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1.
Behav Processes ; 184: 104319, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450315

RESUMO

Two Pavlovian appetitive conditioning experiments with rats assessed extinction cue (EC) transfer using spontaneous recovery tests. In each experiment, after conditioned stimulus (CS) A-US pairings, an EC (X) was presented during A-extinction, followed by spontaneous recovery testing with A. Experiment 1 tested for transfer between ECs; the additional CS (B) was conditioned and then was extinguished with a second EC (Y). CS A was tested with X and with Y (the possible transfer EC). Experiment 2 tested for transfer between an EC and an explicitly trained serial negative occasion setter (OS). Prior to testing with A, Y was trained in a serial Y→C-, C + discrimination; a Z→B-, B + discrimination was also trained. A was tested with X and with Y (with Y as the possible transfer OS). X and Y were also tested with B (where X with B tests possible EC-OS transfer). In each experiment Y did not reduce spontaneous recovery to A, showing no transfer of one EC to another (Experiment 1) and no transfer of a serial negative OS to a CS (A) extinguished with an EC (X; Experiment 2). X did not reduce responding to B, showing no transfer of an EC to the target CS of a serial negative OS discrimination, although Y did transfer to B (Experiment 2) showing transfer between serial OSs. X did reduce responding to the CS (A) it had occurred with during extinction (Experiments 1 and 2). The results are discussed in terms of EC characteristics and regarding theories of an EC's possible mechanisms.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Extinção Psicológica , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico , Condicionamento Operante , Condicionamento Psicológico , Ratos
2.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339145

RESUMO

Tobacco smoking has become a prominent health problem faced around the world. The α3ß4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is strongly associated with nicotine reward and withdrawal symptom. α-Conotoxin TxID, cloned from Conus textile, is a strong α3ß4 nAChR antagonist, which has weak inhibition activity of α6/α3ß4 nAChR. Meanwhile, its analogue [S9K]TxID only inhibits α3ß4 nAChR (IC50 = 6.9 nM), and has no inhibitory activity to other nAChRs. The present experiment investigates the effect of α3ß4 nAChR antagonists (TxID and [S9K]TxID) on the expression and reinstatement of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and explores the behaviors of acute nicotine in mice. The animal experimental results showed that TxID and [S9K] TxID could inhibit the expression and reinstatement of CPP, respectively. Moreover, both had no effect in acute nicotine experiment and the locomotor activity in mice. Therefore, these findings reveal that the α3ß4 nAChR may be a potential target for anti-nicotine addiction treatment. [S9K]TxID, α3ß4 nAChR antagonist, exhibit a superior effect for anti-nicotine addiction, which is promising to develop a novel smoking cessation drug.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Conotoxinas/farmacologia , Nicotina/antagonistas & inibidores , Nicotina/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Animais , Conotoxinas/síntese química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Nicotínicos/síntese química , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5207, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060630

RESUMO

Fear conditioning is a form of associative learning that is known to involve different brain areas, notably the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex and the periaqueductal grey (PAG). Here, we describe the functional role of pathways that link the cerebellum with the fear network. We found that the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) sends glutamatergic projections to vlPAG that synapse onto glutamatergic and GABAergic vlPAG neurons. Chemogenetic and optogenetic manipulations revealed that the FN-vlPAG pathway controls bi-directionally the strength of the fear memories, indicating an important role in the association of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, a function consistent with vlPAG encoding of fear prediction error. Moreover, FN-vlPAG projections also modulate extinction learning. We also found a FN-parafascicular thalamus pathway, which may relay cerebellar influence to the amygdala and modulates anxiety behaviors. Overall, our results reveal multiple contributions of the cerebellum to the emotional system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Optogenética
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017925

RESUMO

It is a hot research direction to reveal the working mechanism of brain by measuring the connection characteristics of brain function network. In this paper, to decode pigeon behavior outcomes in goal-directed decision task, an experiment based on plus maze was designed and the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL) of the pigeon was selected as the target brain region. The local field potential (LFP) signals in the waiting area (WA) and turning area (TA) were recorded when the pigeons performed the goal-directed tasks. Then, the brain functional connection networks of the LFPs were constructed and the extracted features were applied to decode pigeon behavior outcomes. Firstly, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was used to carried out time-frequency analysis and the task-related frequency band (40-60 Hz) was extracted. Then, weighted sparse representation (WSR) method was used to construct the functional connectivity network and the related network features were selected. Finally, k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm was used to decode behavior outcomes. The results show that the energy difference between TA and WA in 40-60 Hz band is significantly higher than those in other bands. The selected features have good discriminability for the representation of the differences between WA and TA. The decoding results also suggest the classification performance of the different behavior outcomes. These results show the effectiveness of the WSR to construct the function network to decode behavior outcomes.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Objetivos , Algoritmos , Animais , Encéfalo , Condicionamento Operante
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4217, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868778

RESUMO

The cerebellum plays a crucial role in sensorimotor and associative learning. However, the contribution of molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) to these processes is not well understood. We used two-photon microscopy to study the role of ensembles of cerebellar MLIs in a go-no go task where mice obtain a sugar water reward if they lick a spout in the presence of the rewarded odorant and avoid a timeout when they refrain from licking for the unrewarded odorant. In naive animals the MLI responses did not differ between the odorants. With learning, the rewarded odorant elicited a large increase in MLI calcium responses, and the identity of the odorant could be decoded from the differential response. Importantly, MLIs switched odorant responses when the valence of the stimuli was reversed. Finally, mice took a longer time to refrain from licking in the presence of the unrewarded odorant and had difficulty becoming proficient when MLIs were inhibited by chemogenetic intervention. Our findings support a role for MLIs in learning valence in the cerebellum.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Cerebelo/citologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Modelos Neurológicos , Odorantes , Recompensa , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898146

RESUMO

Learning to avoid harmful consequences can be a costly trial-and-error process. In such situations, social information can be leveraged to improve individual learning outcomes. Here, we investigated how participants used their own experiences and others' social cues to avoid harm. Participants made repeated choices between harmful and safe options, each with different probabilities of generating shocks, while also seeing the image of a social partner. Some partners made predictive gaze cues towards the harmful choice option while others cued an option at random, and did so using neutral or fearful facial expressions. We tested how learned social information about partner reliability transferred across contexts by letting participants encounter the same partner in multiple trial blocks while facing novel choice options. Participants' decisions were best explained by a reinforcement learning model that independently learned the probabilities of options being safe and of partners being reliable and combined these combined these estimates to generate choices. Advice from partners making a fearful facial expression influenced participants' decisions more than advice from partners with neutral expressions. Our results showed that participants made better decisions when facing predictive partners and that they cached and transferred partner reliability estimates into new blocks. Using simulations we show that participants' transfer of social information into novel contexts is better adapted to variable social environments where social partners may change their cuing strategy or become untrustworthy. Finally, we found no relation between autism questionnaire scores and performance in our task, but do find autism trait related differences in learning rate parameters.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comunicação , Biologia Computacional , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(10): 1067-1079, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747804

RESUMO

The valence of new information influences learning rates in humans: good news tends to receive more weight than bad news. We investigated this learning bias in four experiments, by systematically manipulating the source of required action (free versus forced choices), outcome contingencies (low versus high reward) and motor requirements (go versus no-go choices). Analysis of model-estimated learning rates showed that the confirmation bias in learning rates was specific to free choices, but was independent of outcome contingencies. The bias was also unaffected by the motor requirements, thus suggesting that it operates in the representational space of decisions, rather than motoric actions. Finally, model simulations revealed that learning rates estimated from the choice-confirmation model had the effect of maximizing performance across low- and high-reward environments. We therefore suggest that choice-confirmation bias may be adaptive for efficient learning of action-outcome contingencies, above and beyond fostering person-level dispositions such as self-esteem.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Exp Psychol ; 67(2): 99-111, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729400

RESUMO

Instrumental learning is regulated by two memory systems: a relatively rigid but efficient habit system and a flexible but resource-demanding goal-directed system. Previous work has demonstrated that exposure to acute stress may shift the balance between these systems toward the habitual system. In the current study, we used a 2-day outcome devaluation paradigm with a 75% reward contingency rate and altered food reward categories to replicate and extend our previous findings. Participants learned neutral stimulus-response-reward associations on the first day. On the second day, rewards were devalued by eating to satiety. Subsequently, acute stress was induced in half of the participants using the Maastricht Acute Stress Test, while the other half engaged in a nonstressful control task. Finally, relative goal-directed versus habitual behavior was evaluated in a slips-of-action phase, where more slips-of-action indicate a shift toward the habitual system. Results showed that participants successfully acquired the stimulus-response-reward associations, that devaluation was effective, and that stressed participants displayed significant increases in cortisol and blood pressure. Stress led participants to commit more slips-of-action compared with nonstressed controls. The current study extends previous work, showing that the employed paradigm and outcome devaluation procedure are boundary conditions to the stress-induced shift in instrumental responding.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Objetivos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597866

RESUMO

Operant conditioning chambers are used to perform a wide range of behavioral tests in the field of neuroscience. The recorded data is typically based on the triggering of lever and nose-poke sensors present inside the chambers. While this provides a detailed view of when and how animals perform certain responses, it cannot be used to evaluate behaviors that do not trigger any sensors. As such, assessing how animals position themselves and move inside the chamber is rarely possible. To obtain this information, researchers generally have to record and analyze videos. Manufacturers of operant conditioning chambers can typically supply their customers with high-quality camera setups. However, these can be very costly and do not necessarily fit chambers from other manufacturers or other behavioral test setups. The current protocol describes how to build an inexpensive and versatile video camera using hobby electronics components. It further describes how to use the image analysis software package DeepLabCut to track the status of a strong light signal, as well as the position of a rat, in videos gathered from an operant conditioning chamber. The former is a great aid when selecting short segments of interest in videos that cover entire test sessions, and the latter enables analysis of parameters that cannot be obtained from the data logs produced by the operant chambers.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Operante , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Software , Gravação de Videoteipe/instrumentação , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Masculino , Microcomputadores , Movimento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Ratos
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(8): 968-980, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541962

RESUMO

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for reward processing and motivation. The anatomic organization of neurotransmitter-specific inputs to the VTA remains poorly resolved. In the present study, we mapped the major neurotransmitter projections to the VTA through cell-type-specific retrograde and anterograde tracing. We found that glutamatergic inputs arose from a variety of sources and displayed some connectivity biases toward specific VTA cell types. The sources of GABAergic projections were more widespread, displayed a high degree of differential innervation of subregions in the VTA and were largely biased toward synaptic contact with local GABA neurons. Inactivation of GABA release from the two major sources, locally derived versus distally derived, revealed distinct roles for these projections in behavioral regulation. Optogenetic manipulation of individual distal GABAergic inputs also revealed differential behavioral effects. These results demonstrate that GABAergic projections to the VTA are a major contributor to the regulation and diversification of the structure.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/metabolismo , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Optogenética , Recompensa , Autoestimulação
11.
J Neurosci ; 40(24): 4727-4738, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354856

RESUMO

Decades of research have shown that the NAc is a critical region influencing addiction, mood, and food consumption through its effects on reinforcement learning, motivation, and hedonic experience. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated that inhibition of the NAc shell induces voracious feeding, leading to the hypothesis that the inhibitory projections that emerge from the NAc normally act to restrict feeding. While much of this work has focused on projections to the lateral hypothalamus, the role of NAc projections to the VTA in the control food intake has been largely unexplored. Using a retrograde viral labeling technique and real-time monitoring of neural activity with fiber photometry, we find that medial NAc shell projections to the VTA (mNAc→VTA) are inhibited during food-seeking and food consumption in male mice. We also demonstrate that this circuit bidirectionally controls feeding: optogenetic activation of NAc projections to the VTA inhibits food-seeking and food intake (in both sexes), while optogenetic inhibition of this circuit potentiates food-seeking behavior. Additionally, we show that activity of the NAc to VTA pathway is necessary for adaptive inhibition of food intake in response to external cues. These data provide new insight into NAc control over feeding in mice, and contribute to an emerging literature elucidating the role of inhibitory midbrain feedback within the mesolimbic circuit.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The medial NAc has long been known to control consummatory behavior, with particular focus on accumbens projections to the lateral hypothalamus. Conversely, NAc projections to the VTA have mainly been studied in the context of drug reward. We show that NAc projections to the VTA bidirectionally control food intake, consistent with a permissive role in feeding. Additionally, we show that this circuit is normally inactivated during consumption and food-seeking. Together, these findings elucidate how mesolimbic circuits control food consumption.


Assuntos
Comportamento Consumatório/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Recompensa
12.
Neuron ; 107(2): 283-291.e6, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392472

RESUMO

Episodic memory requires linking events in time, a function dependent on the hippocampus. In "trace" fear conditioning, animals learn to associate a neutral cue with an aversive stimulus despite their separation in time by a delay period on the order of tens of seconds. But how this temporal association forms remains unclear. Here we use two-photon calcium imaging of neural population dynamics throughout the course of learning and show that, in contrast to previous theories, hippocampal CA1 does not generate persistent activity to bridge the delay. Instead, learning is concomitant with broad changes in the active neural population. Although neural responses were stochastic in time, cue identity could be read out from population activity over longer timescales after learning. These results question the ubiquity of seconds-long neural sequences during temporal association learning and suggest that trace fear conditioning relies on mechanisms that differ from persistent activity accounts of working memory.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante , Sinais (Psicologia) , Medo/psicologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética
13.
J Neurosci ; 40(24): 4773-4787, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393535

RESUMO

Flexible initiation or suppression of actions to avoid aversive events is crucial for survival. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in different aspects of avoidance and reward-seeking, but their respective contribution in instigating versus suppressing actions in aversive contexts remains to be clarified. We examined mPFC involvement in different forms of avoidance in rats well trained on different cued lever-press avoidance tasks. Active/inhibitory avoidance required flexible discrimination between auditory cues signaling foot-shock could be avoided by making or withholding instrumental responses. On a simpler active avoidance task, a single cue signaled when a lever press would avoid shock. PL inactivation disrupted active but not inhibitory avoidance on the discriminative task while having no effect on single-cued avoidance. In comparison, IL inactivation broadly impaired active and inhibitory avoidance. Conversely, on a cued appetitive go/no-go task, both IL and PL inactivation impaired inhibitory but not active reward-seeking, the latter effect being diametrically opposite to that observed on the avoidance task. These findings highlight the complex manner in which different mPFC regions aid in initiating or inhibiting actions in the service of avoiding aversive outcomes or obtaining rewarding ones. IL facilitates active avoidance but suppress inappropriate actions in appetitive and aversive contexts. In contrast, contextual valence plays a critical role in how the PL is recruited in initiating or suppressing actions, which may relate to the degree of cognitive control required to flexibly negotiate response or motivational conflicts and override prepotent behaviors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Choosing to make or withhold actions in a context-appropriate manner to avoid aversive events or obtain other goals is a critical survival skill. Different medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions have been implicated in certain aspects of avoidance, but their contributions to instigating or suppressing actions remains to be clarified. Here, we show that the dorsal, prelimbic (PL) region of the medial PFC aids active avoidance in situations requiring flexible mitigation of response conflicts, but also aids in withholding responses to obtain rewards. In comparison the ventral infralimbic (IL) cortex plays a broader role in active and inhibitory avoidance as well as suppressing actions to obtain rewards. These findings provide insight into mechanisms underlying normal and maladaptive avoidance behaviors and response inhibition.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
14.
Neuron ; 107(2): 351-367.e19, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433908

RESUMO

To advance the measurement of distributed neuronal population representations of targeted motor actions on single trials, we developed an optical method (COSMOS) for tracking neural activity in a largely uncharacterized spatiotemporal regime. COSMOS allowed simultaneous recording of neural dynamics at ∼30 Hz from over a thousand near-cellular resolution neuronal sources spread across the entire dorsal neocortex of awake, behaving mice during a three-option lick-to-target task. We identified spatially distributed neuronal population representations spanning the dorsal cortex that precisely encoded ongoing motor actions on single trials. Neuronal correlations measured at video rate using unaveraged, whole-session data had localized spatial structure, whereas trial-averaged data exhibited widespread correlations. Separable modes of neural activity encoded history-guided motor plans, with similar population dynamics in individual areas throughout cortex. These initial experiments illustrate how COSMOS enables investigation of large-scale cortical dynamics and that information about motor actions is widely shared between areas, potentially underlying distributed computations.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/instrumentação , Neuroimagem/métodos , Observação/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Condicionamento Operante , Craniotomia , Camundongos , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Neurônios , Optogenética/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2395-2404, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448943

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Menthol is a widely used tobacco constituent that has shown to enhance nicotine's reinforcing effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether injected menthol also alters nicotine's stimulus effects, we used a drug discrimination task. METHODS: A total of 57 adult Sprague-Dawley rats (28M, 29F) received 20 positive and 20 negative days (intermixed) of discrimination training. On positive days, rats received a group-specific menthol and nicotine injection (VEH + 0.1 NIC, 1 M + 0.1 NIC, 5 M + 0.1 NIC, VEH + 0.4 NIC, 1 M + 0.4 NIC, 5 M + 0.4 NIC; mg/kg) before eight 15-s cue light presentations (conditioned stimulus (CS)), each followed by 4-s sucrose access. On negative days, all rats were injected with vehicle and saline before eight non-reinforced CS presentations. Next, rats underwent generalization testing with 30 dose combinations of menthol and nicotine. The change in drug-mediated anticipatory goal tracking during the CS was calculated as a difference score (CS minus pre-CS responding). RESULTS: All groups readily acquired drug discrimination. However, difference scores for the 5M + 0.1 NIC group were lower for females. Additionally, females had lower scores for 0.05, 0.1, and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine generalization tests. The lowest nicotine dose discriminable from saline was 0.05 mg/kg for females but 0.025 mg/kg for males. Co-administration with 5 or 10 mg/kg menthol weakened discrimination performance between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg and between 0.1 and 0.05 mg/kg nicotine for 0.1 mg/kg nicotine training groups. CONCLUSIONS: Female rats that were trained with 0.1 mg/kg nicotine were more sensitive to menthol's modulatory effects on nicotine's stimulus effects. This highlights the importance of taking sex and training dose into account when evaluating the interoceptive stimulus effects of nicotine and menthol.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação/efeitos dos fármacos , Mentol/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Reforço Psicológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sacarose/administração & dosagem
16.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 32(2): 182-188, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-197256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aversive control techniques involve aversive stimuli to generate behavioral change. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of verbal aversive control by psychologists during the clinical interaction, combining respondent and operant explanations. METHOD: observational methodology is used to analyze 26 session recordings of three different cases of anxiety disorder, relationship problem and low mood problem (27h 32') carried out by two psychologists of the Therapeutic Institute of Madrid. The variables considered were psychologists' aversive and non-aversive verbalizations and clients' antitherapeutic verbalizations. RESULTS: there is a strong relationship between clients' antitherapeutic verbalizations and psychologist's aversive verbalizations, both potential punishments (aversive verbalizations contingent on the client's response) and aversive pairings. Additionally, the possible psychologists' aversive verbalizations are accompanied by other verbalizations aimed to induce clients' non-problematic behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This work opens a new way to an explanation of therapeutic change using learning processes (both respondent and operant conditioning) that take place through verbal interaction in clinical context


ANTECEDENTES: el término control aversivo se refiere a las situaciones en las que se genera un cambio conductual mediante el uso de estímulos que provocan algún tipo de malestar. En este trabajo analizamos el uso de verbalizaciones aversivas por parte del terapeuta durante la interacción clínica, combinando explicaciones pavlovianas y operantes. MÉTODO: mediante metodología observacional se analizaron 26 grabaciones de tres casos de ansiedad, problemas de pareja y bajo estado de ánimo (27h 32') tratados por dos terapeutas del Instituto Terapéutico de Madrid. Las variables consideradas fueron las verbalizaciones aversivas y no aversivas del terapeuta y las verbalizaciones antiterapéuticas del cliente. RESULTADOS: hay una fuerte correlación entre las verbalizaciones antiterapéuticas de los clientes y las verbalizaciones aversivas del terapeuta, tanto en forma de potenciales castigos (verbalizaciones aversivas contingentes a la respuesta del cliente) como de emparejamientos aversivos. Además, se comprueba que el posible control aversivo que ejerce el terapeuta se acompaña de otras acciones verbales encaminadas a desarrollar comportamientos no problemáticos en los clientes. CONCLUSIONES: trabajo preliminar que abre una nueva vía a la explicación del cambio terapéutico a partir de los procesos de aprendizaje (pavlovianos y operantes) que ocurren durante la interacción verbal en el contexto clínico


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Aversiva/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Condicionamento Clássico , Condicionamento Operante , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia
17.
Learn Behav ; 48(2): 195-207, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342285

RESUMO

In the midsession reversal task, choice of one stimulus (S1) is correct for the first half of each session and choice of the other stimulus (S2) is correct for the last half of each session. Although humans and rats develop very close to what has been called a win-stay/lose-shift response strategy, pigeons do not. Pigeons start choosing S2 before the reversal, making anticipatory errors, and they keep choosing S1 after the reversal, making perseverative errors. Research suggests that the pigeons are timing the reversal from the start of the session. However, making the reversal unpredictable does not discourage the pigeons from timing. Curiously, pigeons' accuracy improves if one decreases the value of the S2 stimulus relative to the S1 stimulus. Another form of asymmetry between S1 and S2 can be found by varying, over trials, the number of S1 or S2 stimuli. Counterintuitively, if the number of S2 stimuli varies, it results in a large increase in anticipatory errors but little increase in perseverative errors. However, if the number of S1 stimuli varies over trials, it results in a large increase in perseverative errors but no increase in anticipatory errors. These last two effects suggest that in the original midsession reversal task, the pigeons are learning to reject S2 during the first half of each session and learning to reject S1 during the last half of each session. These results suggest that reject learning may also play an important role in the learning of simple simultaneous discriminations.


Assuntos
Columbidae , Reversão de Aprendizagem , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Humanos , Ratos , Reforço Psicológico
18.
Neuron ; 106(5): 855-869.e8, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240599

RESUMO

Predictive learning exerts a powerful influence over choice between instrumental actions. Nevertheless, how this learning is encoded in a sufficiently stable manner to influence choices that can occur much later in time is unclear. Here, we report that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) encodes predictive learning and establishes the memory necessary for future choices by driving the accumulation of delta-opioid receptors (DOPRs) on the somatic membrane of cholinergic interneurons in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAc-S). We found that the BLA controls DOPR accumulation via its influence on substance P release in the NAc-S, and that although DOPR accumulation is not necessary for predictive learning per se, it is necessary for the influence of this learning on later choice between actions. This study uncovers, therefore, a novel GPCR-based form of memory that is established by predictive learning and is necessary for such learning to guide the selection and execution of specific actions.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Memória/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides delta/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Estriado Ventral
19.
Anim Cogn ; 23(4): 741-754, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303867

RESUMO

The easy-to-hard effect in perceptual learning shows that training with easier examples can facilitate initially difficult or impossible distinctions between very similar stimuli. This effect has been reported in humans and other species. We tested whether easy-to-hard training could facilitate visual discrimination in common goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish (n = 6) performed a two-alternative forced choice discrimination task, which consisted of simultaneously presenting two striped patterns at a constant distance away on the outside of the tank. Fish were required to approach and bite a porthole corresponding to one of the stimuli for a food reward. Half of the fish were randomly assigned to a training schedule where stimuli became more similar as training progressed. The rest were trained only on the most difficult to distinguish version of the stimuli. All fish received a similar total amount of training regardless of the assigned schedule. We also examined whether performance on the first training trial for a given day was related to overall performance. Contrary to our hypothesis, fish in the easy-to-hard group did not perform significantly better than those in the constant-hard group. However, performance was found to be significantly higher on days when the first trial was correct compared to days on which it was incorrect, regardless of the type of training schedule. The current results contribute to understanding individual differences in perceptual learning in fish, and are consistent with research in humans, and other species, reporting better learning after initial reward.


Assuntos
Carpa Dourada , Percepção Visual , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Discriminação Psicológica , Humanos , Aprendizagem
20.
Neuron ; 106(5): 778-788.e6, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259476

RESUMO

Postingestive nutrient sensing can induce food preferences. However, much less is known about the ability of postingestive signals to modulate food-seeking behaviors. Here we report a causal connection between postingestive sucrose sensing and vagus-mediated dopamine neuron activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), supporting food seeking. The activity of VTA dopamine neurons increases significantly after administration of intragastric sucrose, and deletion of the NMDA receptor in these neurons, which affects bursting and plasticity, abolishes lever pressing for postingestive sucrose delivery. Furthermore, lesions of the hepatic branch of the vagus nerve significantly impair postingestive-dependent VTA dopamine neuron activity and food seeking, whereas optogenetic stimulation of left vagus nerve neurons significantly increases VTA dopamine neuron activity. These data establish a necessary role of vagus-mediated dopamine neuron activity in postingestive-dependent food seeking, which is independent of taste signaling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Adoçantes Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante , Alimentos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Optogenética , Reforço Psicológico , Estômago , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética , Paladar , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia
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