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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200015, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study associated factors with loss productivity in people involved road traffic accidents (RTA). METHODS: The population based cohort study was conducted in Jequié, Brazil between 2013 to 2015. The instrument for interview was used in people involved in RTA and interview in four months. Individuals, occupational, health conditions, injury and support variables were used for bivariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence was loss productivity was 61.1% and density incidence of 7.45 cases/100 person-month. Multivariate analysis showed association for injury (IDR = 4.23; 95%CI = 2.90 - 6.17) and vehicle used with work instrument (IDR = 2.80; 95%CI = 1.62 - 4.85). CONCLUSION: Public policies are needed to ensure traffic safety in order to minimize the effects of RTA about productivity and to carry news studies to expand knowledge about loss productivity.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eficiência , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/economia , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Licença Médica/economia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
4.
BMJ ; 368: m453, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102784

RESUMO

The studyCleland LC, McComb L, Kee F, et al. Effects of 20 mph interventions on a range of public health outcomes: a meta-narrative evidence synthesis. J Transp Health 2019. doi:10.1016/j.jth.2019.100633This project was funded by the NIHR Policy Research Programme (project number 17/149/19).To read the full NIHR Signal, go to: https://discover.dc.nihr.ac.uk/content/signal-000853/twenty-mph-speed-zones-reduce-the-danger-to-pedestrians-and-cyclists.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Ciclismo/lesões , Pedestres , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Ciclismo/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Reino Unido
5.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(2): 97-103, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019458

RESUMO

Fitness to Drive from a Neuropsychological Point of View Abstract. Driving a car is an important issue for many people concerning participation in social and professional life. On the other hand, there is the need of society for a high level of security in road traffic. Neuropsychological deficits as a result of different neurological diseases can affect the fitness to drive for a certain time or permanently. In this article, we first provide a brief description of the legal framework. In the following section we summarize aspects of the driving behavior of different neurological patient groups and give an overview of procedures of neuropsychological examination and evaluation of fitness to drive. Apart from the psychometric methods there will also be a focus on the meaning of compensation and awareness. Finally, various treatment options are presented.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Definição da Elegibilidade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Conscientização , Exercício , Humanos , Psicometria
6.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 57(1): 53-59, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074561

RESUMO

Following the passage of a new traffic law in March 2017, an inquiry survey was performed for 202 patients (men 60.9%, women 39.1%) in a medical center for neurocognitive disorders in Japan. Half of the 108 patients who currently had a driver's license had experienced traffic problems, including nearly crashing accidentally, in the past, but only a few of the men were willing to return their driver's license to the government, regardless of age (<75 and ≥75 years old). They mainly worried about how they would manage daily activities without a car, such as shopping for necessities, visiting the clinic, having the chance to get outside. They also worried about increasing the burden of other family members. In contrast, the other 94 patients who either did not have a driver's license or had already returned them to the government expected only slight issues due to the law, or even felt positive about losing their license. However, roughly half of those 94 patients did not get exchanging benefits (traffic discount card and license record card) on losing licenses probably due to less knowledge about such benefits. The present study revealed various aspects of elderly patients' thoughts concerning their driver's licenses in a local city of Japan.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Licenciamento , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 162(3): 30, 2020 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072537
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105370, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841864

RESUMO

Behavioral adaptation refers to the change in road user behavior in response to new conditions (Kulmala & Rämä, 2013). Behavioral adaptation can improve safety, but it can also reduce or even eliminate anticipated safety benefits of many well-intentioned road safety countermeasures. To expect driver behavior to remain the same after the implementation of a change in the road, vehicle, or driving environment, is naïve. Empirical studies that do not consider the full range of behavior affected by a countermeasure may similarly overlook the consequences of behavioral adaptation. This paper considers a number of examples of driver safety countermeasure implementation where unexpected results occurred and behavioral adaptation was the likely culprit. These examples are drawn from highway design, traffic control device design, vehicle countermeasures, enforcement countermeasures, driver education countermeasures and impaired driving policies. A previously presented inventory of characteristics to consider when estimating the likelihood for behavioral adaptation (Rudin-Brown et al., 2013) is expanded and presented within the context of the Qualitative Model of Behavioral Adaptation (Rudin-Brown & Noy, 2002; Rudin-Brown, 2010), in the hopes of addressing the question "When can we anticipate the safety effect of a treatment, and when not?"


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Adulto , Ambiente Construído , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105234, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insufficient sleep, <6.5 h per night, majorly affects shift workers, placing them at higher risk for motor vehicle crash related injury or fatality. While systematic reviews (SLRs) examine the effects of insufficient sleep and driving, to date, no SLR focuses on driver fitness or performance in shift workers. OBJECTIVES: Determine the class of evidence (Class I-highest to Class IV-lowest), and level of confidence (Level A-high, to Level U-insufficient) in the determinants of driver fitness and performance in shift workers. Next, consider evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice, research, and policy. METHODS: A protocol was registered on PROSPERO (#CRD42018052905) using an established SLR methodology: a comprehensive electronic database search, study selection, data extraction, critical appraisal, analysis, and interpretation using published guidelines. RESULTS: Searches identified 1226 unique records with 11(2 on-road, 9 simulator) meeting final inclusion criteria. Class III to IV evidence identified that exposure to overnight shift work possibly predicts (Level C confidence) drivers at risk for adverse on-road outcomes and likely predicts (Level B) drivers at risk for adverse driving simulator outcomes. Higher ratings of subjective sleepiness and extended time driving possibly predict (Level C) drivers at risk for adverse driving simulator outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a low to moderate level of confidence in the determinants of driving in shift workers. A critical need exists for gold-standard on-road assessments integrating complex driving environments representative of real-world demands, targeting tactical and strategic outcomes in a broad spectrum of shift workers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Privação do Sono/complicações , Sonolência , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto , Condução de Veículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Vigília
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105328, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639583

RESUMO

Patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) often exhibit difficulties with visual search that may impede their ability to recognize landmarks and cars while driving. The main objective of this study was to investigate visual search performances of both billboards and cars in patients with PD using a driving simulator. A second objective was to examine the role of cognitive functions in performing the visual search task while driving. Nineteen patients with PD (age: 68 ±â€¯8yo, sex (Men/Women): 15/4) and 14 controls (age: 60 ±â€¯11yo, sex: 7/7) first performed a battery of cognitive tests. They then drove in a simulator and were instructed to follow a lead vehicle while searching for billboards with the letter A (stationary target) or red cars (moving target) among other distractors. Accuracy and response times of visual search were the main outcome variables. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) was the secondary outcome. During driving, patients were less accurate in identifying the targets, particularly for the stationary billboards located in the outer periphery. Within the group of patients, significant correlations were found between several measures of cognitive tests and simulator-based visual search accuracy. By contrast, only the score on the MOCA test correlated significantly with visual search accuracy in controls. Findings suggest that patients with PD have impaired visual search for more eccentric stationary targets while driving a simulator, which is likely due to cognitive deficits. Difficulties identifying objects in the outer periphery may have implications for driving safety. Decreased functional field of view under increased cognitive load may have attributed to the difficulties identifying these landmarks. This may impact the ability to identify, anticipate, and respond to important information (e.g., pedestrians, navigation signs, landmarks), especially in complex driving situations (e.g. urban driving or intersections).Future studies should be conducted in a larger sample size to determine whether a visual search task on a driving simulator may predict on-road driving performances.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cognição/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105315, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668349

RESUMO

Observed accidents have been the main resource for road safety analysis over the past decades. Although such reliance seems quite straightforward, the rare nature of these events has made safety difficult to assess, especially for new and innovative traffic treatments. Surrogate measures of safety have allowed to step away from traditional safety performance functions and analyze safety performance without relying on accident records. In recent years, the use of extreme value theory (EV) models in combination with surrogate safety measures to estimate accident probabilities has gained popularity within the safety community. In this paper we extend existing efforts on EV for accident probability estimation for two dependent surrogate measures. Using detailed trajectory data from a driving simulator, we model the joint probability of head-on and rear-end collisions in passing maneuvers. We apply the Block Maxima method and estimate several extremal univariate and bivariate models, including the logistic copula. In our estimation we account for driver specific characteristics and road infrastructure variables. We show that accounting for these factors improve the head-on and rear-end collision probabilities estimation. This work highlights the importance of considering driver and road heterogeneity in evaluating related safety events, of relevance to interventions both for in-vehicle and infrastructure-based solutions. Such features are essential to keep up with the expectations from surrogate safety measures for the integrated analysis of accident phenomena, which show to significantly improve from the best known stationary extreme value models.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Probabilidade
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105316, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677475

RESUMO

The present research demonstrates the use of advanced trajectory based data to analyze road user interactions at an un-signalized intersection under heterogeneous traffic complexities. This study demonstrates an improvement over the conventional grid-based analysis to estimate surrogate safety measures (SSM). An advanced pattern-based approach to categorize pedestrian-vehicle interactions based on the road user behavior is proposed in the study. A concept of a two-interaction pattern has been applied, which deals with the responsive and non -responsive behavior of the road users, respectively. The behavior-based patterns were categorized based on the SSM like Speed, Time to Collision, and Gap Time profiles of the pedestrian and vehicle interacting on an un-signalized intersection. On conducting a variable importance test, i.e., k-fold test, it was comprehended that, for pattern-1, Time to collision (TTC), and for pattern-2 both TTC and Post Encroachment Time (PET) were showing required importance. Further, Import Vector Machine (IVM) approach was used to classify the severity levels based on selected indicators computed from 1486 events, occurring at three Un-Signalized intersections in India. The proposed severity levels will help to test and evaluate various infrastructure and control improvements for making urban intersections safe for road users. It was observed from the severity levels of both the patterns that, events involving non-evasive behavior can also result in critical interaction. Overall, the research provides an advanced framework for evaluating and improving the safety of the uncontrolled intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Planejamento Ambiental , Pedestres , Automóveis , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Índia
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105334, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689573

RESUMO

It has been widely agreed that it is risky for patients with diabetes to drive during hypoglycemia. However, driving during non-hypoglycemia may also bring certain safety hazards for some patients with diabetes. Based on previous studies on diabetes-related to early aging effect, as well as gender differences in health belief and driving behavior, we have hypothesized that middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes, compared with the control healthy ones, may experience a decline in driving performance without awareness. And the decline is caused by impaired perceptual and cognitive driving-related functions. To verify these hypotheses, we recruited 56 non-professional male drivers aged between 40 and 60 (27 patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 healthy controls) to perform a simulated car-following task and finish behavioral tests of proprioception, visual search, and working memory abilities during non-hypoglycemia. They also reported their hypoglycemia experience and perceived driving skills. We found that the patients had equal confidence in their driving skills but worse driving performance as shown in larger centerline deviation (t = 2.83, p = .006), longer brake reaction time (t = 3.77, p = .001) and shorter minimum time-to-collision (t = -3.27, p = .002). Such between-group differences in driving performance could be fully mediated by proprioception, visual search ability, and working memory capacity but not by hypoglycemia experience. Regarding the effect sizes of the mediation, the visual search ability played the most important role, and then followed the working memory and the proprioception. This initial study provides original and first-hand evidence demonstrating that the middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes have deteriorated driving performance, but they are unaware of it. We will also discuss the possible measures to identify people of the highest risk and improve their safety awareness by using the findings of the current study.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Autoimagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105349, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707167

RESUMO

The change interval, which includes the yellow and all-red times, plays a crucial role in the safety and operation of signalized intersections. During this interval, drivers not only need to decide to stop or go but also have to interact with drivers both in front and behind, trying to avoid conflicting decisions. Red light running and inconsistent stopping behavior may increase the risk for angular and rear-end crashes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different innovative countermeasures on red light running prevention and safe stopping behavior at signalized intersections. Five different conditions were tested inviting sixty-seven volunteers with a valid driving license. The conditions include a default traffic signal setting (control condition), flashing green signal setting (F-green), red LED ground lights integrated with a traffic signal (R-LED), yellow interval countdown variable message sign (C-VMS), and red light running detection camera warning gantry (RW-gantry). Drivers in each condition were exposed to two different situations based on the distance from the stop line. In the first situation, drivers were located in the indecision zone while in the second situation they were located in the likely stopping zone. A series of logistic regression analyses and linear mixed models were conducted to investigate the overall safety effects of the different countermeasures. The probability of red light running (RLR) was significantly reduced for R-LED in both analyses (i.e. in the total sample, and in the sample of crossed vehicles). Moreover, a clearly inconsistent stopping behavior was observed for the flashing green condition. Furthermore, a unit increase in speed (kph) at the onset of yellow interval significantly increases the probability of RLR by 5.3 %. The study showed that R-LED was the most effective solution for improving red light running prevention and encouraging a consistent stopping behavior at the intersection. In conclusion, the R-LED and the RW-gantry treatments are recommended as effective tools to improve safety at signalized intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109573, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665692

RESUMO

This article investigates whether the traditional approaches to Traffic Impact Studies (TISs) have evolved to meet the current needs of a society increasingly concerned with sustainability, especially in Brazil. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify the main sustainability aspects that should be covered by these studies, including the most suitable analytic techniques for this purpose, in particular for traffic simulation. We then prepared a proposal for classifying traffic impact studies and applied it in a specific case, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the study of the Porto Maravilha port district revitalization project. This enabled understanding the current state of the practice of these studies in the country, indicating they are in general very poor, justifying the need for improvements.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Condução de Veículo , Brasil
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190054, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of traffic accidents among land vehicle drivers and to verify differences between motorcyclist and car driver accident victims. METHODS: A household survey was conducted in Jequié city, Bahia, Brazil, in 2013, with 1,406 drivers who were selected by cluster sampling strategy. Estimates of the cumulative incidence of traffic accidents were weighted by the sample design and, to compare groups of drivers, incidence rates (IR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with Poisson Regression. The Chi-Square test were used with Rao-Scott correction (p ≤ 0.05) to evaluate differentials of the event between motorcyclists and car driver victims. RESULTS: Involvement in traffic accidents in the last 12 months before the interview was reported by 10.6% of the drivers. The cumulative incidence was 4.3% for accidents that caused injuries. Motorcyclists had double the risk of being involved in accidents (IR = 2.03; 95%CI 1.40 - 2.94) and higher proportions of injuries (p < 0.001), interruption in daily life activities (p = 0.003) and use of emergency services (p = 0.008). Factors related to time and place of accident were not different between groups. CONCLUSION: Higher incidence of traffic accidents and higher proportions of injuries and others repercussions of these events were seen in motorcyclists. These findings reaffirm the vulnerability of this group and explains the different impact that a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality has on each driver group.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMJ ; 367: l6354, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fast driving, luxury car ownership, and leniency by police officers differ across medical specialties. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Florida, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 5372 physicians and a sample of 19 639 non-physicians issued a ticket for speeding during 2004-17. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observed rates of extreme speeding (defined as driving >20 mph above the speed limit), luxury car ownership, and leniency of the speeding ticket by police officers, by physician specialty, after adjustment for age and sex. RESULTS: The sample included 5372 physicians who received 14 560 speeding tickets. The proportion of drivers who were reported driving at speeds greater than 20 mph was similar between physicians and a sample of 19 639 non-physicians who received a ticket for speeding (26.4% v 26.8% of tickets, respectively). Among physicians who received a ticket, psychiatrists were most likely to be fined for extreme speeding (adjusted odds ratio of psychiatry compared with baseline specialty of anesthesia 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.14). Among drivers who received a ticket, luxury car ownership was most common among cardiologists (adjusted proportion of ticketed cardiologists who owned a luxury car 40.9%, 95% confidence interval 35.9% to 45.9%) and least common among physicians in emergency medicine, family practice, pediatrics, general surgery, and psychiatry (eg, adjusted proportion of luxury car ownership among family practice physicians 20.6%, 95% confidence interval 18.2% to 23.0%). Speed discounting, a marker of leniency by police officers in which ticketed speed is recorded at just below the threshold at which a larger fine would otherwise be imposed, was common, but rates did not differ by specialty and did not differ between physicians and a sample of non-physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of extreme speeding were highest among psychiatrists who received a ticket, whereas cardiologists were the most likely to be driving a luxury car when ticketed. Leniency by police officers was similar across specialties and between physicians and non-physicians.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 81-92, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183602

RESUMO

Traffic safety is an important social problem. Many accidents are due to non-compliance with traffic regulations. Serious or repeated offenses are sanctioned with penalty points or court conviction, and sanctions can lead to disqualification from driving. This paper explores the relevance of alcohol consumption and personality factors as predictors of driving disqualification. The aim of the study is to determine whether the behaviors of persistent offenders and their propensity for law-breaking are related to their characteristics and patterns of drinking. A sample of 358 drivers participated in the study: 126 non-offender habitual drivers and 232 persistent traffic offenders disqualified from driving for serious or repeated traffic offenses, 127 of them after conviction, 105 without conviction (by accumulation of penalties). Participants were given a battery of tests measuring a set of explanatory personality and alcohol consumption factors. We used a cross-sectional study design and performed statistical analysis of variance and regression searching for differences among the groups. The results reveal group effects, with significant differences in a number of factors between traffic offenders and non-offenders, and between both categories of offenders in a number of variables, including traffic violations that lead to demerit points and/or loss of a driver's license and crash involvement. Certain variables, including problem drinking, high levels of activity or excitement, penchant for thrill or sensation seeking, and propensity to hostility while driving, can accurately predict group membership. Alcohol disorders are the best predictors of disqualification from driving for serious or repeat traffic offenses, both penalized and convicted


La seguridad vial es un importante problema social. Muchos accidentes se deben al incumplimiento de las normas de tráfico. Las infracciones graves o reiteradas se sancionan por la vía administrativa o judicial y en ambos casos las sanciones pueden suponer la pérdida del permiso de conducir. Este artículo explora la relevancia del alcohol y la personalidad como factores predictivos. El objetivo del estudio es determinar si el comportamiento delictivo de los infractores persistentes está relacionado con sus características de personalidad y patrones de consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó una muestra de 358 conductores: 232 infractores persistentes, a los que les había sido retirado el carnet de conducir (127 por sentencia judicial y 105 por pérdida total de puntos), y 126 conductores habituales no infractores. Se administró una batería de pruebas que miden un conjunto de factores explicativos de personalidad y consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó un diseño transversal y se realizaron análisis estadísticos de varianza y regresión buscando diferencias entre los grupos. Los resultados revelan diferencias significativas en el tipo de infracciones y accidentes entre infractores de tráfico y no infractores y entre ambas categorías de infractores. Además, ciertas variables, como el abuso de alcohol, altos niveles de actividad, activación emocional, búsqueda de sensaciones y la tendencia a la hostilidad durante la conducción, pueden predecir con precisión la pertenencia a uno u otro grupo. Los problemas con la bebida son el mejor predictor de la pérdida del permiso de conducir, tanto por condena como por acumulación de sanciones


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Perigoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Direção Agressiva/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(34): 35163-35182, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680201

RESUMO

Vehicle emission certification is evaluated under laboratorial conditions, where vehicles perform a standard driving cycle in controlled conditions leading to several critics, which have resulted in the implementation of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing procedure, as a complementary certification procedure. RDE is still under debate since boundary conditions; evaluation and trip selection methods are still being studied to allow test reproducibility. Currently, the official data analysis method uses the moving average window (MAW_EC), based on the WLTP CO2 emissions for trip validity evaluation (RDE package 4) and emissions (RDE package 3). However, this does not consider the impact of vehicle dynamics. Consequently, this work focuses on developing a novel method to relate certification driving cycle dynamics and on-road test vehicle dynamics, to evaluate RDE tests fuel use and exhaust emissions in a comparable way to certification driving cycles, indicating how close, or far, real-world driving is from the laboratorial certification test. For this, a new method was developed called road vehicle evaluation method (ROVET), which relies on the cycle vehicle dynamic and on-road trip dynamics for assessing if both tests are comparable. Results from 5 measured vehicles with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) through reproducibility tests and 2 case studies, show that the ROVET provides results closer to the certification calculated reference than the most commonly used method in Europe (1% avg. difference for ROVET while 8% avg. difference for MAW_EC, regarding CO2 emission, for example). The use of vehicle dynamics on construction and references of a method could be used to incentivize the regulators to review the references used by the current used methods, which suffers several criticisms since their release. As the regulated methods are in constant update, this study could be useful for helping to improve or to be used as additional method for future vehicle certification procedures. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Certificação , Europa (Continente) , Veículos Automotores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
South Med J ; 112(11): 562-565, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the United States, the leading cause of death for adolescents aged 16 to 24 years is motor vehicle crashes, with Alabama ranked as the second-worst state in the nation for teen driving deaths. We sought to determine the efficacy of teenage driving education within the setting of the pediatric emergency department and to assess the driving habits of teenagers and their parents and their understanding of the Alabama Graduated Driver's License (GDL) law. METHODS: Surveys were administered to noncritically ill teenagers aged 13 to 19 years and their parents who presented to the children's emergency department. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Presurveys were administered to assess driving habits and knowledge. Intervention was then given in the form of a "safe driving toolkit," followed by postsurveys to measure educational outcomes. Pre- and postsurvey data were then analyzed and compared using Epistat. RESULTS: A total of 41 parents, 2 grandparents, and 45 teenagers were enrolled in this study. An additional 47 teenagers answered a single curfew question at a teen driving event. Of all of the participants, 63% had never heard of the Alabama GDL law, and of that 63%, 37% had been enrolled in a driver's education course. A χ2 analysis revealed no significant difference between parents and teenagers having taken a driver's education course. Of the participants, 22% responded that they knew the specifics of the Alabama GDL law, with only 1 correct on all 3 counts. The most common item missed was the curfew for teenagers, with 4 believing it to be 8 pm, 14 believing it to be 9 pm, 23 believing it to be 10 pm, and 7 believing it to be 11 pm. Sixty-nine percent of the respondents correctly answered that there was to be no cellular telephone use while driving for teenagers with a GDL. More than 97.2% of participants, both parents and teens, reported learning new information from this study. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of participants enrolled were not aware of the Alabama GDL law, which has been in place since 2002. More than 97% of those surveyed were given new information during the education session. There is a strong need for further public education regarding the law and safe driving habits. Sixty-one percent of respondents believe that the teen curfew is earlier than the present curfew. The authors believe that this shows support for revising the curfew in the present law to an earlier time. Nighttime driving restrictions starting at 10 pm or earlier have been shown to result in greater reductions in motor vehicle crashes involving teenagers. Our study affirmed that teen driving education within the pediatric emergency department setting is efficacious.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/educação , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Alabama , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Avós/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Adulto Jovem
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