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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4343, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859940

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA), primarily characterized by articular cartilage destruction, is the most common form of age-related degenerative whole-joint disease. No disease-modifying treatments for OA are currently available. Although OA is primarily characterized by cartilage destruction, our understanding of the processes controlling OA progression is poor. Here, we report the association of OA with increased levels of osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), an immunoglobulin-like collagen-recognition receptor. In mice, OSCAR deletion abrogates OA manifestations, such as articular cartilage destruction, subchondral bone sclerosis, and hyaline cartilage loss. These effects are a result of decreased chondrocyte apoptosis, which is caused by the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in induced OA. Treatments with human OSCAR-Fc fusion protein attenuates OA pathogenesis caused by experimental OA. Thus, this work highlights the function of OSCAR as a catabolic regulator of OA pathogenesis, indicating that OSCAR blockade is a potential therapy for OA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/patologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3642, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686688

RESUMO

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral nerve entrapment syndrome, affecting a large proportion of the general population. Genetic susceptibility has been implicated in CTS, but the causative genes remain elusive. Here, we report the identification of two mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) that segregate with CTS in two large families with or without multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Both mutations impair the secretion of COMP by tenocytes, but the mutation associated with MED also perturbs its secretion in chondrocytes. Further functional characterization of the CTS-specific mutation reveals similar histological and molecular changes of tendons/ligaments in patients' biopsies and the mouse models. The mutant COMP fails to oligomerize properly and is trapped in the ER, resulting in ER stress-induced unfolded protein response and cell death, leading to inflammation, progressive fibrosis and cell composition change in tendons/ligaments. The extracellular matrix (ECM) organization is also altered. Our studies uncover a previously unrecognized mechanism in CTS pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem , Animais , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/genética , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/metabolismo , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/patologia , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Ligamentos/citologia , Ligamentos/patologia , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Tendões/citologia , Tendões/patologia , Tenócitos/patologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3427, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647171

RESUMO

The contribution of inflammation to the chronic joint disease osteoarthritis (OA) is unclear, and this lack of clarity is detrimental to efforts to identify therapeutic targets. Here we show that chondrocytes under inflammatory conditions undergo a metabolic shift that is regulated by NF-κB activation, leading to reprogramming of cell metabolism towards glycolysis and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Inflammation and metabolism can reciprocally modulate each other to regulate cartilage degradation. LDHA binds to NADH and promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce catabolic changes through stabilization of IκB-ζ, a critical pro-inflammatory mediator in chondrocytes. IκB-ζ is regulated bi-modally at the stages of transcription and protein degradation. Overall, this work highlights the function of NF-κB activity in the OA joint as well as a ROS promoting function for LDHA and identifies LDHA as a potential therapeutic target for OA treatment.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/metabolismo , Lactato Desidrogenase 5/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/patologia , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NAD/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia
4.
Life Sci ; 258: 118095, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679142

RESUMO

AIMS: This study focused on investigating the potential role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) lysyl oxidase like 1 antisense RNA 1 (LOXL1-AS1) in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR assay was applied to detect gene expression, while western blot was performed to measure levels of apoptosis-related proteins. CCK-8, colony formation and TUNEL assays were conducted to explore the functional role of LOXL1-AS1 in OA. ChIP assay was utilized to assess the affinity between JunD proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (JUND) and LOXL1-AS1 promoter. Mechanism experiments were implemented to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of LOXL1-AS1. KEY FINDINGS: LOXL1-AS1 was up-regulated in OA cartilage tissues. Silencing LOXL1-AS1 hampered proliferation and inflammation, yet promoting apoptosis in chondrocytes. LOXL1-AS1 was transcriptionally activated by JUND1. LOXL1-AS1 sequestered miR-423-5p and abolished miR-423-5p-mediated repression on lysine demethylase 5C (KDM5C), thus promoted the development of OA. SIGNIFICANCE: LncRNA LOXL1-AS1 is transcriptionally activated by JUND and facilitates the proliferation and inflammation of chondrocytes via elevating miR-423-5p-mediated KDM5C in OA, which may provide potential therapeutic target for OA.


Assuntos
Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Apoptose/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proliferação de Células/genética , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Inativação Gênica , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
5.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716395

RESUMO

Autophagy is a central mechanism to regulate homeostasis. Alterations of autophagy contribute to aging-related diseases. Phenotypic methods to identify regulators of autophagy could be used for the identification of novel therapeutics. This article describes a cell-based imaging screening workflow developed to monitor autophagic flux using LC3 as a reporter of autophagic flux (mCherry-EGFP-LC3B) in human chondrocytes. Data acquisition is performed using an automated High Content Imaging Screening System microscope. An algorithm-based automated image analysis protocol was developed and validated to identify molecules activating autophagic flux. Critical steps, explanatory notes, and improvements over current autophagy monitoring protocols are reported. Physiologically relevant phenotypic screening approaches to target hallmarks of aging can facilitate more effective drug discovery strategies for age-related musculoskeletal diseases.


Assuntos
Autofagia/fisiologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Condrócitos/patologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Osteoartrite/patologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/farmacologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574164

RESUMO

Chondrocytes, comparable to many cells from the connective tissue, dedifferentiate and end up in a similar fibroblastoid cell type, marked by the loss of the specific expression pattern. Here, chondrocytes isolated from osteoarthritic (OA) patients were investigated. The OA chondrocytes used in this work were not affected by the loss of specific gene expression upon cell culture. The mRNA levels of known cartilage markers, such as SOX5, SOX6, SOX9, aggrecan and proteoglycan 4, remained unchanged. Since chondrocytes from OA and healthy tissue show different DNA methylation patterns, the underlying mechanisms of cartilage marker maintenance were investigated with a focus on the epigenetic modification by DNA methylation. The treatment of dedifferentiated chondrocytes with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) displayed no considerable impact on the maintenance of marker gene expression observed in the dedifferentiated state, while the chondrogenic differentiation capacity was compromised. On the other hand, the pre-cultivation with 5-aza-dC improved the osteogenesis and adipogenesis of OA chondrocytes. Contradictory to these effects, the DNA methylation levels were not reduced after treatment for four weeks with 1 µM 5-aza-dC. In conclusion, 5-aza-dC affects the differentiation capacity of OA chondrocytes, while the global DNA methylation level remains stable. Furthermore, dedifferentiated chondrocytes isolated from late-stage OA patients represent a reliable cell source for in vitro studies and disease models without the need for additional alterations.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/patologia , Decitabina/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/genética , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/genética
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3771-3790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547027

RESUMO

Introduction: Rapamycin has been considered as a potential treatment for osteoarthritis (OA). Drug carriers fabricated from liposomes can prolong the effects of drugs and reduce side effects of drugs. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been found to possess anti-OA effects. Materials and Methods: The anti-osteoarthritic effects of liposome-encapsulated rapamycin (L-rapa) combined with LIPUS were examined by culture of normal and OA chondrocytes in alginate beads and further validated in OA prone Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. Results: L-rapa with LIPUS largely up-regulated aggrecan and type II collagen mRNA in human OA chondrocytes (HOACs). L-rapa with LIPUS caused significant enhancement in proteoglycan and type II collagen production in HOACs. Large decreases in both MMP-13 and IL-6 proteins were found in the HOACs exposed to L-rapa with LIPUS. Intra-articular injection of 40 µL L-rapa at both 5 µM and 50 µM twice a week combined with LIPUS thrice a week for 8 weeks significantly increased GAGs and type II collagen in the cartilage of knee. Results on OARSI score showed that intra-articular injection of 5 µM L-rapa with LIPUS displayed the greatest anti-OA effects. Immunohistochemistry revealed that L-rapa with or without LIPUS predominantly reduced MMP-13 in vivo. The values of complete blood count and serum biochemical examinations remained in the normal ranges after the injections with or without LIPUS. These data indicated that intra-articular injection of L-rapa collaborated with LIPUS is not only effective against OA but a safe OA therapy. Conclusion: Taken together, L-rapa combined with LIPUS possessed the most consistently and effectively anabolic and anti-catabolic effects in HOACs and the spontaneous OA guinea pigs. This study evidently revealed that liposome-encapsulation collaborated with LIPUS is able to reduce the effective dose and administration frequency of rapamycin and further stably reinforce its therapeutic actions against OA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/terapia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/patologia , Condrócitos/efeitos da radiação , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cobaias , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/sangue , Osteoartrite/patologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Sirolimo/farmacologia
8.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510478

RESUMO

Biomechanical properties of cells and tissues not only regulate their shape and function but are also crucial for maintaining their vitality. Changes in elasticity can propagate or trigger the onset of major diseases like cancer or osteoarthritis (OA). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a strong tool to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the biomechanical properties of specific biological target structures on a microscopic scale, measuring forces in a range from as small as the piconewton to the micronewton. Biomechanical properties are of special importance in musculoskeletal tissues, which are subjected to high levels of strain. OA as a degenerative disease of the cartilage results in the disruption of the pericellular matrix (PCM) and the spatial rearrangement of the chondrocytes embedded in their extracellular matrix (ECM). Disruption in PCM and ECM has been associated with changes in the biomechanical properties of cartilage. In the present study we used AFM to quantify these changes in relation to the specific spatial pattern changes of the chondrocytes. With each pattern change, significant changes in elasticity were observed for both the PCM and ECM. Measuring the local elasticity thus allows for drawing direct conclusions about the degree of local tissue degeneration in OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/patologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Osteoartrite/patologia , Elasticidade , Humanos
9.
Life Sci ; 253: 117750, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380078

RESUMO

AIM: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the main cause of disability and joint replacement surgery in the elderly. As a crucial cell survival mechanism, autophagy has been reported to decrease in OA. PHF23 is a new autophagy inhibitor which was first reported by us previously. This study aimed to explore the anti-autophagic mechanism of PHF23 to make it a possible therapeutic target of OA. MAIN METHOD: Lentiviral vectors specific to PHF23 were used on chondrocytes (C28/I2) to establish PHF23 overexpressed or knockdown stable cell strains. Interleukin (IL)-1ß (10 ng/mL) and chloroquine (CQ, 25 uM) were used as an inducer of OA and inhibitor of lysosome, respectively. Autophagy was evaluated by autophagosome formation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blot analysis of P62 and LC3B on different groups of cells. Effects of PHF23 on OA were evaluated by collagen II immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis of OA-associated proteins MMP13 and ADAMTS5. Effects of PHF23 on AMPK and mTOR/S6K pathways and mitophagy were determined by western blot analysis. KEY FINDINGS: Knockdown of PHF23 enhanced IL-1ß-induced autophagy, while overexpression of PHF23 exerted the opposite effect. Knockdown of PHF23 protected chondrocytes against IL-1ß-induced OA by decreasing the levels of OA-associated proteins and increasing expression of Collagen II. Knockdown of PHF23 also increased mitophagy level and altered the phosphorylation levels of AMPK, mTOR, and S6K. SIGNIFICANCE: PHF23 downregulates autophagy, mitophagy in IL-1ß-induced OA-like chondrocytes and alters the activities of AMPK and mTOR/S6K, which suggests that PHF23 may be a possible therapeutic target for OA.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Condrócitos/patologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
10.
Am J Pathol ; 190(8): 1701-1712, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416098

RESUMO

Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) is critical in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases through driving inflammatory cascades. However, the role of IL-17 in osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood. Tumor necrosis factor-receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a receptor proximal negative regulator of IL-17 signaling. It remains unclear whether TRAF3 exerts regulatory effects on cartilage degradation and contributes to the pathogenesis of OA. In this study, we found that TRAF3 notably suppressed IL-17-induced NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and, subsequently, the production of matrix-degrading enzymes. TRAF3 depletion enhanced IL-17 signaling, along with increased matrix-degrading enzyme production. In vivo, cartilage destruction caused by surgery-induced OA was alleviated markedly both in 1l17a-deficient mice and in TRAF3 transgenic mice. In contrast, silencing TRAF3 through adenoviruses worsened cartilage degradation in experimental OA. Moreover, the destructive effect of IL-17 on cartilage was abolished in TRAF3 transgenic mice in an IL-17 intra-articular injection animal model. Similarly, genetic deletion of IL-17 blocked TRAF3 knockdown-mediated promotion of cartilage destruction, suggesting that the protective effect of TRAF3 on cartilage is mediated by its suppression of IL-17 signaling. Collectively, our results suggest that TRAF3 negatively regulates IL-17-mediated cartilage degradation and pathogenesis of OA, and may serve as a potential new therapy target for OA.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/metabolismo , Animais , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Fator 3 Associado a Receptor de TNF/genética
11.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399188

RESUMO

Cartilage comprises a single cell type, the chondrocyte, embedded in a highly complex extracellular matrix. Disruption to the cartilage growth plate leads to reduced bone growth and results in a clinically diverse group of conditions known as genetic skeletal diseases (GSDs). Similarly, long-term degradation of articular cartilage can lead to osteoarthritis (OA), a disease characterised by joint pain and stiffness. As professionally secreting cells, chondrocytes are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and this has been identified as a core disease mechanism in a group of clinically and pathologically related GSDs. If unresolved, ER stress can lead to chondrocyte cell death. Recent interest has focused on ER stress as a druggable target for GSDs and this has led to the first clinical trial for a GSD by repurposing an antiepileptic drug. Interestingly, ER stress markers have also been associated with OA in multiple cell and animal models and there is increasing interest in it as a possible therapeutic target for treatment. In summary, chondrocyte ER stress has been identified as a core disease mechanism in GSDs and as a contributory factor in OA. Thus, chondrocyte ER stress is a unifying factor for both common and rare cartilage-related diseases and holds promise as a novel therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/patologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Lâmina de Crescimento/patologia , Osteoartrite/patologia
12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 975-984, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Calcification of cartilage with basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals is a common phenomenon during osteoarthritis (OA). It is directly linked to the severity of the disease and known to be associated to hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. One morphogen regulating hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation is Wnt3a. METHODS: Calcification and sulfation of extracellular matrix of the cartilage was analysed over a time course from 6 to 22 weeks in mice and different OA grades of human cartilage. Wnt3a and ß-catenin was stained in human and murine cartilage. Expression of sulfation modulating enzymes (HS2St1, HS6St1) was analysed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The influence of BCP crystals on the chondrocyte phenotype was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR for the marker genes Axin2, Sox9, Col2, MMP13, ColX and Aggrecan. Using western blot for ß-catenin and pLRP6 we investigated the activation of Wnt signalling. The binding capacity of BCP for Wnt3a was analysed using immunohistochemical staining and western blot. RESULTS: Here, we report that pericellular matrix sulfation is increased in human and murine OA. Wnt3a co-localised with heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes in OA cartilage, in which canonical Wnt signalling was activated. In vitro, BCP crystals physically bound to Wnt3a. Interestingly, BCP crystals were sufficient to induce canonical Wnt signalling as assessed by phosphorylation of LRP6 and stabilisation of ß-catenin, and to induce a hypertrophic shift of the chondrocyte phenotype. CONCLUSION: Consequently, our data identify BCP crystals as a concentrating factor for Wnt3a in the pericellular matrix and an inducer of chondrocyte hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Condrócitos/patologia , Osteoartrite/genética , Proteína Wnt3A/metabolismo , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/citologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Camundongos , Osteoartrite/patologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
13.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449702

RESUMO

One of the most prevalent joint disorders in the United States, osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by progressive degeneration of articular cartilage, primarily in the hip and knee joints, which results in significant impacts on patient mobility and quality of life. To date, there are no existing curative therapies for OA able to slow down or inhibit cartilage degeneration. Presently, there is an extensive body of ongoing research to understand OA pathology and discover novel therapeutic approaches or agents that can efficiently slow down, stop, or even reverse OA. Thus, it is crucial to have a quantitative and reproducible approach to accurately evaluate OA-associated pathological changes in the joint cartilage, synovium, and subchondral bone. Currently, OA severity and progression are primarily assessed using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) or Mankin scoring systems. In spite of the importance of these scoring systems, they are semiquantitative and can be influenced by user subjectivity. More importantly, they fail to accurately evaluate subtle, yet important, changes in the cartilage during the early disease states or early treatment phases. The protocol we describe here uses a computerized and semiautomated histomorphometric software system to establish a standardized, rigorous, and reproducible quantitative methodology for the evaluation of joint changes in OA. This protocol presents a powerful addition to the existing systems and allows for more efficient detection of pathological changes in the joint.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/patologia , Osteoartrite/cirurgia , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Calibragem , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Contagem de Células , Condrócitos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Qualidade de Vida , Padrões de Referência , Software , Coloração e Rotulagem , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Tíbia/patologia
14.
Life Sci ; 253: 117685, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315726

RESUMO

AIMS: Cumulative evidence suggests that long-chain non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aimed to explore the regulatory role and related mechanisms of HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in OA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The OA mouse model was constructed by the medial meniscus (DMM) method, and Interleukin (IL)-1ß-induced chondrocytes were used to simulate OA in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: Results found that HOTAIR was significantly up-regulated in articular cartilage tissues of OA mice and IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes, accompanied by down-regulation of miR-20b and increased expression of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). HOTAIR silencing improved cartilage tissue damage in OA mice, and promoted the expression of collagen II and aggrecan in cartilage tissue, while inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-13 and ADAMTS-5. Overexpression of HOTAIR inhibited the proliferation of IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes and promoted apoptosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, whereas the effect of HOTAIR knockdown was reversed. Bioinformatics software and luciferase reporter experiments confirmed that HOTAIR could negatively regulate miR-20b, and PTEN was a target gene of miR-20b. An increase in PTEN expression induced by HOTAIR overexpression could be reversed by the introduction of miR-20b mimic. HOTAIR overexpression significantly reversed miR-20 mimic-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and ECM degradation in IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes, whereas the introduction of si-HOTAIR eliminated anti-miR-20b-mediated apoptosis and ECM degradation. SIGNIFICANCE: HOTAIR can participate in OA by promoting chondrocyte apoptosis and ECM degradation, which may be related to its targeted regulation of miR-20b/PTEN axis.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Experimental/fisiopatologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteoartrite/genética
15.
Life Sci ; 253: 117694, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325132

RESUMO

AIMS: Chondrocyte degeneration is the main cause of osteoarthritis (OA) and increased evidence suggests that miRNAs could have vital roles in the pathology of various cartilage illnesses. miR-1236 has been found to contribute to inflammation in diseases such as pneumonia. However, the exact role of miR-1236 in OA is poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: H&E staining and saffron fixation experiments were employed to determine OA tissues. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression levels of miR-1236 and PIK3R3. Western blot was performed to detect the expression levels of proteins. Luciferase reporter assays were utilized to investigate the interaction between miR-1236 and PIK3R3. Cell counting assays and AO/EB were used to quantify cell growth and apoptosis. KEY FINDINGS: miR-1236 was up-regulated in OA knee cartilage compared to normal cartilage. Up-regulated expression of miR-1236 suppressed cell proliferation as well as induced apoptosis in chondrocytes. Bioinformatics identified PIK3R3 as a target of miR-1236. Co-transfection with miR-1236 and PIK3R3 could reverse cell apoptosis induced by the miR-1236 mimic. SIGNIFICANCE: These data enhance our understanding on the role of miR-1236 in OA and identifies miR-1236 as a potential biomarker or possible treatment target within OA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Condrócitos/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Cartilagem/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética , Regulação para Cima
16.
Life Sci ; 253: 117718, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343998

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to explore the functions of miR-455-3p, PTEN, and PI3K/AKT pathway in osteoarthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the human bone marrow stem cell (BMSC), healthy chondrocytes, osteoarthritis chondrocytes (OA), and the IL-1ß/TNF-α-treated chondrocyte model to explore the relationship between miR-455-3p and PTEN. Mimic or inhibitor was used to transfect chondrocytes to determine whether miR-455-3p can regulate PTEN and influence COL2A1 and MMP13. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. A luciferase report was applied to verify the targeted binding. KO mice were applied to investigate PTEN and pAKT expression and the effect on chondrocytes in vivo. KEY FINDINGS: MiR-455-3p and PTEN were reverse in chondrogenesis and healthy cartilage versus OA cartilage. Similar trends were noted in IL-1ß model. PTEN and MMP13 decreased and COL2A1 increased after overexpressing miR-455-3p, whereas the inhibition showed opposite results. Flow cytometry showed that miR-455-3p could reduce the apoptosis of chondrocytes. The results of luciferase revealed that miR-455-3p could affect fluorescence activity of PTEN by targeting its 3'-UTR. Finally, we found a marked increased in the expression of PTEN in KO mice relative to WT mice, while pAKT levels decreased. SIGNIFICANCE: It can be supported that miR-455-3p can reduce the apoptosis of chondrocytes and alleviate OA through regulating PI3K/AKT pathway, which may be expected to be a target for the treatment of osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Condrócitos/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/patologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Osteoartrite/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2379-2390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308389

RESUMO

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of joint disease associated with cartilage breakdown. However, the role played by mitochondrial dysfunction in OA remains inadequately understood. Therefore, we investigated the role played by p66shc during oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in OA and the effects of p66shc downregulation on OA progression. Methods: Monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), which is commonly used to generate OA animal models, inhibits glycolysis and biosynthetic processes in chondrocytes, eventually causing cell death. To observe the effects of MIA and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanoparticles, histological analysis, immunohistochemistry, micro-CT, mechanical paw withdrawal thresholds, quantitative PCR, and measurement of oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate were conducted. Results: p-p66shc was highly expressed in cartilage from OA patients and rats with MIA-induced OA. MIA caused mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the inhibition of p66shc phosphorylation attenuated MIA-induced ROS production in human chondrocytes. Inhibition of p66shc by PLGA-based nanoparticles-delivered siRNA ameliorated pain behavior, cartilage damage, and inflammatory cytokine production in the knee joints of MIA-induced OA rats. Conclusion: p66shc is involved in cartilage degeneration in OA. By delivering p66shc-siRNA-loaded nanoparticles into the knee joints with OA, mitochondrial dysfunction-induced cartilage damage can be significantly decreased. Thus, p66shc siRNA PLGA nanoparticles may be a promising option for the treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/patologia , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Proteína 1 de Transformação que Contém Domínio 2 de Homologia de Src/genética , Proteína 1 de Transformação que Contém Domínio 2 de Homologia de Src/metabolismo , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Condrócitos/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ácido Iodoacético/toxicidade , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Osteoartrite/patologia , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Libyan J Med ; 15(1): 1753943, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281500

RESUMO

Knee Osteoarthritis is a considerable public health concern, both in terms of life quality and treatment financial impacts. To investigate this disease, animal models are deemed a promising alternative. In fact, although a perfect model is generally farfetched, the creation of models that simulate human disease as accurately as possible remains an important research stake. This study aims to highlight the usefulness of the model induced by injected Mono-Iodo-Acetate and to standardize it for the rabbit species. Osteoarthritis was induced by an infra-patellar injection of 0.2 ml of an MIA solution in the left knee of 24 female New Zealand rabbits. The right knee served as a control by receiving an injection of physiological serum. The rabbits were divided into 4 groups of 6 individuals each according to the dose of MIA received per knee. All rabbits were euthanized 30 days after the injection. After sacrifice, the knees were carefully dissected and macroscopic and microscopic scores of cartilage, meniscal and synovial lesions were attributed to each group. Our study followed the laboratory animal care and management guideline published in 2017 by the Canadian Council of Animal Care. The control knees of all rabbits showed no macroscopic or microscopic lesions. The macroscopic lesions: osteophytes, meniscal lesions, fibrillation and erosion of the cartilage and microscopic lesions: disorganization of the chondrocytes, decrease in proteoglycans and synovial inflammation clinically diagnosed in human pathology were all detected and were similarly reproducible among the knees of the same group. Through this work, we highlighted the merits of the arthritis model induced by MIA, namely its simulation of several aspects of human pathology. Further advantages are low cost, speed, reproducibility. This model notably avoids delicate and risky surgical operations.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Iodoacético/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Bolsa Sinovial/patologia , Bolsa Sinovial/ultraestrutura , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cartilagem/patologia , Cartilagem/ultraestrutura , Condrócitos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Ácido Iodoacético/efeitos adversos , Menisco/patologia , Menisco/ultraestrutura , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/veterinária , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Coelhos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(8): 725-732, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy by light-emitting diode on osteoarthritis treatment in the knees of rats. DESIGN: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: OAC: animals subjected to induction of osteoarthritis, without therapeutic intervention and the group OAL: animals subjected to induction of osteoarthritis treated with light-emitting diode photobiomodulation therapy (850 nm, 200 mW, 6 J). RESULTS: The results of gait analysis showed no statistical difference between the groups. The histological findings showed that the OAL group presented abnormal chondrocyte orientation, yet with less irregularities along fibrillation and the joint tissue. Thus, it presented a lower degenerative process when evaluated by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Likewise, in the immunohistochemical analysis, the OAL group showed higher collagen 2 and transforming growth factor ß immunoexpression when compared with the OAC group. CONCLUSIONS: Given the above, it is possible to suggest that the photobiomodulation therapy by light-emitting diode had positive effects on the expression of extracellular matrix proteins responsible for synthesis of articular tissue.


Assuntos
Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Animais , Condrócitos/patologia , Colágeno Tipo II/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Análise da Marcha , Imuno-Histoquímica , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Ratos Wistar , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/metabolismo , Joelho de Quadrúpedes/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(5): 635-645, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aim to determine the effect of metformin on osteoarthritis (OA) development and progression. METHODS: Destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery was performed in 10-week-old wild type and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α1 knockout (KO) mice. Metformin (4 mg/day in drinking water) was given, commencing either 2 weeks before or 2 weeks after DMM surgery. Mice were sacrificed 6 and 12 weeks after DMM surgery. OA phenotype was analysed by micro-computerised tomography (µCT), histology and pain-related behaviour tests. AMPKα1 (catalytic alpha subunit of AMPK) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. The OA phenotype was also determined by µCT and MRI in non-human primates. RESULTS: Metformin upregulated phosphorylated and total AMPK expression in articular cartilage tissue. Mild and more severe cartilage degeneration was observed at 6 and 12 weeks after DMM surgery, evidenced by markedly increased Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores, as well as reduced cartilage areas. The administration of metformin, commencing either before or after DMM surgery, caused significant reduction in cartilage degradation. Prominent synovial hyperplasia and osteophyte formation were observed at both 6 and 12 weeks after DMM surgery; these were significantly inhibited by treatment with metformin either before or after DMM surgery. The protective effects of metformin on OA development were not observed in AMPKα1 KO mice, suggesting that the chondroprotective effect of metformin is mediated by AMPK signalling. In addition, we demonstrated that treatment with metformin could also protect from OA progression in a partial medial meniscectomy animal model in non-human primates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that metformin, administered shortly after joint injury, can limit OA development and progression in injury-induced OA animal models.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metformina/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Regulação para Cima/genética , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Meniscos Tibiais/patologia , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Obesos , Osteoartrite/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética
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