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1.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(1): 7501205120p1-7501205120p8, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399060

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Scanning the environment is critical for driving safety. The ScanCourse is a functional assessment that assesses a person's ability to scan the environment for visual information while in motion. Measurement properties for the ScanCourse have been reported; however, its predictive validity is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive validity of the ScanCourse for on-road driving performance and establish clinical cutoff scores. DESIGN: Retrospective chart reviews were conducted over a 6-mo period. SETTING: Four Canadian driver rehabilitation programs. PARTICIPANTS: Charts from patients with neurological or vision conditions were eligible if they contained ScanCourse and on-road driving evaluation results between September 1, 2008, and August 30, 2018. Three hundred twenty-five charts were included for analysis. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Area under the curve (AUC) analysis was used to determine the predictive validity of ScanCourse scores for on-road outcomes; cutoff scores were established by optimizing sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: The ScanCourse had an AUC of .702. The optimal cutoff score was 18/20 with a sensitivity of 76.7% and a specificity of 47.1%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Assessing the scanning abilities of at-risk drivers who intend to return to driving after sustaining an injury can help identify safety risks and inform interventions. The ScanCourse was found to have acceptable discriminatory ability for on-road driving performance. This study provides evidence supporting its continued use as a screening tool to assess driver fitness with an identified optimal cutoff score for clinical use. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Measuring the predictive ability of the ScanCourse assessment in relation to on-road driving performance provides occupational therapists with an evidence-based clinical tool to assist with screening fitness to drive among at-risk people.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Exame para Habilitação de Motoristas , Canadá , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
J Environ Manage ; 278(Pt 1): 111499, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120098

RESUMO

This study aims to determine the relationship between motor vehicle lifetime and lifetime mileage, while considering drivers' propensity to drive and its effects on vehicle CO2 emissions. To do this, we analyze the relationship between lifetime mileage and vehicle lifetime for two vehicle types; a hybrid and a gasoline vehicle. We also employ a quantile regression approach to estimate the effects of drivers' propensity to drive on lifetime mileage. By estimating the CO2 emissions based on driver's propensity to drive, we analyze the effects of propensity to drive on vehicle CO2 emissions. Our results show that, for drivers who drive longer distances, the rate of decrease in average mileage grows as the vehicle age increases. Further, the results of our analysis, which considers this decrease in mileage, show that the cumulative CO2 emissions calculated under the assumption of uniform average annual mileage have been overestimated. The actual lifecycle CO2 emissions for the Prius are therefore smaller than previously reported by the previous studies, leading us to conclude that the hybrid is a more environmentally friendly vehicle than previously thought. Those of the Premio as a conventional gasoline vehicle, however, is approximately twice that. We suggest that vehicle lifecycle assessments should take into account the annual decrease in mileage demonstrated in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Condução de Veículo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Gasolina , Veículos Automotores , Emissões de Veículos/análise
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44289, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1104374

RESUMO

Objetivo: discutir as vivências dos motoristas de ônibus através de suas percepções acerca do trânsito e os impactos à saúde sofridos por eles. Método: estudo qualitativo fenomenológico realizado em uma garagem de ônibus situada no Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas fenomenológicas foram realizadas com 24 motoristas que responderam perguntas semiestruturadas e foram gravadas em dispositivo mp3, posteriormente, transcritas para obtenção das unidades de significado, a coleta de dados ocorreu entre 2017 e 2018. O projeto foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados: da análise fenomenológica das unidades de significados dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias: o trânsito é instável e estressante e a falta de educação das pessoas afeta os aspectos psíquicos. O ambiente de trabalho determina, expressivamente, o bem-estar dos trabalhadores que nele atuam. Conclusão: diante de tantos limites impostos pela sociedade contemporânea e pelo sofrimento no trabalho, necessário é motiva-los, e também dar-lhes condições de realizar seu trabalho de forma plena.


Objective: to discuss the experience of bus drivers through their perceptions regarding traffic and the health impacts they suffer. Method: in this qualitative phenomenological study conducted at a bus garage in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected in 2017 and 2018 by way of phenomenological interviews of 24 drivers, who answered semi-structured questions. The resulting mp3 recordings were later transcribed to obtain the units of meaning. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: from phenomenological analysis of the units of meaning in the responses, two categories emerged: traffic is unstable and stressful, and people's lack of education has adverse psychological effects. The work environment substantially determines the well-being of those working in it. Conclusion: given all the many constraints imposed by contemporary society and by their suffering at work, it is necessary to motivate them and also assure them the conditions necessary to carry out their work fully.


Objetivo: discutir la experiencia de los conductores de autobuses a través de sus percepciones sobre el tráfico y los impactos en la salud que sufren. Método: en este estudio fenomenológico cualitativo realizado en un garaje de autobuses en Río de Janeiro, se recopilaron datos en 2017 y 2018 a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas a 24 conductores, que respondieron preguntas semiestructuradas. Las grabaciones mp3 resultantes se transcribieron posteriormente para obtener las unidades de significado. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: del análisis fenomenológico de las unidades de significado en las respuestas, surgieron dos categorías: el tráfico es inestable y estresante, y la falta de educación de las personas tiene efectos psicológicos adversos. El ambiente de trabajo determina sustancialmente el bienestar de quienes trabajan en él. Conclusión: dadas las muchas restricciones impuestas por la sociedad contemporánea y por su sufrimiento en el trabajo, es necesario motivarlos y también asegurarles las condiciones necesarias para llevar a cabo su trabajo plenamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução de Veículo , Condições de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Percepção Social , População Urbana , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115456, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254715

RESUMO

On-road remote sensing (RS) is a rapid, non-intrusive and economical tool to monitor and control the emissions of in-use vehicles, and currently is gaining popularity globally. However, a majority of studies used a single RS technique, which may bias the measurements since RS only captures a snapshot of vehicle emissions. This study aimed to use a unique dual RS technique to assess the characteristics of on-road vehicle emissions. The results show that instantaneous vehicle emissions are highly dynamic under real-world driving conditions. The two emission factors measured by the dual RS technique show little correlation, even under the same driving condition. This indicates that using the single RS technique may be insufficient to accurately represent the emission level of a vehicle based on one measurement. To increase the accuracy of identifying high-emitting vehicles, using the dual RS technique is essential. Despite little correlation, the dual RS technique measures the same average emission factors as the single RS technique does when a large number of measurements are available. Statistical analysis shows that both RS systems demonstrate the same Gamma distribution with ≥200 measurements, leading to converged mean emission factors for a given vehicle group. These findings point to the need for a minimum sample size of 200 RS measurements in order to generate reliable emission factors for on-road vehicles. In summary, this study suggests that using the single or dual RS technique will depend on the purpose of applications. Both techniques have the same accuracy in calculating average emission factors when sufficient measurements are available, while the dual RS technique is more accurate in identifying high-emitters based on one measurement only.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Condução de Veículo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra , Emissões de Veículos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382720

RESUMO

Driving is an everyday task involving a complex interaction between visual and cognitive processes. As such, an increase in the cognitive and/or visual demands can lead to a mental overload which can be detrimental for driving safety. Compiling evidence suggest that eye and head movements are relevant indicators of visuo-cognitive demands and attention allocation. This study aims to investigate the effects of visual degradation on eye-head coordination as well as visual scanning behavior during a highly demanding task in a driving simulator. A total of 21 emmetropic participants (21 to 34 years old) performed dual-task driving in which they were asked to maintain a constant speed on a highway while completing a visual search and detection task on a navigation device. Participants did the experiment with optimal vision and with contact lenses that introduced a visual perturbation (myopic defocus). The results indicate modifications of eye-head coordination and the dynamics of visual scanning in response to the visual perturbation induced. More specifically, the head was more involved in horizontal gaze shifts when the visual needs were not met. Furthermore, the evaluation of visual scanning dynamics, based on time-based entropy which measures the complexity and randomness of scanpaths, revealed that eye and gaze movements became less explorative and more stereotyped when vision was not optimal. These results provide evidence for a reorganization of both eye and head movements in response to increasing visual-cognitive demands during a driving task. Altogether, these findings suggest that eye and head movements can provide relevant information about visuo-cognitive demands associated with complex tasks. Ultimately, eye-head coordination and visual scanning dynamics may be good candidates to estimate drivers' workload and better characterize risky driving behavior.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Treinamento por Simulação , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0238200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326460

RESUMO

With the rapid expansion of sensor technologies and wireless network infrastructure, research and development of traffic associated applications, such as real-time traffic maps, on-demand travel route reference and traffic forecasting are gaining much more attention than ever before. In this paper, we elaborate on our traffic prediction application, which is based on traffic data collected through Google Map API. Our application is a desktop-based application that predicts traffic congestion state using Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA). In addition to ETA, the prediction system takes into account various features such as weather, time period, special conditions, holidays, etc. The label of the classifier is identified as one of the five traffic states i.e. smooth, slightly congested, congested, highly congested or blockage. The results demonstrate that the random forest classification algorithm has the highest prediction accuracy of 92 percent followed by XGBoost and KNN respectively.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , Aglomeração , Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
7.
JAMA ; 324(21): 2163-2164, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258875
8.
BMJ ; 371: m4465, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between popular football games played in Europe and the incidence of traffic accidents in Asia. DESIGN: Study based on 41 538 traffic accidents involving taxis in Singapore and 1 814 320 traffic accidents in Taiwan, combined with 12 788 European club football games over a seven year period. SETTING: Singapore and Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: The largest taxi company in Singapore, with fine grained traffic accident records in a three year span; all traffic accident records in Taiwan in a six year span. EXPOSURE: Days when high profile football games were played or not played. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Number of traffic accidents. RESULTS: Regression based and time series models suggest that days with high profile European football matches were more positively associated with traffic accidents than days with less popular European football matches. For an approximate €134.74m (£120.25m; $159.76m) increase in average market value for matches played on a given day, approximately one extra accident would occur among Singapore taxi drivers, and for an approximate €7.99m increase in average market value of matches, approximately one extra accident would occur among all drivers in Taiwan. This association remained after control for weather conditions, time of the year, weekend versus weekday effects, driver demographics, and underlying temporal trends. It was also stronger for daytime traffic accidents than for night time traffic accidents, suggesting that the association between high profile football matches and traffic accidents cannot be attributed to night time celebration or attention deficits while watching and driving. Annually, this increased rate of traffic accidents may translate to approximately 371 accidents among taxi drivers in Singapore and approximately 41 079 accidents among the Taiwanese public, as well as economic losses of approximately €821 448 among Singapore taxi drivers and approximately €13 994 409 among Taiwanese drivers and insurers. The total health and economic impact of this finding is likely to be much higher because GMT+8 is the most populous time zone, encompassing 24% of the world's population. CONCLUSIONS: Days featuring high profile football matches in Europe were associated with more traffic accidents in Taiwan and Singapore than were days with lower profile football matches. A potential causal mechanism may be Asian drivers losing sleep by watching high profile European matches, which are often played in the middle of the night in Asia.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Singapura , Privação do Sono/complicações , Futebol/economia , Taiwan
10.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206655

RESUMO

Winter activities on ice are culturally important for many countries, yet they constitute a high safety risk depending upon the stability of the ice. Because consistently cold periods are required to form stable and thick ice, warmer winters could degrade ice conditions and increase the likelihood of falling through the ice. This study provides the first large-scale assessment of winter drowning from 10 Northern Hemisphere countries. We documented over 4000 winter drowning events. Winter drownings increased exponentially in regions with warmer winters when air temperatures neared 0°C. The largest number of drownings occurred when winter air temperatures were between -5°C and 0°C, when ice is less stable, and also in regions where indigenous traditions and livelihood require extended time on ice. Rates of drowning were greatest late in the winter season when ice stability declines. Children and adults up to the age of 39 were at the highest risk of winter drownings. Beyond temperature, differences in cultures, regulations, and human behaviours can be important additional risk factors. Our findings indicate the potential for increased human mortality with warmer winter air temperatures. Incorporating drowning prevention plans would improve adaptation strategies to a changing climate.


Assuntos
Afogamento/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Gelo , Estações do Ano , Condução de Veículo , Criança , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Afr Health Sci ; 20(2): 658-665, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163028

RESUMO

Background: Despite significant gains in the HIV epidemic in South Africa, with reduction in mortality and elimination of vertical transmission, national HIV prevalence remains high, with women rather than men continuing to bear higher burden of the disease. Population subgroups, through ignorance, disbelief or recklessness, continue to engage in risky sexual behaviour. A substantial proportion of minibus taxi drivers engage in risky sex, seldom seeing themselves at risk for STIs or HIV/AIDS. These taxi drivers have been linked with so-called taxi queens, with whom they engage in transactional and intergenerational relationships. Objectives: The study explored condom use and condom negotiation strategies among taxi drivers and taxi queens in Kwa- Zulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods: Applying explorative qualitative design, we conducted focus group discussion and individual interviews among participants who were purposively recruited in KwaZulu-Natal. Result: Qualitative data analysis revealed that condom use and negotiation are sources of conflict for the participants. In addition, the strategies employed by participants to ensure condom usage are not always sustainable and are likely to be problematic due to a variety of complex factors. Conclusion: Our study concludes by recommending a nested public health response that takes cognizance of factors that promote sustainable condom use strategies among this population subgroup.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ocupações , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transportes
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203158

RESUMO

An evolutionary game-theoretic analysis method is developed in this study to understand the interactions between cyclists' traffic violations and the enforcement strategies. The evolutionary equilibrium stabilities were analysed under a fixed (FPS) and a dynamic penalty strategy (DPS). The simulation-based numerical experiments show that: (i) the proposed method can be used to study the interactions between traffic violations and the enforcement strategies; (ii) FPS and DPS can reduce cyclists' probability of committing traffic violations when the perceived traffic violations' relative benefit is less than the traffic violation penalty and the enforcement cost is less than the enforcement benefit, and using DPS can yield a stable enforcement outcome for law enforcement compared to using FPS; and (iii) strategy-related (penalty amount, enforcement effectiveness, and enforcement cost) and attitudinal factors (perceived relative benefit, relative public image cost, and cyclists' attitude towards risk) can affect the enforcement strategy's impacts on reducing cyclists' traffic violations.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Ciclismo , Aplicação da Lei , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atitude , Humanos , Probabilidade
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216761

RESUMO

Many researchers use life cycle assessment methodology to investigate the energy and environmental impacts of energy-saving and new energy vehicles. However, in the context of China, the life cycle energy-saving and emission-reduction effects of extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and the optimal applicable vehicle size and driving conditions for EREVs have been rarely studied. In this study, based on the life cycle assessment theory, the resource consumption, energy exhaustion, and environmental impact of EREVs were comprehensively analyzed. In addition, a differential evaluation model of ecological benefits was established for comparing EREVs with other vehicles with different power sources. Finally, scenario analysis was performed in terms of different vehicle sizes and driving conditions. The results have shown that EREV has great advantages in reducing mineral resource consumption and fossil energy consumption. The consumption of mineral resources of EREV is 14.68% lower than that of HEV, and the consumption of fossil energy is 34.72% lower than that of ICEV. In terms of environmental impact, EREV lies in the middle position. The scenario analysis has revealed that, for EREV in China, the optimal vehicle size is the passenger car and the optimal driving condition is the suburban condition. This work helps to understand the environmental performance of EREVs in China and may provide a decision-making reference for the government.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Eletricidade , Meio Ambiente , Emissões de Veículos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242374, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211732

RESUMO

The present study aimed to adapt the Attitudes Toward Accompanied Driving Scale (ATADS) to a Chinese drivers sample and to examine its reliability and validity. Five hundred and seventy-two drivers aged 18 to 25 years old were asked to complete the ATADS and a validated Chinese version of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory. The factorial structure of the ATADS was examined using exploratory factor analysis (N = 259) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 313). The validity of the scale was evaluated by examining the associations between the ATADS factors, demographic variables and driving styles. The results showed that both the findings of the EFA and CFA showed a five-factor structure of the ATADS, including tension, relatedness, avoidance, disapproval and anxiety. Second, significant gender differences were found in tension, relatedness, avoidance and anxiety. Third, tension, avoidance, disapproval and anxiety were moderately or weakly correlated with risky, anxious, angry and careful driving styles. Moreover, the number of traffic accidents after the accompanying phase was positively correlated with disapproval and avoidance. The findings supported the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the ATADS and highlighted the adverse effects of young drivers' negative attitudes toward accompanied driving on their driving styles.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Atitude , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Amigos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Crime/psicologia , Escolaridade , Análise Fatorial , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Pais , Infuência dos Pares , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227016

RESUMO

Eyes and hand movements are known to be coordinated during a variety of tasks. While steering a vehicle, gaze was observed to be tightly linked with steering wheel angle changes over time, with the eyes leading the hands. In this experiment, participants were asked to drive a winding road composed of bends with systematically manipulated radii of curvature, under regular and automatic steering conditions. With automatic steering, the vehicle followed the road, but the steering wheel and participants hands did not move. Despite the absence of physical eye-hand coordination in that condition, the eye and [what the hands should have done] to produce the action on the steering wheel were found to be coordinated, as under regular steering. This result brings a convincing piece of evidence that eye movements do more than just guiding the hands. In addition, eye-hand coordination was also found to be intermittent, context and person-dependant.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Olho , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253219

RESUMO

Current and foreseeable automated vehicles are not able to respond appropriately in all circumstances and require human monitoring. An experimental examination of steering automation failure shows that response latency, variability and corrective manoeuvring systematically depend on failure severity and the cognitive load of the driver. The results are formalised into a probabilistic predictive model of response latencies that accounts for failure severity, cognitive load and variability within and between drivers. The model predicts high rates of unsafe outcomes in plausible automation failure scenarios. These findings underline that understanding variability in failure responses is crucial for understanding outcomes in automation failures.


Assuntos
Automação , Condução de Veículo , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186357

RESUMO

Speeding behavior, especially serious speeding, is more common in taxi driver than other driving population due to their high exposure under traffic environment, which increases the risk of being involved in crashes. In order to prevent the taxi and other road users from speed-related crash, previous studies have revealed contributors of demographic and driving operation affecting taxi speeding frequency. However, researches regarding road factors, and spatial effect are typically rare. For this sake, the current study explores the contributions of 10 types of road characteristics and two kinds of spatial effects (spatial correlation and spatial heterogeneity) on taxi total speeding and serious speeding frequency. Taxi GPS trajectory data in a Chinese metropolis were used to identify speeding event. The study then established four kinds of Bayesian hierarchical count models base on Poisson and negative binominal distribution to estimate the contributor impacts, respectively. Results show that Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson log-linear model is optimum for fitting both total and serious speeding frequency. For the analysis, it is found that drivers are more likely to commit speeding on long multilane road with median strip, and road with non-motorized vehicle lane, bus-only lane and viaduct or road tunnel. Roads with low speed limit, and work zone are associated with increasing speeding as well. In terms of serious speeding, bus-only lane is not a contributor, while road speed camera number and one-way organization are significantly positive to the speeding frequency. Furthermore, it reveals that two spatial effects significantly increase the occurrence of speeding events; the impact of spatial heterogeneity is more critical.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Teorema de Bayes , China , Humanos , Distribuição de Poisson , Assunção de Riscos , Análise Espacial
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085674

RESUMO

Recent advance in VMS technology has made it viable to ease traffic congestion and improve road traffic efficiency. However, the drivers' low compliance with the posted information may limit its performance to ease traffic congestion and improve traffic safety. This paper explores drivers' attitude to the service quality of VMS system resulted from the identified predominant influencing factors. A questionnaire is developed and used for surveying 9,600 drivers in Beijing, China. The collected data are analyzed with a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) model considering different driver categories (e.g., private car driver, office car driver, taxi driver). The results show that the causal relationships between latent variables and socio-demographic characteristic is significant. Driving frequency, attitude towards contents of VMS, drivers' decision-making and the effectiveness of VMS message can directly and indirectly affect driver's perceived quality of service. The attitude towards formats of VMS indirectly affect their QoS resulting from the effectiveness of VMS message, while there is no indirect impact for taxi drivers. Besides, the drivers' decision-making directly affects the perceived quality of service for private car drivers and office car drivers, but there is no impact for taxi drivers. The findings of this study can provide guidance and reference for urban authorities to perform the relevant actions required to meet user expectations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Tecnologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Controle de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064723

RESUMO

To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Comportamento Perigoso , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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