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3.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 168-174, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952082

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and the incidence of injuries in high-intensity functional training (HIFT) practitioners. A survey was administered to 213 HIFT practitioners. Participants reported the number of injuries, the location of the injuries, and training exposure during the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. We found there were 7.1 injuries for every 1000 hours of training. In addition, we found that individuals with experience in the modality (>2 years) were 3.77 times more likely to be affected by injury when compared with beginner individuals (<6 months) (CI95%=1.59-8.92; p=0.003). When the analysis was performed only for the competitive level, we found that practitioners competing at the national level were 5.69 times more likely to experience an injury than competitors who do not compete (CI95%=1.10-29.54; p=0.038). We also found that the injuries mainly affect the shoulder and lumbar regions. It was possible to conclude that subjects with a higher level of experience in the modality are more likely to be affected by injuries and that the shoulder and lumbar areas are most likely to be injured during HIFT.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Adulto , Lesões nas Costas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Exercício , Feminino , Ginástica/lesões , Humanos , Incidência , Traumatismos do Joelho/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Treinamento de Resistência/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Lesões do Ombro/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Hematol ; 99(3): 635-648, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970448

RESUMO

Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) experience a considerable decline in physical and psycho-social capacity. Since whole body vibration (WBV) is known to efficiently stimulate the neuromuscular system and enhance cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in frail individuals, we hypothesized that WBV would maintain various physical and psychological capacities in patients during alloHCT. Seventy-one patients were randomly allocated to either an intervention group (IG) doing WBV or an active control group (CG) doing mobilization exercises five times per week. We determined peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and maximum power, maximum strength, functional performance, body composition, quality of life (QoL), and fatigue. Tests were carried out before conditioning therapy, at hospital discharge and at day ± 180 (follow-up). As 18 patients did not participate in post-intervention assessment and follow-up data from 9 patients was not collectible, per-protocol (PP) analysis of 44 patients is presented. During hospitalization, WBV maintained maximum strength, height, and power output during jumping, as well as reported QoL, physical functioning, and fatigue level compared with mobilization. At follow-up, relative VO2peak (p = 0.035) and maximum power (p = 0.011), time and power performing chair-rising test (p = 0.022; p = 0.009), and reported physical functioning (p = 0.035) significantly increased in the IG, while fatigue decreased (p = 0.005). CG's body cell mass and phase angle had significantly decreased at follow-up (p = 0.002; p = 0.004). Thus, WBV might maintain maximum strength, functional performance, QoL, and fatigue during alloHCT, while cardiorespiratory fitness might benefit from accelerated recovery afterwards.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Força Muscular , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Qualidade de Vida , Vibração , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 154-160, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902129

RESUMO

We evaluated a range of physical characteristics related to hamstring injuries, as well as the Nordic Hamstring Exercise compliance rate, and whether this influenced the rate hamstring injury. Subjects comprised 259 male soccer players from seven high schools randomly clustered into two groups, a Nordic Hamstring Exercise group and a control group. Training and match time were logged, as well as details of hamstring injury, and subsequent time lost to hamstring injury recorded over a period of 27 weeks. The Nordic Hamstring Exercise compliance rate, injury rate per 10000 playing hours and time-lost-to-sport-injury rate were calculated. The relative risk and hamstring injury severity were also calculated. The hamstring injury rate was 1.04/10 000 h in the control group and 0.88/10 000 h in the intervention group. The relative risk for hamstring injury was 1.14. The time-lost to injury rate was 1116.3/10 000 h in the control group and 113.7/10 000 h in the intervention group; with relative risk 9.81. The Nordic Hamstring Exercise in high school soccer players significantly reduced hamstring injury severity compared to a control intervention. Our results indicate that the time-lost to injury rate should be taken into account when analyzing the severity of hamstring injury.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiotibiais/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Futebol/lesões , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Lesões nas Costas/epidemiologia , Lesões nas Costas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Volta ao Esporte , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 130-139, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696778

RESUMO

The Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale (SRSS) are well-established monitoring tools in German-speaking countries. This study aimed at validating them for English-speaking populations. Overall, 996 athletes (536 males, 24.9 ± 9.1 years) of Australia/New Zealand (n = 380), the United Kingdom (n = 316), and North America (n = 300) participated. The 32-item ARSS consists of eight scales. These scales constitute the eight items of the SRSS with the corresponding ARSS items as descriptors. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal consistency (α), and discriminatory power of the items (rit) were calculated for the total and subsamples separately. Satisfactory discriminatory power (rit > .30) for all ARSS and SRSS items and acceptable internal consistency (α > .70) was achieved. CFA indicated good fit indices for the total sample and subsamples, and strong measurement invariance was found across subsamples and gender. Correlations between corresponding scales and items (rs = .68 - .78) support theoretical congruency as well as independent usage of both questionnaires. Construct validity of both tools is shown through hypothesis-conforming correlations with the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. Future studies may apply the ARSS and SRSS as monitoring tools in English-speaking regions worldwide.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 192-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724487

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) is a widespread technology drawing an increasing interest for players and coaches, especially in team ball sports as it offers a simple tool to simulate, analyse and train situations that are often too complex to reproduce in the field. In this review we aimed at (1) providing an overview of methodologies and outcomes of research studies using VR in team ball sports; (2) better evaluating the potential interest of VR to analyse or train team ball sports situation and (3) identifying limitations, gaps in knowledge and remaining scientific challenges. The MEDLINE and Web of Science Core Collection databases were searched, using predefined combinations of keywords. Thirty articles were retained and analysed. VR can be an interesting tool to assess or train team ball sports skills/situations as it allows researchers to control and standardise situations and focus on specific skills/subskills. Studies that used VR in team ball sports still have some limitations, mainly due to technical issues or study design. This paper also describes the way VR should be used to enhance understanding of performance in team ball sports. Additional suggestions for future research and study design are proposed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esportes , Realidade Virtual , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Destreza Motora
9.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 343-350, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809646

RESUMO

Resolving intra-stride accelerations from training and game data routinely collected by athlete tracking devices is rarely attempted, even though these data can provide important insights into the physical condition of athletes. This study describes in detail a novel analysis tool which uses accelerometer-based measures of step variability to assess longitudinal consistency of stride technique. The performance of the analysis tool was examined by combining results from the analysis of data collected over the course of an Australian Football League season with instances of missed or modified training. Results demonstrated increased gait-related trunk acceleration variability when training was modified due to load or accumulated game and training activity (p = 0.02) and reduced trunk acceleration variability in the week following a training modification due to any injury described as "ankle", "heel", or any other description that would loosely refer to a joint or bone in the leg (p = 0.01). These results support the findings of recent research which used a slightly modified version of the same analysis tool to demonstrate an increase in gait-related trunk acceleration variability with the increased acute physical load.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Análise da Marcha , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Austrália , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 159-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718526

RESUMO

Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch- Römer published their research on "The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance" over 25 years ago. Since then, hundreds of new articles have been published with findings regarding the effects of practice on performance in sports. The original paper searched for conditions underpinning optimal acquisition of reproducibly superior (expert) performance in domains, where methods for producing such performance had been refined over centuries. At an elite music academy, superior music students were found to have engaged for longer periods in solitary practice guided by their music teachers - an explication of the conditions of this type of practice led to a definition of deliberate practice. When other researchers in sports started searching for optimal practice, they could not find any practice activities meeting all the criteria for "deliberate practice", yet referred to somewhat similar activities using that same term. This paper shows that the effects of these different types of practice activities on attained performance differ from those of deliberate practice and should be given different distinct names. The paper concludes with recommendations for how future research on purposeful and deliberate practice can inform, not just athletes and their coaches, but all adults about how their achievements can be improved with individualized forms of effective practice.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Tutoria , Destreza Motora , Música/psicologia
11.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 29-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631783

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of reactive and eccentric strength in stiffness regulation during maximum velocity sprinting (Vmax) in team sport athletes compared with highly trained sprinters. Thirteen team sport athletes and eleven highly trained sprinters were recruited. Vmax was measured using radar, and stiffness regulation was inferred from modelled vertical and leg spring stiffness. Reactive strength (RSI) was determined from a 0.50 m drop jump, and an eccentric back squat was used to assess maximum isoinertial eccentric force. Trained sprinters attained a higher Vmax than team sport athletes, partly due to a briefer contact time and higher vertical stiffness. Trained sprinters exhibited a moderately higher RSI via the attainment of a briefer and more forceful ground contact phase, while RSI also demonstrated large to very large associations with vertical stiffness and Vmax, respectively. Isoinertial eccentric force was largely correlated with Vmax, but only moderately correlated with vertical stiffness. Reactive and eccentric strength contribute to the ability to regulate leg spring stiffness at Vmax, and subsequently, the attainment of faster sprinting speeds in highly trained sprinters versus team sport athletes. However, stiffness regulation appears to be a task-specific neuromuscular skill, reinforcing the importance of specificity in the development of sprint performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 79-85, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631792

RESUMO

In Australian Football (AF), small sided games have been used extensively as an alternative training method for technical and physical adaptations. Considering their application to AF, it is surprising a valid and reliable small-sided game kicking assessment remains absent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable 5v6 Australian football small-sided game kicking proficiency assessment. Youth male AF players (n = 145) from different stages within the AF talent pathway were recruited. Validity (i.e., logical and construct) and reliability (i.e., test re-test) were assessed. The largest kicking proficiency difference was between U13 and U16 players and between novice and sub-elite players. Between the ages of U16 and U18 kicking proficiency appears to stabilise. The Australian football small-sided kicking assessment was 97% successful in identifying players as either novice or sub-elite. Larger physical performance (i.e., odometer, m/min-1 and %HIR) outputs were noted between U14 and U18 players and novice and sub-elite players. Collectively, these findings suggest the Australian football small-sided kicking assessment is a valid and reliable AF kicking proficiency assessment tool and may provide worthwhile information to coaches regarding kicking performance along the AFL pathway, to profile player strengths whilst identifying specific areas of improvement.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Austrália , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 66-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of training load to injury using wearable technology has not been investigated in professional American football players. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between player workload and soft tissue injury over the course of a football season utilizing wearable global positioning system (GPS) technology. HYPOTHESIS: Increased training load is associated with a higher incidence of soft tissue injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Player workloads were assessed during preseason and regular-season practice sessions using GPS tracking and triaxial accelerometry from 2014 to 2016. Soft tissue injuries were recorded during each season. Player workload during the week of injury (acute) and average weekly workload during the 4 weeks (chronic) prior to injury were determined for each injury and in uninjured position-matched controls during the same week. A matched-pairs t test was used to determine differences in player workload. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to determine whether observed effects were confounded by training period and type of injury. RESULTS: In total, 136 lower extremity injuries were recorded. Of the recorded injuries, 101 injuries with complete GPS and clinical data were included in the analysis. Injuries were associated with greater increases in workload during the week of injury over the prior month when compared with uninjured controls. Injured players saw a 111% (95% CI, 66%-156%) increase in workload whereas uninjured players saw a 73% (95% CI, 34%-112%) increase in workload during the week of injury (P = 0.032). Individuals who had an acute to chronic workload ratio higher than 1.6 were 1.5 times more likely to sustain an injury relative to time- and position-matched controls (64.6% vs 43.1%; P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Soft tissue injuries in professional football players were associated with sudden increases in training load over the course of a month. This effect seems to be especially pronounced during the preseason when player workloads are generally higher. These results suggest that a gradual increase of training intensity is a potential method to reduce the risk of soft tissue injury. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Preseason versus regular-season specific training programs monitored with wearable technology may assist team athletic training and medical staff in developing programs to optimize player performance.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Futebol Americano/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 238-247, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755824

RESUMO

Rugby union is a popular team sport that demands high levels of physical fitness and skill. The study aim was to examine trends in training volume and its impact on injury incidence, severity and burden over an 11-season period in English professional rugby. Data were recorded from 2007/08 through 2017/18, capturing 1,501,606 h of training exposure and 3,782 training injuries. Players completed, on average, 6 h 48 minutes of weekly training (95% CI: 6 h 30 mins to 7 h 6 mins): this value remained stable over the 11 seasons. The mean incidence of training-related injuries was 2.6/1000 player-hours (95% CI: 2.4 to 2.8) with a mean severity rising from 17 days in 2007/08 to 37 days in 2017/18 (Change/season = 1.773, P <0.01). Rate of change in severity was dependent on training type, with conditioning (non-gym-based) responsible for the greatest increase (2.4 days/injury/season). As a result of increasing severity, injury burden rose from 51 days absence/1000 player-hours in 2007/08 to 106 days' absence/1000 player-hours in 2017/18. Despite the low incidence of injury in training compared to match-play, training accounted for 34% of all injuries. Future assessments of training intensity may lead to a greater understanding of the rise in injury severity.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/tendências , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Estudos Longitudinais , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Análise de Regressão
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 54-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747701

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate exposure adjusted injury incidence rates and profiles associated with training and competition in an elite taekwondo athlete population. 82 athletes were investigated for injuries over a period of 5 years. Individual fight time exposure for training and competition was recorded. The type and location of the injuries were classified and exposure-adjusted injury incidence rates (IIR) were calculated per 1000 h for training and competition. 66 athletes with a mean age of 19.3±4.2 years and 172 injuries were included in the final data assessment. The exposure adjusted IIR was significantly higher during competition (p<0.001) with a rate ratio of 6.33 (95% CI 4.58-8.69). Ankle and foot region as well as hand and wrist were most affected with significant higher IIR in competition (p<0.001). Joint injuries, fractures, and bruising occurred the most. Fractures occurred mainly to the hand and wrist region. Future investigations should focus on exposure adjusted injury data including analyses of the detailed mechanism leading to especially severe injuries to improve specific injury prevention in competition and promote evolution of protective gear.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Traumatismos do Pé/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Mão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(3): 308-319, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783717

RESUMO

The primary aim of this research was to generate insight into observable mentally tough behaviours, or MTb, across different contexts (e.g., training and competition) in an Australian football (AF) environment. A second aim of this research was to explore the utility of MTb as a distinct concept, and identify common behavioural qualities associated with MTb that separate it from other similar constructs. In total, 10 experienced full-time football operations staff were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide, with inductive thematic analysis employed to analyse the data. Five main themes relating to MTb were identified: adaptive development, consistent training conduct, composed performance actions, responsible and accountable, and team supportive. Overall, the findings of the research provided preliminary support for the proposition that there exists a collection of MTb that are displayed more frequently by athletes considered to possess high levels of mental toughness compared to athletes who are perceived to have low levels of this psychological capacity. We propose a collection of necessary and sufficient behavioural qualities and a working definition of MTb to further our understanding of potential strategies to develop MT.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Futebol/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Austrália , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estresse Psicológico
19.
Sports Biomech ; 19(2): 201-211, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792560

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe the mechanical characteristics of a trampoline circus act and its individual tracks performed in training and shows using a tri-axial accelerometer. A track is an artist's specific role within a choreographed act. Seven male acrobats performed their trampoline act during training and shows while wearing a triaxial accelerometer and reported ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) after each trial. Average acceleration (AVG), root mean square (RMS), root mean to the fourth (RM4), time spent in specific acceleration ranges and RPE were measured/recorded from training and show acts. Paired t-tests compared dependent variables between training and show. Acceleration AVG, RMS and RM4 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in training than show. RPE was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in show than training. No significant differences existed in time spent in any of the acceleration ranges between training and show. GPS devices have been used to manage workloads in field sports but are inoperable in theatres. But, inertial measurements may be an effective alternative to describe mechanical demands in theatre or arena environments. Wearable technology may be useful to coaches to improve understanding of track demands to manage artist workloads.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aceleração , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
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