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1.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 83-90, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the self-reported injury, training, and running technique choices of regular runners in four international regions. DESIGN AND SETTING: 756 participants began an expert derived self-report online survey in Ireland, USA, Hong Kong and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 325 participants completed the survey (age = 38 ± 10 years; weight = 68.0 ± 13.1 kg; height = 1.70 ± 0.10 m). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics are reported examining injury incidence and location; shoe and orthosis choices; and training and technique practices. A backwards logistic regression was implemented to examine associations between injury and training choices. RESULTS: 68.3% reported having an injury in the last year. 81.45% of these injuries were believed to be running related. A large variation in training and footwear choices were observed for respondents. The regression (P ≤ 0.001) explained 20% of the variance in injury selection (Nagelkerke R2) and was able to identify 73% of cases accurately. Associated injury factors included competitive running, running on more than one surface, younger age, having a lower running age, and a higher proportion of running at an easy intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The high amount of variability in runner's choices highlights the lack of consistent information being presented to them and may be the reason for the high injury incidence.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Corrida/lesões , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Autorrelato , Sapatos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 136-145, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low Back Pain (LBP) is commonly reported as a very frequent disorder in sports, but its prevalence in runners remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of LBP in a wide sample of Italian runners. DESIGN: A cross-sectional online survey. SETTING: A national survey, according to the CHERRIES and STROBE guidelines, was performed in 2019. PARTICIPANTS: 2539 Italian runners. METHODS: A sample of Italian runners registered with national running associations was recruited. The survey was conducted using an online survey development platform. The questionnaire was self-reported and included 38 questions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics and frequencies were used to analyze results. Relationships between demographics, daily habits and running characteristics and the responses given was calculated with Cramer's V. Only correlation values higher >0.60 were deemed of interest. RESULTS: 2539 questionnaires (63.5%) were valid for analysis. In total, 22.6% of runners reported having experienced LBP in the past year. Most participants (77.0%) reporting episodes of LBP believed it was not caused by running. No significant correlations (Cramer's V < 0.60) were found between LBP and demographics, training characteristics or lifestyle habits. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of LBP among Italian runners was 22,57%. LBP was not associated with training, equipment or lifestyle.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Corrida/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Phys Ther Sport ; 48: 154-168, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the frequency of training, combined with the repetitive motion involved in high volume swimming can predispose swimmers to symptoms of over-training. The prevention of pain, injury and illness is of paramount importance in competitive swimming in order to maximise a swimmer's ability to train and perform consistently. A significant factor in the prevention of pain, injury or illness is the appropriate load monitoring and management practices within a training programme. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to investigate the relationship between training load and pain, injury and illness in competitive swimmers. METHODS: The databases SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus, MEDLINE and Embase were searched in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies were included if they reported on competitive swimmers and analysed the link between training load and either pain, injury or illness. The methodological quality and study bias were assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist. RESULTS: The search retrieved 1,959 articles, 15 of which were included for review. The critical appraisal process indicated study quality was poor overall. Pain was the most explored condition (N = 12), with injury (N = 2) and illness (N = 1) making up the remaining articles. There was no evidence of an association between training load and pain, while there may be some evidence to suggest a relationship between training load and injury or illness. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between training load and pain, injury or illness is unclear owing to a host of methodological constraints. The review highlighted that youth, masters and competitive swimmers of a lower ability (e.g. club versus international) may need particular consideration when planning training loads. Winter periods, higher intensity sessions and speed elements may also need to be programmed with care. Monitoring practices need to be developed in conjunction with consensus guidelines, with the inclusion of internal training loads being a priority. Future research should focus on longitudinal prospective studies, utilising the session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) monitoring method and investigating the applicability of Acute/Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR) and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA). Improved methods and study design will provide further clarity on the relationship between load and pain, injury, and illness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo , Dor/etiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Natação/lesões , Adolescente , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Natação/fisiologia
4.
Phys Ther Sport ; 47: 173-177, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the change in supraspinatus tendon thickness (STT) following a high volume (HV) and high intensity (HI) swimming practice in shoulders of elite swimmers. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Non-clinical, state swim team training facility. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of eight non-injured state and national level swimmers from a regional swim team were recruited for this study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrasound measures of STT were collected in response to the two swimming practice sessions. Measures were taken prior to each swim practice; immediately after practice; 6-hours post practice and 24-hours post practice. RESULTS: A significant increase in STT resulted from both the HI and HV (p < 0.05) practice immediately post practice. For the HI practice, the STT remained significantly thicker than pre-practice measures at the 6-hour post practice test (p < 0.05) however no longer significant 24-hours post practice. The difference in the change in STT between the HI and HV practice was significantly different immediately post practice and 6-hours post practice (p < 0.05) however no longer significant 24-hour post practice. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound measures of STT following different swimming volumes and intensities may provide information on shoulder tendon loads.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Manguito Rotador/anatomia & histologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manguito Rotador/diagnóstico por imagem , Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor de Ombro/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia
5.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 25-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationships between sport specialization, physical activity, sleep, and illness in younger athletes are unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effects of sport specialization, sleep, and physical activity on illness in middle school athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Decreased sleep, decreased physical activity, and higher levels of sport specialization will be associated with an increased risk of illness among middle school athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Parents of middle school-aged children reported baseline sport specialization (low, moderate, or high) as well as sleep duration, physical activity, and illnesses every week throughout the academic year. A mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to assess the association between illness and specialization while accounting for sleep and physical activity for the prior week as fixed effects and each individual as a random effect. RESULTS: A total of 233 children (mean age, 12.1 ± 1.2 years; 61% male) participated, of whom 41%, 25%, and 34% were categorized as low, moderate, and high specialization, respectively. The proportion of individuals who experienced illness did not differ by specialization level (low, 76%; moderate, 70%; high, 59%; P = 0.064). In the multivariable model, the odds of illness compared with the low specialization group was not significantly different for moderate (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.70-1.23; P = 0.61) or high specialization (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.56-1.03; P = 0.073). A decreased risk of illness was associated with greater prior week sleep (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.91; P < 0.001) and physical activity (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.96; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Sport specialization is not associated with an increased risk of illness among middle school athletes, while increased sleep duration and physical activity appear to reduce the risk of illness. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Interventions to promote physical activity and improve sleep may reduce the risk of illness in early adolescent athletes.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate short-term training and recovery-related effects on heart rate during a standardized submaximal running test. METHODS: Ten elite badminton players (7 females and 3 males) were monitored during a 12-week training period in preparation for the World Championships. Exercise heart rate (HRex) and perceived exertion were measured in response to a 5-min submaximal shuttle-run test during the morning session warm-up. This test was repeatedly performed on Mondays after 1-2 days of pronounced recovery ('recovered' state; reference condition) and on Fridays following 4 consecutive days of training ('strained' state). In addition, the serum concentration of creatine kinase and urea, perceived recovery-stress states, and jump performance were assessed before warm-up. RESULTS: Creatine kinase increased in the strained compared to the recovered state and the perceived recovery-stress ratings decreased and increased, respectively (range of average effects sizes: |d| = 0.93-2.90). The overall HRex was 173 bpm and the observed within-player variability (i.e., standard deviation as a coefficient of variation [CV]) was 1.3% (90% confidence interval: 1.2% to 1.5%). A linear reduction of -1.4% (-3.0% to 0.3%) was observed in HRex over the 12-week observational period. HRex was -1.5% lower (-2.2% to -0.9%) in the strained compared to the recovered state, and the standard deviation (as a CV) representing interindividual variability in this response was 0.7% (-0.6% to 1.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HRex measured during a standardized warm-up can be sensitive to short-term accumulation of training load, with HRex decreasing on average in response to consecutive days of training within repeated preparatory weekly microcycles. From a practical perspective, it seems advisable to determine intra-individual recovery-strain responses by repeated testing, as HRex responses may vary substantially between and within players.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Ureia/sangue , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327487

RESUMO

Since the emergence of the quantified self movement, users aim at health behavior change, but only those who are sufficiently motivated and competent with the tools will succeed. Our literature review shows that theoretical models for quantified self exist but they are too abstract to guide the design of effective user support systems. Here, we propose principles linking theory and implementation to arrive at a hierarchical model for an adaptable and personalized self-quantification system for physical activity support. We show that such a modeling approach should include a multi-factors user model (activity, context, personality, motivation), a hierarchy of multiple time scales (week, day, hour), and a multi-criteria decision analysis (user activity preference, user measured activity, external parameters). This theoretical groundwork, which should facilitate the design of more effective solutions, has now to be validated by further empirical research.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Condicionamento Físico Humano/instrumentação
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375223

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading type of line-of-duty death among firefighters. An inability to restore parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) control after activity is associated with SCD. Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) provides unique insight into reactivation of the PSNS. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in HRR responses of 25 male firefighter recruits. HR data were collected after submaximal exercise at week 1 (W1), week 6 (W6), and week 15 (W15) of their training at an academy. Percent maximal heart rate (%MHR) measures were computed at each HRR time point (%MHR0, %MHR15, %MHR30, %MHR45, %MHR60, %MHR120, %MHR180) and absolute HRR values were calculated at 30 s (ΔHRR30), 60 s (ΔHRR60), 120 s (ΔHRR120), and 180 s (ΔHRR180). After controlling for age and percent body fat, there was no statistically significant interaction between Week × HRR (p = 0.730), and there were no changes in ΔHRR30, ΔHRR60, and ΔHRR120, and ΔHRR180 indices across time. However, %MHR at W6 and W15 was significantly lower than %MHR at W1 at every HRR time point (ps < 0.001). Therefore, although the firefighter recruit training academy elicited positive training adaptations, changes in PSNS reactivation after submaximal activity were not identified.


Assuntos
Bombeiros , Frequência Cardíaca , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1057-1064, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rock climbers are characterized by enhanced forearm fatigue resistance. This study compared the forearm isometric force of rock climbers (RC), strength-matched power lifters (PL) and aerobically trained (AT) athletes to determine the contribution of muscle oxygen desaturation during ischemia. METHODS: Aerobically trained athletes (N.=6, 23±1 years, 77±1 kg), power lifters (N.=7, 24±1 years, 80±3 kg) and rock climbers (N.=8, 25±2 years, 74±2 kg) took part in a controlled forearm ischemic occlusion (5 min) assessment using near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, three fatigue protocols were completed: protocol 1, sustained maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until exhaustion; protocol 2, sustained 40% MVC for 3 mins duration; protocol 3, an intermittent 40% MVC (5-s contraction, 5-s recovery) for a duration of 3 mins. Forearm contractile fatigue was quantified as the reduction in MVC. RESULTS: MVC was equivalent between groups (P>0.05). Sustained MVC force (time to decline 50% MVC) was longer in the RC versus AT (AT: 35±5, PL: 46±6, RC: 54±4 s, P<0.05) and both AT and PL for sustained 40% MVC (AT: 56±9, RT: 62±8, RC: 87±7 s, P<0.05). Reduction in MVC was less in RC post intermittent 40% contractions (P<0.05). Oxygen desaturation half-time was longer in the RC versus AT (AT: 65±9, RT: 86±7, RC: 99±7 s, P<0.05) and this was associated with time to 50% MVC (P<0.05, r2=0.53) and time to 40% MVC task failure (P<0.05, r2=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Rock climbers' enhanced isometric fatigue-resistance and ability to maintain MVC was associated with a lower oxygen consumption of the forearm flexors during the ischemic state. This suggests a training adaptation involving intracellular oxygen consumption.


Assuntos
Antebraço/fisiologia , Montanhismo/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Dedos/fisiologia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Antebraço/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(8): 1159-1166, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial function assessment may provide important insights into the cardiovascular function and long-term effects of exercise training. Many studies have investigated the possible negative effects on cardiovascular function due to extreme athletic performance, leading to undesirable effects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the acute effects of maximal intensity exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, and to understand the patterns of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) change following maximal exercise in elite female athletes with a high-volume training history. METHODS: Twenty-six elite female soccer players (mean age, 22±4 years; BMI, 21±2 kg/m2; VO2max, 41±4 mL/kg/min) were evaluated. Brachial artery FMD was determined using high-resolution ultrasound at rest, and after 15 and 60 min of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing on a treadmill. Flow velocity was measured at baseline and during reactive hyperemia at the same periods. RESULTS: Rest FMD was 12.4±5.5%. Peak diameter in response to reactive hyperemia was augmented after 15 min of CPX (3.5±0.4 vs. 3.6±0.4 mm, P<0.05), returning to resting values after 60 min. However, %FMD did not change among time periods. There were two characteristic patterns of FMD response following CPX. Compared to FMD at rest, half of the subjects responded with an increased FMD following maximum exercise (10.5±6.1 vs. 17.8±7.5%, P<0.05). The other subjects demonstrated a reduced FMD response following maximum exercise (14.2±4.3 vs. 10.9±3.2%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that elite female soccer players presented robust brachial artery FMD at rest, with a heterogeneous FMD response to acute exercise with a 50% FMD improvement rate.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Braquial/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991633

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare speed, sub-technique selection and temporal patterns between world-class male and female cross-country (XC) skiers and to examine the combined associations of sex and speed on sub-technique selection. Thirty-three XC skiers performed an international 10-km (women; n = 8) and 15-km (men; n = 25) time-trial competition in the classical style (with the first 10 km of the race being used for analyses). An integrated GNSS/IMU system was used to continuously track position speed and automatically classify sub-techniques and temporal patterns (i.e. cycle length and-rate). When comparing the eight highest ranked men and women, men spent less time than women (29±2 vs. 45±5% of total time) using diagonal stride (DIA), more time (44±4 vs. 31±4%) using double poling (DP) and more time (23±2 vs. 19±3%) using tucking and turning (all P < .01). Here, men and women used these sub-techniques at similar temporal patterns within the same speed-intervals; although men employed all sub-techniques at steeper uphill gradients (all P < .05). In subsequent analyses including all 33 skiers, adjustment for average racing speed did not fully attenuate the observed sex differences in the proportion of time using DIA (CI95% [-10.7, -1.6]) and DP (CI95% [0.8, 9.3]). Male world-class XC skiers utilized less DIA and more DP compared to women of equal performance levels. Although these differences coincided with men's higher speed and their ability to use the various sub-techniques at steeper uphill gradients, sexual dimorphism in the proportional use of DIA and DP also occurred independently of these speed-differences.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esqui/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/normas , Fatores Sexuais
12.
J Athl Train ; 55(9): 954-959, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991704

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Young athletes are encouraged to participate in high-intensity sport programs. However, most research on the association between training volume (TV) and injury has been performed on adult or professional athletes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between acute and chronic TV (hours/week) and reported injury (yes/no) and evaluate the relationship between acute : chronic TV and injury while controlling for sex, age, and prior injury in young athletes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Online surveys. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Middle school-aged adolescents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We conducted a baseline survey at the start of the 2017-2018 academic year. The baseline survey solicited information regarding demographics, injury history, and primary sport. Subsequent surveys were delivered electronically at the start of each week. Information obtained with the weekly survey included weekly TV and injuries sustained the previous week. Injuries were reported and classified (eg, acute or gradual onset) by the participants. Weekly TV was aggregated as rolling averages over the prior 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Acute:chronic TV was calculated for each participant for every week as the prior week TV divided by the TV during the prior 2 (1 : 2), 3 (1 : 3), and 4 (1 : 4) weeks of the study period. RESULTS: A total of 244 recruits participated. Higher average TV over the prior 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93, 1.00; P = .05) was associated with fewer reported injuries. Additionally, higher average TV over the prior 2 (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93, 0.99; P = .04), 3 (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91, 0.99; P = .02), and 4 (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.91, 0.99; P = .05) weeks was associated with fewer reported acute injuries the following week. Acute:chronic TV and any injury type were not related. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent, higher levels of physical activity may offer protection against acute injury in young athletes.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Carga de Trabalho , Adolescente , Atletas , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013407, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower limb peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a type of cardiovascular disease where the blood vessels that carry the blood to the legs are hardened and narrowed. The most severe manifestation of PAD is critical limb ischaemia (CLI). This condition results in symptoms of intractable rest pain, non-healing wounds and ulceration, gangrene or both. PAD affects more than 200 million people worldwide and approximately 3% to 5% of people aged over 40 have PAD, rising to 18% in people over 70 years of age. Between 5% to 10% of symptomatic PAD patients will progress to CLI over a five-year period and the five year cumulative incidence rate for asymptomatic patients with PAD deteriorating to intermittent claudication is 7%, with 21% of these progressing to CLI. Treatment options include angioplasty, bypass or amputation of the limb, when life or limb is threatened. People with CLI have a high risk of mortality and morbidity. The mortality rates during a surgical admission are approximately 5%. Within one year of surgery, the mortality rate rises to 22%. Postoperative complications are as high as 30% and readmission rates vary between 7% to 18% in people with CLI. Despite recent advances in surgical technology, anaesthesia and perioperative care, a proportion of surgical patients have a suboptimal recovery. Presurgery conditioning (prehabilitation) is a multimodal conditioning intervention carried out prior to surgery using a combination of exercise, with or without nutritional or psychological interventions, or both. The use of prehabilitation is gaining momentum, particularly in elderly patients undergoing surgery and patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery, as a means of optimising fitness to improve the prognosis for people undergoing the physiological stress of surgery. People with PAD are characterised by poor mobility and physical function and have a lower level of fitness as a result of disease progression. Therefore, prehabilitation may be an opportunity to improve their recovery following surgery. However, as multimodal prehabilitation requires considerable resources, it is important to assess whether it is superior to usual care. This review aimed to compare prehabilitation with usual care (defined as a preoperative assessment, including blood and urine tests). The key outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality and readmissions within 30 days of the surgical procedure, and one-year survival rates. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of prehabilitation (preoperative exercise, either alone or in combination with nutritional or psychological interventions, or both) on postoperative outcomes in adults with PAD undergoing open lower limb surgery. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials register to 25 September 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing presurgery interventions and usual care. Primary outcomes were postoperative complications, mortality and readmission to hospital within 30 days of the surgical procedure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed all records identified by the searches conducted by the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist. We planned to undertake data collection and analysis in accordance with recommendations described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. MAIN RESULTS: We found no RCTs that met the inclusion criteria for this review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no RCTs conducted to determine the effects of prehabilitation on mortality or other postoperative outcomes when compared to usual care for patients with PAD. As a consequence, we were unable to provide any evidence to guide the treatment of patients with PAD undergoing surgery. To perform a randomised controlled trial of presurgery conditioning would be challenging but trials are warranted to provide solid evidence on this topic.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Humanos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866148

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 6-week specialized training program aimed at strengthening core muscles to improve the effectiveness of selected elements of a swimming race on a group of Polish swimmers. Sixteen male national level swimmers (21.6 ± 2.2 years) participated in the research. The competitors were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups before the data collection process: an experimental (EG, n = 8) and a control (CG, n = 8) group. Both groups of swimmers underwent the same training program in the water environment (volume and intensity), while swimmers from the EG additionally performed specific core muscle training. The task of the swimmers was an individual front crawl swim of 50 m, during which the kinematic parameters of the start jump, turn and swimming techniques were recorded using a video camera system. In both groups, a minor increase in the flight phase was observed at the start (EG = 0.06 m, 1.8%; p = 0.088; CG = 0.08 m, 2.7%; p = 0.013). The time to cover a distance of 5 m after the turn and the recorded average speed in swimming this distance for the EG statistically significantly improved by 0.1 s (-28.6%; p < 0.001) and 3.56 m∙s-1 (23.2%; p = 0.001), respectively. In the EG, a statistically significant improvement in 50 m front crawl swimming performance of 0.3 s (-1.2%, p = 0.001) was observed. The results of the research show that the implementation of isolated strengthening of the stabilizing muscles seems to be a valuable addition to the standard training of swimmers.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Natação/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculos , Polônia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 20(79): 419-434, sept. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197046

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las demandas físicas de la competición en pádel de iniciación, y observar la influencia de diferentes tipos de pelota Dieciséis jugadores de pádel en iniciación participaron en este estudio. Cada judador portó un pulsómetro durante el partido. Se utilizaron cuestionarios al término de cada partido para evaluar el esfuerzo percibido y la satisfacción. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas en la estructura temporal de los partidos. Se encontraron diferencias (p < 0,001) entre los partidos con pelota normal y pelota de baja presión tanto en la frecuencia cardiaca media (145,43 ppm vs 140,19 ppm) como en el %FCmáx (72,47 vs 69,85). Los jugadores mostraron mayor satisfacción en el uso de pelotas de baja presión. Estos datos pueden ser de utilidad para determinar el uso de un tipo de pelota u otra y mejorar la planificación del entrenamiento específico en jóvenes jugadores de pádel


The aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands in padel initiation stage and to observe the influence of playing with different type of padel balls. Sixteen padel players at initiation stage participated in this study. Players wore a heart rate (HR) monitor. Perceived exertion and satisfaction questionnaires were administrated at the end of the matches. No differences were found in the match temporal structure. Playing with official balls caused a significant increase in HR (p < 0.001) both in average and maximal values (Average HR: 145 bpm, %HRmax: 72.5%) comparing to low-compression balls (Average HR: 140 bpm, %HRmax: 69.9%). In addition, players showed higher satisfaction when using low-compression balls. This information may have implications to determine the use of normal balls or low-compression balls and the design of specific training programmes for young padel players


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Movimento , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Esportes/normas
16.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 55(207): 111-114, jul.-sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194712

RESUMO

Performing the rehabilitation of a player on a surface different from the normally used by the athlete in her/his sport is beneficial. By recruiting more muscle fibers in the new surface, the rehabilitation process is enhanced. Here, we describe the electromyography (EMG) data of anterior and posterior chains during workouts on two different surfaces: sand and artificial turf. We recorded data using a Myontec EMG device of two anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured women's soccer players. Player 1 was injured on her left leg in the ACL and the patellar tendon, and player 2 was injured on her right leg in the ACL and semitendinosus plasty. The EMG results of player 1 showed an increase in the activation of the cross pattern (i.e. left hamstring and right gluteus) of the posterior chain. Similarly, the EMG data of player 2 showed an increase in the activation of the left quadriceps (the antagonist muscle of her injured leg) of the anterior chain. In conclusion, in both players the muscle group most activated during rehabilitation was the antagonist of the injured leg's muscle, regardless of the surface used


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Medicina Física e Reabilitação/métodos , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Univ. salud ; 22(3): 238-245, set.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1139845

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La cuantificación de la condición física funcional (CFF) en el adulto mayor, es un indicador importante para definir el estado de salud, el nivel de dependencia y la calidad de vida en esta población. Objetivo: Determinar la CFF en un grupo de adultos mayores que residen en hogares geriátricos de la ciudad de Bogotá. Materiales y métodos: Las variables de composición corporal fueron estimadas por antropometría y la condición física funcional valorada con la batería Senior Fitness Test. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 253 adultos mayores (42,6% hombres y 57,3% mujeres), edad (75,5(9,6) e IMC (24,9 (3,6). Condición física funcional: levantarse y sentarse (10,9(3,6 hombres y 10,6(3,5 mujeres), flexión de brazo (13,3(3,3 hombres y 11,7(3,8 mujeres), flexión de tronco (-11,4(8,2 hombres y -1,1(4,8 mujeres), juntar las manos (-16,5(10,7 hombres y -7,3(6,3 mujeres), capacidad aeróbica (77,4(13,6 hombres y 63,9(14,2 mujeres), agilidad y equilibrio (7,5(2,3 hombres y 7,6(2,4 mujeres). Conclusiones: La situación de institucionalización impacta negativamente la condición física funcional del adulto mayor en los componentes de fuerza, agilidad y equilibrio, aumentando el riesgo de caídas y discapacidad física.


Abstract Introduction: Quantification of the functional physical condition (FPC) in the elderly population is an important indicator to define their state of health, level of dependence, and quality of life. Objective: To determine FPC in a group of elderly people residing at nursing homes in the city of Bogotá (Colombia). Materials and methods: Body composition variables were estimated by anthropometry. The functional physical condition was assessed by the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test battery. Results: 253 older adults (42.6% men and 57.3% women), their age (75.5(9.6), and BMI (24.9 (3.6) were evaluated. Functional physical condition values were: getting up and sitting down (10.9(3.6 for men and 10.6(3.5 for women), arm flexion (13.3(3.3 men and 11.7(3.8 women), trunk flexion (-11.4(8.2 men and -1.1(4.8 women), joining hands (-16.5(10.7 men and -7.3(6.3 women), aerobic capacity (77.4(13.6 men and 63.9(14.2 women), and agility and balance (7.5(2.3 men and 7.6(2.4 women). Conclusions: Institutionalization of the elderly has a negative impact on their functional physical condition. In particular, it affects their strength, agility and balance, which increases the risk of falls and physical disability.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Movimento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745112

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to quantify training loads (TL) of high intensity sessions through original methods (TRIMP; session-RPE; Work-Endurance-Recovery) and their updated alternatives (TRIMPcumulative; RPEalone; New-WER). Ten endurance athletes were requested to perform five sessions until exhaustion. Session 1 composed by a 800m maximal performance and four intermittent sessions performed at the 800m velocity, three sessions with 400m of interval length and work:recovery ratios of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 and one with 200m intervals and 1:1. Total TL were quantified from the sessions' beginning to the cool-down period and an intermediate TL (TL800) was calculated when 800m running was accumulated within the sessions. At the end of the sessions high and similar RPE were reported (effect size, η2 = 0.12), while, at the intermediate 800m distance, the higher interval distances and work:recovery ratios the higher the RPE (η2 = 0.88). Our results show marked differences in sessions' total TL between original (e.g., lowest TL for the 800m and highest for the 200m-1:1 sessions) and alternative methods (RPEalone and New-WER; similar TL for each session). Differences appear in TL800 notably between TRIMP and other methods which are negatively correlated. All TL report light to moderate correlations between original methods and their alternatives, original methods are strongly correlated together, as observed for alternative methods. Differences in TL quantification between original and alternative methods underline that they are not interchangeable. Because of high exercise volume influence, original methods markedly enhance TL of sessions with higher exercise volumes although these presented the easiest interval distances and work-recovery ratios. Alternative methods based on exhaustion level (New-WER) and exertion (RPEalone) provided a new and promising point of view of TL quantification where exhaustion determines the highest TL whatever the exercise. This remains to be tested with more extended populations submitted to wider ranges of exercises.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adolescente , Atletas , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico , Corrida , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sport Health Sci ; 9(4): 367-375, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768130

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to examine the trajectories of athlete burnout across a 2-month period characterized by high physical, psychological, and social demands to explore (1) whether several subgroups of athletes representing distinct burnout trajectories emerged from the analyses and (2) whether athlete burnout symptoms (reduced accomplishment, sport devaluation, and exhaustion) developed in tandem or whether some burnout dimensions predicted downstream changes in other dimensions (causal ordering model). METHODS: One hundred and fifty-nine table tennis players in intensive training centers completed a self-reported athlete burnout measure across 3 time points within a 2-month period characterized by high demands. Data were analyzed through latent class growth analysis. RESULTS: Results of latent class growth analysis showed 3 distinct trajectories for each athlete burnout dimension, indicating not only linear or quadratic change but also stability in longitudinal athlete burnout perceptions. Results also suggested that the 3 dimensions of athlete burnout did not develop in tandem. Rather, the likelihood of belonging to particular emerging trajectories of sport devaluation and physical/emotional exhaustion was significantly influenced by the athletes' perception of reduced accomplishment assessed at Time 1. Thus, reduced accomplishment predicted downstream changes in the 2 other athlete burnout dimensions. CONCLUSION: As a whole, these results highlighted that the multinomial heterogeneity in longitudinal athlete burnout symptoms needs to be accounted for in future research.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Tênis/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Autorrelato
20.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris) ; 81(5): 493-499, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768394

RESUMO

The present study examined the effectiveness of adding exercises with whole-body vibration (WBV) to aerobic training in terms of metabolic features and quality of life. Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), confirmed on imaging, underwent an 8-week individualized exercise program randomized between aerobic training with and without WBV. Training was performed at 60-80% heart rate workload for 165 min/week. The WBV amplitude was 2-4mm and the training frequency was 30Hz, for 15min. Assessments were carried out on surrogate scores of steatosis and fibrosis including transient elastography (FibroScan), metabolic features (biochemical analysis) and quality of life (SF-36). Insulin resistance was markedly reduced (-2.36; 95% CI: -4.96 to -0.24; P: 0.049) in aerobic training with WBV. The decrease in serum aspartate transaminase was significantly greater in aerobic training without WBV (-14.81; 95% CI: -23.36 to -6.25; P: 0.029). There were no significant differences between groups for the other metabolic features (P<0.05). All quality of life well-being domains improved in both groups (P<0.05). Given this reduction in insulin resistance, WBV can usefully be added to aerobic training. However, WBV did not provide further benefits in improving metabolic properties or quality of life.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Vibração/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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