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1.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): e477-e487, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002443

RESUMO

The use of total body irradiation as part of conditioning regimens for acute leukaemia is progressively declining because of concerns of late toxic effects and the introduction of radiation-free regimens. Total marrow irradiation and total marrow and lymphoid irradiation represent more targeted forms of radiotherapy compared with total body irradiation that have the potential to decrease toxicity and escalate the dose to the bone marrow for high-risk patients. We review the technological basis and the clinical development of total marrow irradiation and total marrow and lymphoid irradiation, highlighting both the possible advantages as well as the current roadblocks for widespread implementation among transplantation units. The exact role of total marrow irradiation or total marrow and lymphoid irradiation in new conditioning regimens seems dependent on its technological implementation, aiming to make the whole procedure less time consuming, more streamlined, and easier to integrate into the clinical workflow. We also foresee a role for computer-assisted planning, as a way to improve planning and delivery and to incorporate total marrow irradiation and total marrow and lymphoid irradiation in multi-centric phase 2-3 trials.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Medula Óssea/efeitos da radiação , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Irradiação Linfática , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Humanos , Irradiação Linfática/efeitos adversos , Doses de Radiação , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos
2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(8): 959-964, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908061

RESUMO

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a potentially life-threatening complication associated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Although prophylaxis and GVHD treatment using immunosuppressants are essential for a successful allo-SCT, profound immunosuppression could lead to an infection and/or the recurrence of malignant diseases. Recently, the concept of tissue tolerance has emerged. This concept has been identified as a means to suppress GVHD by relying on tissue-intrinsic mechanisms that are independent from those underlying immune tolerance. Thus, GVHD prophylaxis and treatments targeting the mechanisms that promote tissue tolerance could help suppress GVHD and maintain leukocyte-mediated immune responses against tumors and infectious pathogens. Epithelial regeneration from LGR5-positive intestinal stem cells and epithelial maintenance mediated by metabolites from the intestinal microbiota are representative mechanisms that promote tissue tolerance in the gut. However, these protective mechanisms are weakened by GVHD and conditioning regimens. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of acute GVHD and tissue-intrinsic mechanisms that promote tissue tolerance.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo
4.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(4): 1123-1126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in the treatment of Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). METHODS: The clinical data of 5 children with JMML who were treated with unrelated UCBT from October 2011 to July 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The age of onset for the five children (male) ranged from 0.4 to 5.0 years old, with a median age of 1.5 years old. All the patients received myeloablative conditioning regimen without ATG to whom cyclosporine A (CsA) with short-term mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was given for GVHD prophylaxis. RESULTS: Four children acquired engraftment. One patient received secondary haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of the failure in the first unrelated UCBT. Grade Ⅲ to Ⅳ aGVHD occurred in 2 cases and was controlled, and none of the patients developed cGVHD. Three cases achieved long-time disease free survival,and no patient relapsed. CONCLUSION: UCBT is an effective treatment for children with JMML.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue do Cordão Umbilical , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante
5.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 557-563, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810962

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of different doses of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in haplo-HSCT in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Methods: Malignant hematological patients treated at our hospital from March 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups as per three doses of ATG (6 mg/kg, 7.5 mg/kg, and 9 mg/kg) in the conditioning regimens. The transplant outcomes were compared in terms of the occurrence of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) , infection, and survival. Results: ①Total 288 patients were enrolled in the study, including 182 men and 106 women, with a median age of 18 (6-62) years. Total 110 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) , 128 with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) , 8 with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) , 28 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) , and 14 with mixed cell leukemia (MAL) . There were 159 patients in the ATG-6 group, 72 in the ATG-7.5 group, and 57 in the ATG-9 group. The median follow-up time of post transplantation was 14 (0.2-74) months. ②The incidence of neutrophil engraftment (96.9% , 97.2% , and 96.5% , respectively) and platelet engraftment (92.5% , 87.5% , and 86% , respectively) did not significantly differ among the ATG-6, ATG-7.5, and ATG-9 groups (P=0.972, P=0.276) . The incidence of grades 2-4 acute GVHD was 14.5% , 11.1% , and 8.8% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.493) , chronic GVHD incidence in the three group was 8.8% , 14.3% and 12.0% , respectively (P=0.493) . The infection rates of CMV and EBV in the ATG-9 group (77.2% and 12.5% ) were significantly higher than those in the ATG-6 (43.3% and 3.5% ) , and ATG -7.5 group (44.4% and 1.5% ) (P<0.001 and P=0.033, respectively) . ③Among the three groups, there were no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival [68.5% (95% CI 60.3% -77.9% ) , 60.1% (95% CI 48.3% -74.8% ) , 64.7% (95% CI 51.9% -80.7% ) ], cumulative incidences of relapse [34.6% (95% CI 34.3% -35.1% ) , 38.0% (95% CI 37.3% -38.7% ) , 20.6% (95% CI 20.0% -21.3% ) ], disease-free survival [53.3% (95% CI 44.9% -63.4% ) , 51.9% (95% CI 41% -65.8% ) , 63.9% (95% CI 51.9% -78.7% ) ] and non-relapse mortality [24.2% (95% CI 23.8% -24.5% ) , 26.0% (95% CI 25.4% -26.6% ) , 23.6% (95% CI 26.3% -28.2% ) ] (P=0.648, P=0.165, and P=0.486 and P=0.955) . Conclusion: Low dose (6 mg/kg) of rATG may increase the risk of grade Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD, and a high dose (9 mg/kg) of ATG could significantly increase the risk of CMV and EBV infection. Median dose (7.5 mg/kg) of ATG is expected to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe aGVHD and viral infections without increasing the mortality.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adolescente , Adulto , Soro Antilinfocitário , Criança , Feminino , Haploidia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2255-2263, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766934

RESUMO

We aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and effectiveness of the HLH-94/2004 regimens and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in pediatric patients with primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (pHLH) in China. A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with pHLH at Beijing Children's Hospital. PRF1 (34.2%) and UNC13D (31.6%) were the most common mutations in the pHLH. Thirty-eight patients were treated with the HLH-94/2004 regimens after diagnosis. Twenty-six patients (72.2%) responded to first-line treatment (complete response: 55.5%, partial response: 16.7%). The median survival time was 23 months. The overall survival (OS) rate at 3 years was 74.7%. There was no significant difference in the response rate (72% vs. 63.6%, P = 0.703) or 3-year OS (83.6% vs. 66.7%, P = 0.443) between the patients treated with the HLH-94 regimen and those treated with the HLH-2004 regimen. The incidences of all side effects in patients treated with the HLH-94 or HLH-2004 regimen were 32.0% and 18.2%, respectively (P = 0.394). Among 15 patients treated with HSCT, neither the preconditioning regimen nor the donor type affected patient prognosis (P = 0.205 and P = 0.161, respectively). The disease status (remission or nonremission) before preconditioning did not affect prognosis or the incidence of GVHD. Furthermore, a higher bilirubin level (≥ 30 µmol/L) was correlated with a poorer prognosis in pHLH patients (P = 0.026). The effectiveness rates of the HLH-94 and HLH-2004 regimens, chemotherapy, and HSCT were similar in pHLH patients. A bilirubin level ≥ 30 µmol/L might be an adverse prognostic factor in pHLH.


Assuntos
Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/epidemiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Prognóstico , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 41(6): 511-516, 2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654467

RESUMO

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) for adult-onset primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) . Method: A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the clinical data of 15 adult patients with primary HLH who received haplo-HSCT from January 2013 to October 2019 in Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Results: Among the 15 patients included in the study, ten were males and five were females, with a median age of 21 years old (18-52) . Eight of the patients had familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 2 (FHL-2) , four had FHL-3, one had Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS-2) , one had X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP-1) , and the other had XLP-2. The median time from HLH diagnosis to transplantation was 7 months (2-46 months) . Seven patients were treated with Bu/Cy condition regimen prior to transplantation. Meanwhile, the other eight cases were treated with TBI/Cy. The median concentration of mononuclear cell (MNC) infusion was 12.6 (9.2-20.3) ×10(8)/kg and CD34(+) cells was 4.91 (2.51-8.37) ×10(6)/kg. The median time of leukocyte engraftment was on day 13 following transplantation (10-23 days) , and the platelet engraftment was on day 12 (9-36) . Graft failure (GF) finally occurred in two patients (one primary GF and one secondary GF) . The cumulative incidence of acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) grades 2 to 4 was 71.4% (10/14) and chronic GVHD was 30.8% (4/13) , respectively. The five-year overall survival (OS) for all 15 cases of primary HLH was 65.5% (95% CI, 34.9%-73.3%) and the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 26.7% (4/15) . The five-year OS was 87.5% (95% CI, 38.7%-66.3%) in eight patients who received haplo-HSCT subsequent to initial therapy and 42.9% (95% CI, 8.5%-65.2%) in patients seven patients who needed salvage therapy prior to haplo-HSCT (χ(2)=2.387, P=0.122) . The five-year OS was 85.7% (95% CI, 50.4%-89.8%) in eight patients who achieved complete response before haplo-HSCT and 42.9% (95% CI, 6.4%-53.0%) in seven patients with partial response (χ(2)=3.185, P=0.074) . Conclusion: The results indicated that haplo-HSCT is a promising method for the treatment of primary HLH in adults.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102071, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717620

RESUMO

Haplo-identical transplant is being increasingly used in patients who do not have a readily available matched related or unrelated donor. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide's use due to its simplicity and documented efficacy has made this approach readily employable across diverse transplant centres across the globe. The outcomes of regimens used for conditioning in recipients of bone marrow are at times in variance to that from more commonly employed G-CSF mobilised peripheral stem cell (PBSC). This review highlights various conditioning regimens used in PBSC recipients, with emphasis on toxicities, practicalities and transplant related outcomes of relapse, non-relapse mortality and graft versus host disease.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/métodos , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Haplótipos , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/citologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transplante Homólogo
10.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e602-e610, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is a potentially life-saving treatment for individuals with HIV and haematological malignancies; challenges include identifying donors and maintaining antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objectives of our study were to investigate interventions to expand donor options and to prevent ART interruptions for patients with HIV in need of alloBMT. METHODS: This single-arm, interventional trial took place at the Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center (Baltimore, MD, USA). Individuals with HIV who were at least 18 years of age and referred for alloBMT for a standard clinical indication were eligible. The only exclusion criterion was a history of documented resistance to enfuvirtide. We used post-transplant cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis to expand donor options and an optimised ART strategy of avoiding pharmacoenhancers and adding subcutaneous enfuvirtide during post-transplant cyclophosphamide and during oral medication intolerance. Our primary outcome was the proportion of participants who maintained ART through day 60 after alloBMT. We measured the HIV latent reservoir using a quantitative viral outgrowth assay. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01836068. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2013, and August 27, 2015, nine patients who were referred for transplant provided consent. Two patients had relapsed malignancy before donor searches were initiated. Seven patients had suitable donors identified (two matched sibling, two matched unrelated, two haploidentical, and one single-antigen mismatched unrelated) and proceeded to alloBMT. All patients maintained ART through day 60 and required ART changes (median 1, range 1-3) in the first 90 days. One patient stopped ART and developed HIV rebound with grade 4 meningoencephalitis at day 146. Among six patients who underwent alloBMT and had longitudinal measurements available, the HIV latent reservoir was not detected post-alloBMT in four patients with more than 95% donor chimerism, consistent with a 2·06-2·54 log10 reduction in the HIV latent reservoir. In the two patients with less than 95% donor chimerism, the HIV latent reservoir remained stable. INTERPRETATION: By using post-transplant cyclophosphamide as GVHD prophylaxis, we successfully expanded alloBMT donor options for patients with HIV. Continuing ART with a regimen that includes enfuvirtide post-alloBMT was safe, but life-threatening viral rebound can occur with ART interruption. FUNDING: amfAR (the Foundation for AIDS Research), Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research, and National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Transplante de Medula Óssea/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
11.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(3): 742-747, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for treatment of acute leukemia in the tropical area. METHODS: Twelve acute leukemia patients who were underwent allo-HSCT from April 2013 to November 2018 in Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital were selected, including 5 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 7 case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Three cases received HLA matched sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 8 cases received haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 1 cases received partially mismatched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pretreatment regimen: 9 cases received modified BU/CY+ATG pretreatment regimen, 3 cases received BU/CY pretreatment regimen. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prevention regimen: all patients received cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil combined with short-term methotrexate regimen. The clinical efficacy of allo-HSCT in treatment of acute leukemia in the tropical area was analyzed by detecting hematopoietic reconstitution, GVHD, infection, relapse and survival after transplantation. RESULTS: All the 12 patients achieved granulocyte reconstruction and megakaryocyte reconstruction. The median time of granulocyte reconstruction was 11.5 (6-14) days, and the median time of megakaryocytic reconstruction was 12.5 (10-22) days. Within 100 days after transplantation, the acute GVHD occurved in 8 cases, including 6 cases of Ⅱ-Ⅳ degree acute GVHD and 2 cases of Ⅲ-Ⅳ degree acute GVHD, 11 cases survived more than 100 days after transplantation, and the chronic GVHD occurred in 1 case, which was mildly limited. Pulmonary infection occurred in 7 cases, cytomegaloviremia occurred in 6 cases, EB viremia occurred in 6 cases, and hemorrhagic cystitis occurred in 5 cases. 2 cases relapsed and eventually died, and the remaining 10 patients survived without disease until the date of follow-up. The median follow-up time was 4 (1-68) months, 83.3% (10/12) survived without disease, and 16.7% (2/12) relapsed. CONCLUSION: Allo-HSCT is an effective method for the treatment of acute leukemia in adults. Leukemia patients should be transplanted as soon as possible after remission. The incidence of pulmonary fungal infection in transplanted patients in tropics is high, therefore the prevention and treatment of fungal infection should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Homólogo
12.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 41(5): 373-378, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536133

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the efficacy of autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) with matched sibling donor (MSD) HSCT in Ph(+) ALL and provide a basis for the choice of transplantation method. Methods: We retrospectively investigated the outcomes of 78 adult patients with Ph(+) ALL who underwent auto-HSCT (n=31) and MSD-HSCT (n=47) in Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, CAMS & PUMC, from January 2008 to December 2017. The overall survival (OS) rate, leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate, cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) rate, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate, and the impact of achievement of complete molecular response (CMR) within 3 months and sustaining CMR up to transplantation (s3CMR) on transplantation method were explored. Results: The median time of neutrophil and platelet reconstitution in auto-HSCT and MSD-HSCT groups were 12 (10-29) days vs14 (11-24) days (P=0.006) and 17.5 (10-62) days vs 7 (10-33) days (P=0.794) , respectively. In the MSD-HSCT group, the incidence of Ⅱ-Ⅳ and Ⅲ-Ⅳ acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 27.7% (13/47) and 8.5% (4/47) , respectively. The incidence of limited and extensive chronic GVHD was 17.0% (8/47) and 12.8% (6/47) , respectively. The estimated CIR, NRM, LFS, and OS at 3 years were not significantly different between auto-HSCT and MSD-HSCT groups (P>0.05) . For 44 patients who achieved s3CMR, 3-year OS[ (84.0±8.6) % vs (78.0±8.7) %, P=0.612], LFS[ (70.3±10.3) % vs (68.2±10.1) %, P=0.970], CIR[ (24.9±10.0) % vs (14.4±8.0) %, P=0.286], and NRM[ (4.7±4.7) % vs (17.4±8.1) %, P=0.209] of the auto-HSCT and MSD-HSCT groups were not significantly different. However, for 34 patients who did not reach s3CMR, 3-year cumulative relapse rate of patients in the auto-HSCT group was significantly higher than MSD-HSCT group[ (80.0±14.7) % vs (39.6±10.9) %, P=0.057]. Conclusions: auto-HSCT with maintenance therapy after HSCT appears to be an attractive treatment option for patients with Ph(+) ALL especially for those with s3CMR maintained up to transplantation. For non-s3CMR patients, allogeneic transplantation may be more effective from lower relapse.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Humanos , Cromossomo Filadélfia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irmãos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Transplante Autólogo
13.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1863-1871, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556453

RESUMO

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). Only rabbit-ATG (r-ATG) and porcine-antilymphocyte globulin (p-ALG) are available in China, but the p-ALG-containing conditioning regimen for allo-HSCT in SAA has seldom been reported. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of 41 SAA patients receiving allo-HSCT with a p-ALG-containing conditioning regimen in our transplantation centre. All patients engrafted, and no death during conditioning was observed. The actuarial 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.1 ± 3.4%. The actuarial 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 85.0 ± 5.7%. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) predicted inferior OS (p < 0.05). The interval from diagnosis to transplantation for more than 100 days predicted an inferior DFS rate (p < 0.05) and a higher graft rejection/poor graft function (GR/PGF) rate (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the p-ALG-containing regimen showed satisfactory effects and safety in allo-HSCT for SAA patients. P-ALG could be a potential alternative preparation for r-ATG in SAA allo-HSCT.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Animais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suínos
14.
Ann Hematol ; 99(8): 1855-1862, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564196

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) represents the most beneficial treatment for patients with active relapsed/refractory (R/R) hematologic malignancies. Recently, sequential regimens combining debulking chemotherapy followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) have shown encouraging results for these patients. In this retrospective study, we report the extended results of a sequential regimen of clofarabine, cytosine arabinoside, and RIC in 131 adults with active R/R myeloid disease at transplant. Conditioning consisted of clofarabine (30 mg/m2/day) and cytosine arabinoside (1 g/m2/day) for 5 days, followed, after a rest of 3 days, by an RIC combining cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg) for 1 day, iv busulfan (3.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 days, and anti-thymocyte globulin (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 2 days. Between 2007 and 2016, 131 patients (males n = 75, median age: 52.6 years) were identified from the SFGM-TC registry. There were 111 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and 20 cases with myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative syndrome. Status at transplant was known for all but 4 patients and was primary refractory (n = 81) and 1st or 2nd relapse (n = 46). All patients received allo-SCT from a matched donor (sibling n = 64, unrelated n = 67). Engraftment was observed in 105/122 (86%) evaluable cases and 63% of the patients achieved complete remission (CR) after transplant. The 1-year overall survival, disease-free survival, relapse incidence, non-relapse mortality, and graft-versus-host disease-free/relapse-free survival were 39.2%, 28.1%, 41.0%, 30.8%, and 22.2%, respectively. This study confirms that this sequential clofarabine-based regimen provides a high CR rate in this critical population, although relapse remains a matter of concern.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos , Clofarabina/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 1979-1988, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594216

RESUMO

The FLAMSA reduced intensity (RIC) concept, also known as "sequential therapy", is a conceptual platform for the treatment of leukemia separated in several parts: induction therapy, a sequence of antileukemic and immunosuppressive conditioning for allogeneic stem cell transplantation, and immune restitution supported by donor lymphocyte transfusions. The antileukemic part consists of fludarabine, cytosine arabinoside, and amsacrine (FLAMSA); non-cross reactive agents like fludarabine and amsacrine have been successfully used in cases of refractoriness and relapse. Immunosuppressive conditioning and transplantation follow after only 3 days of rest. This way, the toxicity of allogeneic transplantation could be reduced and the anti-leukemia effects by using allogeneic immune cells could be optimized. This review summarizes available data on efficacy and toxicity of this approach. Further, possible strategies for improvements are discussed in order to provide better chances for elderly and frail patients and patients with advanced and high-risk disease. Among others, several new agents are available that target molecular changes of leukemia for induction of remission and allow for bridging the time after transplantation until adoptive immunotherapy becomes safe and effective.


Assuntos
Amsacrina/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Citarabina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia/terapia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/tendências , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Previsões , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/tendências , Leucemia/imunologia , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/tendências , Vidarabina/administração & dosagem
17.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(6): 389-403, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525137

RESUMO

The combination of treosulfan with fludarabine (Treo-Flu) is one of the new megatherapies prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Preclinical studies have documented the myeloablative and myelosuppressive effects of treosulfan, in addition to its immunosuppressive and antimalignant activities. Treosulfan pharmacokinetics involves nonenzymatic activation and generation of epoxides as active compounds. In the clinical studies, the most common adverse effects of Treo-Flu were grade 4 hematologic toxicities with leukopenia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Among the most common nonhematologic toxicities, grade 2 or lower mucositis was usually reported. One of the advantages of treosulfan-based conditioning regimens is their good safety profile, especially the low risk of hepatic venoocclusive disease. Additional drugs reported in combination with the Treo-Flu backbone are thiotepa and melphalan. Treo-Flu alone and in multiple drug combinations can be successfully and safely combined with posttransplant cyclophosphamide immunosuppression for unma¬nipulated haploidentical transplantations. On the basis of chimerism studies, the Treo-Flu megatherapy lacks full myeloablative potential, but the profound myelosuppression with donor cell-mediated alloreactivity can result in full donor chimerism in the majority of transplant recipients. The clinical studies of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation show high heterogeneity, but the safety and feasibility of the Treo-Flu regimen are evident and support its place among reduced-intensity protocols.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Bussulfano/efeitos adversos , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Vidarabina/efeitos adversos , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico
19.
Ann Hematol ; 99(6): 1351-1360, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363416

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents the most common indication for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This study aimed to address the implementation status of allogeneic HCT for adults with AML in Japan and to provide a comprehensive overview of post-transplant outcomes. For this purpose, we analyzed data of 15,186 patients undergoing allogeneic HCT between 1992 and 2016 who were consecutively reported to the Japanese nationwide transplantation registry. The constant increase in the annual number of transplantations was clearly attributable to the growth of unrelated transplantation, and umbilical cord blood transplantation currently accounts for one-third of all allogeneic HCTs. The proportion of older patients has increased steadily since 2000, approximately, in parallel with the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning. The probability of overall survival (OS) was estimated at 41% (95% confidence interval (CI), 40-42%) for the entire cohort, 56% (95% CI, 55-57%) for patients transplanted in complete remission (CR), and 22% (95% CI, 21-23%) for those transplanted in non-CR. Multivariate analysis identified age, sex, performance status, disease status, cytogenetic risk, donor type, graft source, sex mismatch between the donor and the recipient, and year of transplantation as factors significantly associated with OS. These findings represent the real-world data in Japan, showing the changes in transplantation practice and a detailed estimation of post-transplant outcomes.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/tendências , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/tendências , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(7): e161-e166, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389803

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing barriers to the collection and transport of donor cells, it is often necessary to collect and cryopreserve grafts before initiation of transplantation conditioning. The effect on transplantation outcomes in nonmalignant disease is unknown. This analysis examined the effect of cryopreservation of related and unrelated donor grafts for transplantation for severe aplastic anemia in the United States during 2013 to 2019. Included are 52 recipients of cryopreserved grafts who were matched for age, donor type, and graft type to 194 recipients who received noncryopreserved grafts. Marginal Cox regression models were built to study the effect of cryopreservation and other risk factors associated with outcomes. We recorded higher 1-year rates of graft failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 4.35; P = .01) and of 1-year overall mortality (HR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.11; P = .0008) after transplantation of cryopreserved compared with noncryopreserved grafts, with adjustment for sex, performance score, comorbidity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, and ABO blood group match. The incidence of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease did not differ between the 2 groups. Adjusted probabilities of 1-year survival were 73% (95% CI, 60% to 84%) in the cryopreserved graft group and 91% (95% CI, 86% to 94%) in the noncryopreserved graft group. These data support the use of noncryopreserved grafts whenever possible in patients with severe aplastic anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Transplante de Medula Óssea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/imunologia , Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Anemia Aplástica/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Irmãos , Análise de Sobrevida , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Doadores não Relacionados
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