC, birds were divided into groups representing the highest (HS), medium, and lowest (LS) number of step groups. Fifteen cocks from each group were selected for subsequent experiments. Compared with the LS group, the HS group displayed higher tibial strength (P = 0.025) and lower BW, cooking loss (P = 0.014), shear force (P = 0.023), and drip loss (P = 0.008). The DSC had no effects on the female BW or male carcass parameters. There was no significant change in the DSC of all birds from 70 to 112 d. However, male chickens took more steps than females at 15 (P = 0.025) and 16 (P = 0.012) week of age. In conclusion, the effects of the DSC on the BW of Wannan chickens depend on sex, and enhanced exercise could improve the meat quality and tibial strength of cocks.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/normas , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Tíbia/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia
4.
Gene ; 775: 145441, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482280

RESUMO

Exercise training with anti-inflammatory effects can improve insulin sensitivity in muscle tissue. This study investigated the effects of eight-week swimming exercises on lipid profile, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) in gastrocnemius muscle of rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats (8 weeks, 200 ± 20 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8 each group): the control (C), aerobic exercise (E), HFD, and HFD + aerobic exercise (HFD & E). The exercise training protocol consisted of swimming 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. Serum levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured at end of the study. Protein expressions of TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-6 were determined by immunohistochemical method. Gene expression of TLR4/MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6, and PPAR-γ was evaluated by a real-time polymerase chain reaction in gastrocnemius muscle. HFD fed rats showed higher levels of cholesterol and LDL-c that were similar in weight gain. Meanwhile, the HFD group had a higher gene expression of TLR4, MyD88, TNF-α, IL-6, and lower gene expression of PPAR-γ compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Muscle protein expression of TLR4, TNF-α, IL-6 was lower in the E and HFD&E groups (especially when compared to HFD group, P < 0.05). We also showed a decrease in TLR4/MyD88 mRNA and an increase in PPAR-γ mRNA in gastrocnemius of E and HFD&E groups (compared to HFD group, p < 0.05). Insulin resistance in HFD&E groups show a significant decrease compared to the HFD group (p < 0.05). It seems that swimming aerobic exercise for eight weeks controlled the destructive effects of HFD on muscle inflammatory pathways along with the down-regulation of the TLR4/MyD88, inflammatory cytokine, and up-regulation PPAR-γ mRNA. It appears that the down-regulation in the expression of TLR4/MyD88 mRNA reduces the muscle pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, whose action may be caused by the adaptation of swimming aerobic exercise (an increase of PPAR-γ). Therefore, local and systemic inflammatory changes due to HFD and obesity may be affected by metabolic adaptations of aerobic exercise training, which requires further studies.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina/imunologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Natação/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 746: 135659, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482306

RESUMO

Studies have shown that an adverse environment in utero influences fetal growth and development, leading to several neuroendocrine and behavioral changes in adult life. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in the long-term benefits of pregestational exercise are still poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise before the gestational period on memory behavior and gene expression in the hippocampus of adult mice submitted to prenatal stress. Female Balb/c mice were divided into three groups: control (CON), prenatal restraint stress (PNS), and exercise before the gestational period plus PNS (EX + PNS). When adults, male and female offspring were submitted to the object recognition test followed by the hippocampal evaluation of BDNF exons I and IV mRNA expression, as well as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis related genes. Pregestational exercise did not prevent the decreased recognition index, as well as GR and CRHR1 gene expression observed in PNS males. Conversely, prenatal stress did not influence female memory behavior. Moreover, exercise attenuated the effects of prenatal stress on female BDNF IV gene expression. The results indicate that pregestational exercise was able to prevent the effects of maternal stress on hippocampal BDNF IV gene expression in females, although no effects were seen on the stress-induced memory impairment in males.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/metabolismo , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Corrida/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/biossíntese , Teste de Esforço/tendências , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/psicologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Restrição Física/psicologia , Corrida/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2130: 69-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284436

RESUMO

The forced swim and tail suspension tests are commonly used to determine the effects of circadian-related pharmacological, genetic, and environmental manipulations on depression-like behavior in rodents. Both tests involve scoring immobility of rodents in an inescapable condition. Here we describe how to set up and carry out these tests.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Depressão/etiologia , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/normas , Camundongos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/normas , Natação
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756576

RESUMO

Currently, there is a paucity of data on the barriers for Australian Thoroughbred horses transitioning from stud farm to racetrack. This paper reports the reasons why horses failed to enter race training and documents their exit destinations. Biographical records of Australian Thoroughbred horses born in 2014 were investigated to determine the number of horses that had not officially entered race training by the start of the 4-year old racing season (1 August 2018). Of the 13,677 foals born in 2014, 66% had commenced training and 51% had raced before the beginning of their 4-year-old season in Australia. A sampling frame based on the post code of the premises where foals were born and records from Racing Australia were used to select a geographically representative sample of the 2014 Australian Thoroughbred foal crop (n = 4,124). From the population eligible for sampling 1,275 horses that had not entered training were enrolled in the survey and their breeders were sent an online questionnaire with follow-up phone calls for those who had not responded. Of the 633 responses (50% of 1275) the most frequent outcomes for horses were: death (38%, n = 239), participation in the racing industry in their 4-year old racing season (24%, n = 154) and retirement (16%, n = 100) either as Australian Stud Book (ASB) bloodstock (n = 17), or as horses rehomed outside the Thoroughbred industry (n = 83). Illness or injury was the most frequent reason for horses not entering race training that were ASB bloodstock, rehomed or deceased. There was a loss of traceability at the point of sale with most horses sold at 1 year of age. This study provides important information on the reasons, alternative outcomes and gaps in traceability for horses not entering training prior to the 4-year-old racing season.


Assuntos
Cavalos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Austrália , Cruzamento/economia , Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/economia , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/economia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Esportes/economia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790737

RESUMO

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter synthesized by the amino acid tryptophan, that has the potential to impact the behaviour and activity of dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplemental tryptophan and a 12-week incremental training regimen on the voluntary activity and behaviour of client-owned Siberian Huskies. Sixteen dogs were blocked for age, BW and sex and then randomly allocated to either the control or treatment group. Both groups were fed the same dry extruded diet; however, the treatment group were supplemented with tryptophan to achieve a tryptophan: large neutral amino acid ratio of 0.075:1. Once a week, a 5-minute video recording was taken immediately pre- and post- exercise to evaluate dogs' behaviours. Activity monitors were used to record voluntary activity on both training and rest days. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between training week and time spent performing each behaviour. Additionally, a repeated measure mixed model was used to test differences between diet groups and training week for both behavioural and activity count data. The time spent performing agonistic behaviours prior to exercise was negatively associated with week for treatment dogs (ß = -0.32, 95% CI [-0.55, -0.10], P < 0.05) and no change was observed for control dogs (ß = -0.13, 95% CI [-0.41, 0.15], P > 0.10). Treatment did not have any effect on activity levels (P > 0.10). For all dogs, locomotive behaviours decreased prior to exercise as weeks progressed (P < 0.05), while run day voluntary activity depended on the distance run that day (P < 0.05). These data suggest that sled dogs experience an exercise-induced reduction in voluntary locomotion in response to both single bouts and repetitive bouts of exercise. Additionally, tryptophan supplementation may decrease agonistic behaviours, without having any effect on voluntary activity.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cães/psicologia , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Treino Aeróbico/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Serotonina/biossíntese , Serotonina/fisiologia , Esportes na Neve , Fatores de Tempo , Triptofano/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764771

RESUMO

Exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is associated with the development of diverse diseases. Resistance training has been considered one of the most useful tools for patients with pulmonary disease, improving their quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resistance training (RT) on the prevention of thickening of the right ventricle wall of rats exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), Smoker (S), Exercised (E) and Exercised Smoker (ES). The smoker groups were exposed to the smoke of four cigarettes for 30 min, twice daily, five days a week, for 16 weeks. The exercised groups climbed on a vertical ladder with progressive load, once a day, five days a week, for 16 weeks. The heart, trachea, lung, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were removed for histopathological analysis. Pulmonary emphysema (S and ES vs C and E, P < 0.0001) and pulmonary artery thickness enlargement (S vs C and E, P = 0.003, ES vs C, P = 0.003) were detected in the smoking groups. There was an increase in the right ventricle thickness in the S group compared with all other groups (P < 0.0001). An increase in resident macrophages in the liver was detected in both smoking groups compared with the C group (P = 0.002). Additionally, a relevant reduction of the diameter of the muscle fibers was detected only in ES compared with the C, S and E groups (P = 0.0002), impairing, at least in part, the muscle mass in exercised smoking rats. Therefore, it was concluded that resistance training prevented the increase of thickness of the right ventricle in rats exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke, but it may be not so beneficial for the skeletal muscle of smoking rats.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Treinamento de Resistência
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745152

RESUMO

The susceptibility to cardiovascular disease in offspring could be reduced prior to birth through maternal intervention, before and during pregnancy. We evaluated whether the initiation periods of maternal exercise in preconception and pregnancy periods induce beneficial effects in the adult male offspring. Thirty-two female rats were divided into control and exercise groups. The exercise groups involve exercise before pregnancy or the preconception periods, exercise during pregnancy, and exercise before and during pregnancy. The mothers in the exercise groups were run on the treadmill in different periods. Then the birth weight and weekly weight gain of male offspring were measured, and the blood and left ventricle tissue of samples were collected for analysis of the Sirtuin 6 (Sirt6) and insulin growth factor-2 (IGF-2) gene expression, serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol (Cho), and triglycerides (TG). There was no significant difference in the birth weight of offspring groups (P = 0.246) while maternal HIIT only during pregnancy leads to reduce weekly weight gain of offspring. Our data showed that Sirt6 and IGF-2 gene expression was increased (P = 0.017) and decreased (P = 0.047) by maternal exercise prior to and during pregnancy, respectively. Also, the serum level of LDL (p = 0.002) and Cho (P = 0.007) were significantly decreased and maternal exercise leads to improves the running speed of the adult male offspring (p = 0.0176). This study suggests that maternal HIIT prior to and during pregnancy have positive intergenerational consequence in the health and physical readiness of offspring.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Sirtuínas/genética , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Gene ; 760: 145018, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758580

RESUMO

Protein turnover is a process that is regulated by several factors and can lead to muscle hypertrophy or atrophy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) and eccentric resistance exercise on variables related to protein turnover in rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly assigned into four groups of eight, including control, control-HMB, exercise, and exercise-HMB. Animals in HMB groups received 340 mg/kg/day for two weeks. Animals in the exercise groups performed one session of eccentric resistance exercise consisting of eight repetitions descending from a ladder with a slope of 80 degree, with an extra load of two times body weight (100% 1RM). Twenty-four hours after the exercise session, triceps brachii muscle and serum were collected for further analysis. Exercise and HMB-FA induced lower muscle myostatin and higher muscle Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5), P70-S6 kinase 1 gene expression, as well as higher serum irisin and IGF-1 concentrations. Exercise alone induced higher caspase-3 and caspase-8 gene expression while HMB-FA alone induced lower caspase 3 gene expression. HMB-FA supplement increased the effect of exercise on muscle FNDC5, myostatin, and P70-S6 kinase 1 gene expression. The interaction of exercise and HMBFA resulted in an additive effect, increasing serum irisin and IGF-1 concentrations. In conclusion, a 2-week HMB-FA supplementation paired with acute eccentric resistance exercise can positively affect some genes related to muscle protein turnover.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Valeratos/farmacologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fibronectinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Genes Reguladores/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Miostatina/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo
12.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 167: 108332, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702470

RESUMO

AIMS: The spermatogenesis failure is reported as the main complication for diabetes and the moderate-intensity exercise (EX) is shown to ameliorate the diabetes-induced impairments both at spermatogenesis and sperm levels. Thus, the current study was done to investigate the possible effect of EX in the sole and simultaneous form with insulin on the network between Sertoli and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) by focusing on niche factor Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). METHODS: For this purpose, 30 mature male Wistar rats were divided into control and experimental type 1 diabetes (T1D)-induced groups. Then the T1D-induced animals were subdivided to sedentary T1D-induced (ST1D), EX + T1D, insulin (INS) + T1D and EX + INS + T1D groups. The general histological changes of testicles, mRNA and protein contents of GDNF and its special receptors gfrα1 and c-RET were evaluated and compared between groups. RESULTS: EX in the sole and simultaneous form with INS significantly (p < 0.05) diminished the T1D-induced histological damages, amplified the GDNF expression, and enhanced the gfrα1 and c-RET mRNA and protein contents compared to ST1D group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the EX in the sole form promotes spermatogenesis by up-regulating the GDNF signaling system. Moreover, EX remarkably amplifies the insulin-induced ameliorative effect on spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado de Linhagem de Célula Glial/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/efeitos adversos , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/patologia
13.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 3939757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676135

RESUMO

Aim: Orofacial chronic neuropathic pain commonly occurs following trigeminal nerve injuries. We investigated whether swimming exercise can reduce trigeminal neuropathic pain through improving antioxidant capacity. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats of either sex and 180-220 grams were divided into 4 groups as sham, neuropathy, neuropathy + single bout exercise, and neuropathy + 2 weeks of exercise. Trigeminal neuropathy was carried out through chronic constriction injury (CCI) of infraorbital nerve. Protocols of exercise were included a single bout session (45 minutes) and a 2-week (45 minutes/day/6 days a week) swimming exercise. Mechanical allodynia was detected using Von Frey filaments. The activity of the serum antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxides dismutase was assayed using ELISA kits. Results: We found that CCI significantly reduced facial pain threshold in both sexes (P < 0.05). Both swimming exercise protocols significantly reduced mechanical allodynia in female rats compared to the sham group; however, only 2 weeks of exercise were significantly effective in male rats. The activity of antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase significantly (P < 0.05) decreased following CCI in female rats against that in the sham group and 2-week exercise significantly (P < 0.05) increased it toward the control level. The levels of glutathione peroxidase in male rats and superoxidase dismutase in both sexes were not significantly different compared to their sham groups. Conclusion: Swimming exercise alleviates trigeminal neuropathic pain in both sexes. Oxidative stress as a possible mechanism was involved in the effect of exercise on female rat trigeminal neuropathy.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Caracteres Sexuais , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hiperalgesia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Neuralgia do Trigêmeo/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233785, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521542

RESUMO

This study evaluated the impact of combined exercise training on the development of cardiovascular and neuroimmune complications induced by fructose consumption (10% in the drinking water) in hypertensive rats (SHR). After weaning, SHR were divided into 3 groups: SHR (H), SHR+fructose (HF) and SHR+fructose+combined exercise training (treadmill+ladder, 40-60% of maximum capacity) (HFTC). Metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the subgroups (n = 6 group/time) at 7, 15, 30 and 60 days of protocol. Fructose consumption (H vs. HF groups) decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and total variance of pulse interval at day 7 (7 to 60); increased IL-6 and TNFα in the heart (at day 15, 30 and 60) and NADPH oxidase activity and cardiac lipoperoxidation (LPO) (day 60); increased white adipose tissue weight, reduced insulin sensitivity and increased triglycerides (day 60); induced an additional increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) (days 30 and 60). Combined exercise training prevented such dysfunctions and sustained increased cardiac IL-10 (day 7) and glutathione redox balance (GSH/GSSG) for the entire protocol. In conclusion, combined exercise training performed simultaneously with exacerbated fructose consumption prevented early cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, probably trigging positive changes in inflammation and oxidative stress, resulting in a better cardiometabolic profile in rats genetically predisposed to hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão/etiologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 256: 117978, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553927

RESUMO

AIMS: The mechanism of physical activity and calorie restriction remedying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of eccentric exercise and dietary regulation allied or alone on high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFLD and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were fed with HFD for 12 weeks and subsequently treated with chronic downhill running and caloric restriction for 8 weeks. Related biochemical index were examined both before and during intervention to evaluate the liver injury and dyslipidemia. Levels of MCP1, TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10 were detected by ELISA. Liver morphology was observed by H&E and oil red O staining. Protein contents of iNOS, Arg-1, IL-1ß and IL-10 were determined by Western blot. CD86 and CD206 fluorescence were determined by Immunofluorescence. KEY FINDING: (1) 12 weeks' HFD induced hyperlipemia and hepatic steatosis by activating M1 macrophages phenotype and inhibiting M2 macrophages. (2) Chronic downhill running and caloric restriction promoted liver M2 macrophages phenotype, and inhibited M1 macrophages, to attenuate chronic inflammation and ameliorate hepatic steatosis. (3) The effects of downhill running and dietary regulation allied were more effective on improving NAFLD compared with downhill running or caloric restriction alone. SIGNIFICANCE: Eccentric exercise accompanied by caloric restriction attenuates HFD-related NAFLD by promoting M2 macrophages phenotype and inhibiting M1 macrophages in liver. These findings may be help to designing better non-pharmacological intervention programs for NAFLD patients.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos
16.
Gene ; 754: 144850, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505844

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with germ cell apoptosis, spermatogenesis arrest, and testicular endocrine suppression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the crosstalk between germ cell apoptosis and cell cycle machinery in sedentary and obese rats after moderate-intensity continuous (MICT), high-intensity continuous (HICT) and High-intensity interval (HIIT) exercise trainings. Male Wistar rats (n = 30) were randomly divided into 5 groups; the control, sedentary high-fat diet (HFD)-received (HFD-sole), MICT, HICT and HIIT-induced HFD-received groups. The serum levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, and testosterone, mRNA and protein levels of Cyclin D1, Cdk4, p21, apoptotic cell number/mm2 of testicular tissue and testicular DNA fragmentation ratio were investigated. The obese animals in HFD-sole group represented a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum HDL-C and testosterone levels, Cyclin D1, Cdk4 expressions, and exhibited a remarkable (p < 0.05) increment in LDL-C, triglyceride, p21 expression, apoptotic cell number and DNA fragmentation ratio versus control animals. However, the animals in MICT, HICT, HIIT groups exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) increment in serum HDL-C and testosterone, Cyclin D1 and Cdk4 expressions and showed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum LDL-C and triglyceride, p21 expression, apoptotic cell number and DNA fragmentation versus the HFD-sole group. In conclusion, a crosslink between cell cycle machinery and apoptosis of germ cells was revealed in the testicles of HFD-sole animals, and MICT, HICT and HIIT could ameliorate the obesity-induced impairments, respectively. This effect may be attributed to the effect of exercise training protocols on maintaining Cyclin D1 and Cdk4 and suppressing p21 expression levels in the testicles.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testosterona/sangue
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479554

RESUMO

The dogs' responses to training exercise are seldom monitored using physiological variables, and cardiac autonomic regulation (CAR) is a relevant determinant of endurance-training adaptation. There are studies in the literature establishing that regular exercise could interfere with CAR in dogs, measured by heart rate and vagal-derived indexes of heart-rate-variability (HRV). However, few studies were found using a prescribed training program based on the lactate threshold (LT) to determine HRV by a 24-h Holter analysis. The purpose of this study was to test whether an endurance-training program (ETP) guided individually by LT raises time-domain measures of HRV in healthy Beagle dogs. Twenty dogs were assigned to two groups: control (C) and trained (T). The dogs from group T underwent an incremental exercise test (IET) to determine their LT. Both LT and velocity corresponding to the LT (VLT) was determined by visual inspection. T group performed an eight-week endurance-training program consisting of treadmill runs set to 70-80% of the VLT. Next, dogs from the group T have submitted to IET again. The maximal velocities (Vmax) at which achieved by the trained dogs in both IETs were determined. The group S did not undergo IETs or ETP. HRV was determined by the 24-hour-Holter at rest, before and on the 2°, 4°, 6° and 8° training weeks. To examine the HR impact on HRV, standard HRV variables were normalized to prevailing HR. VLT and Vmax rose in group T, indicating an improvement of dogs' aerobic and anaerobic capacity. The normalized standard HRV indexes were relatively attenuated since these variables had a reduction in the degree of correlation concerning an average HR. The ETP resulted in decreased resting heart rate and increased time-domain indices, highlighting the log-transformed square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD). The lactate-guided endurance-training program could lead to better parasympathetic cardiac modulation in Beagle dogs.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Cães , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/veterinária , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Coração/fisiologia , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
18.
Brain Stimul ; 13(3): 774-782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioral alterations, like mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, and modulation of biomarkers in the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS) are markers of chronic pain. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with exercise is a promising therapy for pain due to its neuromodulatory capacity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the individual effects of tDCS, exercise, and the two combined on the nociceptive response and BDNF, IL-1ß, and IL-4 levels in the CNS structures of rats in a chronic pain model. METHODS: For 8 consecutive days after the establishment of chronic neuropathic pain by inducing a constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI), the rats received tDCS, exercise, or both treatments combined (20 min/day). The hyperalgesic response was assessed by von Frey and hot plate tests at baseline, 7, and 14 days after CCI surgery and immediately, 24 h, and 7 days after the end of treatment. The BDNF, IL-1ß, and IL-4 levels were assessed in the cerebral cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 48 h and 7 days after the end of treatment. RESULTS: The CCI model triggered marked mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. However, bimodal tDCS, aerobic exercise, and the two combined relieved nociceptive behavior for up to 7 days following treatment completion. CONCLUSIONS: Bimodal tDCS, aerobic exercise, or both treatments combined promoted analgesic effects for neuropathic pain. Such effects were reflected by cytokine modulation throughout the spinal cord-brainstem-cerebral cortex axis.


Assuntos
Hiperalgesia/terapia , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Neuralgia/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Ratos , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 3029591, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327939

RESUMO

Although proper exercise training induces positive physiological effects, improper exercise can lead to injury, fatigue, and poor performance. The frequency, intensity, time/duration, type, volume, and progression (FITT-VP) are the essential components of exercise training to maintain or improve physical fitness and health. The purpose of this study was to develop specific exercise programs by applying the FITT-VP principle and to examine the effects on heart rate (HR) and hematological and biochemical parameters in dogs. The healthy male Beagles (n = 4) included in this study performed continuous and interval exercises, comprising 12 protocols. The HR monitoring elicited an affirmative response to activities but varied depending on the protocols. The hematologic parameters (e.g., red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) were within the reference ranges both before and after exercise. The creatine kinase level significantly increased, and the cholesterol level decreased after exercises. In conclusion, the continuous and interval exercise program elicits an appropriate HR reaction, has no adverse effects on the serum parameters, and provides valuable insight for healthcare in dogs.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cães , Teste de Esforço , Nível de Saúde , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Animal/instrumentação , Aptidão Física
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6095, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269244

RESUMO

The common clinical symptoms of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) include ataxia, muscle weakness, type 2 diabetes and heart failure, which are caused by impaired mitochondrial function due to the loss of frataxin (FXN) expression. Endurance exercise is the most powerful intervention for promoting mitochondrial function; however, its impact on FRDA has not been studied. Here we found that mice with genetic knockout and knock-in of the Fxn gene (KIKO mice) developed exercise intolerance, glucose intolerance and moderate cardiac dysfunction at 6 months of age. These abnormalities were associated with impaired mitochondrial respiratory function concurrent with reduced iron regulatory protein 1 (Irp1) expression as well as increased oxidative stress, which were not due to loss of mitochondrial content and antioxidant enzyme expression. Importantly, long-term (4 months) voluntary running in KIKO mice starting at a young age (2 months) completely prevented the functional abnormalities along with restored Irp1 expression, improved mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle without restoring Fxn expression. We conclude that endurance exercise training prevents symptomatic onset of FRDA in mice associated with improved mitochondrial function and reduced oxidative stress. These preclinical findings may pave the way for clinical studies of the impact of endurance exercise in FRDA patients.


Assuntos
Ataxia de Friedreich/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Corrida , Animais , Ataxia de Friedreich/genética , Ataxia de Friedreich/fisiopatologia , Proteína 1 Reguladora do Ferro/genética , Proteína 1 Reguladora do Ferro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo
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