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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247954, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out that urban taxi drivers and their passengers are at higher risk of transmitting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) due to frequent contact among many people. Facemask wearing is one of the preventive measures recommended to control the transmission of the virus. A lack of evidence of the proportion of facemask wearing among taxi drivers and associated factors in Ethiopia, including Dessie City and Kombolcha Town, hinders the design of targeted interventions to advocate for facemask use. This study was designed to address this gap. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 417 taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town from July to August, 2020. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique after proportionally allocating the sample size from the total number of taxi drivers working in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. The data were collected by trained data collectors using a structured questionnaire and an on-the-spot observational checklist. The collected data were checked, coded and entered to EpiData version 4.6 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 for data cleaning and analysis. Bivariate (Crude Odds Ratio [COR]) and multivariable (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]) logistic regression analyses were employed using 95% CI (confidence interval). From bivariate logistic regression analysis, variables with p-value < 0.250 were retained into multivariable logistic regression analysis. Then, from the multivariable analysis, variables with p-value < 0.050 were declared as factors significantly associated with facemask wearing among taxi drivers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. MAIN FINDINGS: The proportion of taxi drivers who wore a facemask was 54.68% [95%CI: 50.10-59.7%]. The majority (58.3%) of drivers were using cloth facemasks, followed by N95 facemasks (24.5%) and surgical facemasks (17.3%). Out of the total 417 taxi drivers, more than two-thirds (69.8%) of them had a good knowledge about COVID-19 and 67.6% of taxi drivers had a positive attitude towards taking precautions against transmission of COVID-19. Three-fourths (74.1%) of the taxi drivers believed that wearing a facemask could prevent COVID-19. More than half (52.5%) felt discomfort when wearing a facemask. Almost three-fourths (72.2%) of taxi drivers felt that the presence of local government pressure helped them to wear a facemask. We found that marital status [AOR = 3.14, 95%CI: 1.97-5.01], fear of the disease [AOR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.28-3.47], belief in the effectiveness of a facemask [AOR = 5.6, 95%CI: 3.1-10.16] and feeling government pressure [AOR = 3.6, 95%CI: 2.16-6.13] were factors significantly associated with wearing a facemask. CONCLUSION: We found that the proportion of facemask wearers among taxi drivers was relatively low in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town. In order to increase that number, government bodies should work aggressively to encourage more taxi drivers to wear a facemask. We also recommend that government and non-government organizations work very closely together to implement strategies that promote facemask use, including increasing the availability of inexpensive facemasks, and monitoring and controlling facemask use.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Máscaras , Adolescente , Adulto , /virologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(3): 263-267, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554720

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has produced considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, and older adults are at especially high risk for developing severe COVID-19. A cohort study of driving behavior from January 1, 2019, to April 25, 2019, and January 1, 2020, to April 25, 2020, was conducted. We hypothesized that older adults would reduce the number of days driving and number of trips/day they make after COVID-19 case acceleration. Data from 214 adults aged 66.5 to 92.8 years were used. Women comprised 47.6% of the sample and 15.4% were African American. Participants reduced the proportion of days driven during the pandemic (.673 vs. .382 [p < .001]) compared with same period the year before (.695 vs. .749). Trips/day showed a similar decline (p < .001). Participants also took shorter trips (p = .02), drove slower (p < .001), had fewer speeding incidents (p < .001), and had different trip destinations (p < .001). These results indicate that older adults reduce their driving behavior when faced with a pandemic.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240201, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382720

RESUMO

Driving is an everyday task involving a complex interaction between visual and cognitive processes. As such, an increase in the cognitive and/or visual demands can lead to a mental overload which can be detrimental for driving safety. Compiling evidence suggest that eye and head movements are relevant indicators of visuo-cognitive demands and attention allocation. This study aims to investigate the effects of visual degradation on eye-head coordination as well as visual scanning behavior during a highly demanding task in a driving simulator. A total of 21 emmetropic participants (21 to 34 years old) performed dual-task driving in which they were asked to maintain a constant speed on a highway while completing a visual search and detection task on a navigation device. Participants did the experiment with optimal vision and with contact lenses that introduced a visual perturbation (myopic defocus). The results indicate modifications of eye-head coordination and the dynamics of visual scanning in response to the visual perturbation induced. More specifically, the head was more involved in horizontal gaze shifts when the visual needs were not met. Furthermore, the evaluation of visual scanning dynamics, based on time-based entropy which measures the complexity and randomness of scanpaths, revealed that eye and gaze movements became less explorative and more stereotyped when vision was not optimal. These results provide evidence for a reorganization of both eye and head movements in response to increasing visual-cognitive demands during a driving task. Altogether, these findings suggest that eye and head movements can provide relevant information about visuo-cognitive demands associated with complex tasks. Ultimately, eye-head coordination and visual scanning dynamics may be good candidates to estimate drivers' workload and better characterize risky driving behavior.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Treinamento por Simulação , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326462

RESUMO

Thailand has the highest road traffic fatality rate in Southeast Asia, making road safety a critical public health concern. A 2015 World Health Organization (WHO) Report showed that speeding behavior was the most important determinant for road traffic crashes in Thailand. Here, we aimed to examine associations of socio-demographic factors (gender, age, socioeconomic status) with self-reported motorcycle speeding behavior. Additionally, we examined a potential role of time discounting and risk preference as mediators in the association of socio-demographic factors with speeding. We used data obtained from the Mahasarakham University Social Network Survey 2018 (MSUSSS) (N = 150). We ran linear network autocorrelation models (lnam) to account for the data's social network structure. We found that males are more likely than females to engage in speeding behavior (ß = 0.140, p = 0.001) and to discount the future (ß = 5.175, p = 0.017). However, further causal mediation analysis showed that time discounting does not mediate the gender-speeding association (p for mediation = 0.540). Although socioeconomic status (subjective social class) was not associated with speeding (ß = 0.039, p = 0.177), age was marginally associated with speeding (ß = 0.005, p = 0.093). Future studies may consider using a larger sample.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comportamento , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motocicletas , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Rede Social , Tailândia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332428

RESUMO

The entrance and exit sections of a tunnel are the accident black-spots in an expressway. For a safe operation of road tunnels, it is necessary to understand a driver's physiological indices and driving performance when driving through tunnels. In this study, the UC-Win/Road simulation software was used to build 12 tunnel models of different lengths. A simulated driving experiment was carried out in a 6-DoF motion platform. The lateral position of vehicles characterizing the driving performance was measured using the motion platform. Electrocardiogram and eye movement data of 25 recruited drivers were collected simultaneously through the experiment. The spatial changes in a driver's heart rate (HR) growth rate, RMSSD, pupil diameter growth rate and vehicle lateral deviation within 300 m before and after the tunnel entrance and exit were analyzed to determine the variation rules in the different tunnels. The study identified the length range in the tunnel entrance and exit sections that influences the drivers. A quantitative analysis was further carried out to analyze the relationship between the physiological indices and the driving performance indicator. The results showed that a driver's heart rate fluctuates significantly 250 m before the tunnel entrance and 50 m before the exit. In this region, the pupil diameter increases gradually, and drivers tend to shift the vehicle to the left. At the tunnel exit, the HR and RMSSD are affected significantly by the tunnel length, and the variation is higher in longer tunnels. In comparison, the tunnel length has no significant effect on the physiological indicators and driving performance of the drivers at the entrance and exit.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(11): 811-818, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361688

RESUMO

Objectives Although previous studies have discussed the "voluntary" withdrawal of older drivers' driving license to prevent traffic accidents, there is less evidence about the experience of giving up driving. The present study investigated the decision-making process in the "voluntary" withdrawal of the driver's license and the conceptual meaning of "voluntary" among individuals who have experienced or shortly plan the event, as well as the transitions in their social relationships, social interactions, and body image perceptions.Methods Qualitative research was undertaken to examine the explanatory research question in City A, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. A semi-structured interview was conducted with eight male participants. They were asked related questions, for example, the meaning of driving, lifestyle changes, and so on. Data were recorded and transcribed into transcripts to be analyzed using the grounded theory approach.Results The qualitative data revealed that when participants perceived their "body" as alienated from their "self" during driving or daily living, they became confused because they needed to be conscious of the aroused existence of the "self" that operates their "body," which was previously integrated with their "self." This awareness led the individuals to the process of "voluntary" withdrawal from driving in coping with their reflected "self" while they gradually distrusted their "self" regarding their deteriorating "body." Some participants lost their "self" and felt that they were forced to stop driving "voluntarily" when their "self" was determined as belonging to a risky "body," whereas others could decide "voluntary" driving cessation and realize their "self" through social interactions when they "re-evaluated" their "self" in light of their life stories. Both types of participants had "difficulties" after driving cessation; however, the latter effectively emphasized the re-construction of the "self" and "self"-based decision-making process due to aging.Conclusion The decision-making process in the withdrawal of a driver's license due to aging resembled the process of coping with disabilities. Previous relationships between "self," "body," and society might be affected by age- or illness-triggered events. Encouraging the re-construction of "self" and its relationships might alleviate the psychological impact on elderly people facing "voluntary" retirement from driving.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Tomada de Decisões , Relações Interpessoais , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064723

RESUMO

To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Caminhada/psicologia , Prevenção de Acidentes/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Comportamento Perigoso , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4850, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994407

RESUMO

Current driving behaviour models are designed for specific scenarios, such as curve driving, obstacle avoidance, car-following, or overtaking. However, humans can drive in diverse scenarios. Can we find an underlying principle from which driving behaviour in different scenarios emerges? We propose the Driver's Risk Field (DRF), a two-dimensional field that represents the driver's belief about the probability of an event occurring. The DRF, when multiplied with the consequence of the event, provides an estimate of the driver's perceived risk. Through human-in-the-loop and computer simulations, we show that human-like driving behaviour emerges when the DRF is coupled to a controller that maintains the perceived risk below a threshold-level. The DRF model predictions concur with driving behaviour reported in literature for seven different scenarios (curve radii, lane widths, obstacle avoidance, roadside furniture, car-following, overtaking, oncoming traffic). We conclude that our generalizable DRF model is scientifically satisfying and has applications in automated vehicles.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Cultura , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Assunção de Riscos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239608, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970768

RESUMO

Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are the future of braking systems, particularly in commercial vehicles. Therefore, it is important to design a simple EMB scheme and establish its clamping force control strategy to satisfy the demands of commercial vehicle braking systems. This study proposes a pneumatic disc-brake-based EMB for an electric bus. Its working principle was established, and the system model was analyzed. Subsequently, the hidden Markov models (HMMs) of driver decelerate and brake intentions were built and recognized based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Given the time-consuming behavior of the proposed EMB to eliminate brake clearance due to the leverage effect of the arm and motor performance limitation, a clamping force control strategy factoring in the driver intentions was developed to improve the response performance without changing the structure or size of the EMB. Furthermore, simulation analyses were performed using MATLAB/Simulink. The results confirmed that under the action of a step and 5 Hz triangular sawtooth signals, the clamping force output from the EMB corresponds well with the target signal. The clamping force gradually increases when approaching the target without overshoot and jitter during the process. The overall clamping force response time is decreased by approximately 0.25 s under the driver emergency brake than the conventional control method. Hence, the response performance of the EMB is improved.


Assuntos
Automóveis/normas , Simulação por Computador , Desaceleração , Intenção , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986731

RESUMO

Based on the characteristics of expressway driving behavior, a punishment avoidance variable is introduced in this study to modify the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and the analysis model of expressway speeding behavior is improved and verified through survey data. The mechanism of the effects of attitude to behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and punishment avoidance on expressway speeding behavior is analyzed. The results show that drivers lack a correct understanding of expressway speeding behavior and that punishment avoidance has a significant effect on expressway speeding behavior. Younger drivers (25-34), men, High income earners, and those who received more penalty points are considered prone to speeding. The study provides valuable contributions to the development of the Chinese version of the expressway speeding analysis model.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Psicológica , Punição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , China , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sociológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cycling for transport could integrate physical activity (PA) into daily routines and potentially increase total PA levels. However, for parents with young children, most factors affecting transport mode choice tend to facilitate car use. Greater insight is necessary into reasons for (not) using sustainable transport modes in parents with young children. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the experiences, including motives, perceptions, attitudes, and norms, of parents of young children by using an e-bike, a longtail bike, and a traditional bike for everyday travel to the workplace, kindergarten, and the grocery store during the autumn, winter, and spring, in nine months. METHODS: Semistructured focus group interviews were conducted with 18 parents of young children residing in southern Norway. Parents were recruited through Facebook announcements and direct contact with kindergartens, selected organisations, and companies in the Kristiansand municipality. Data were analysed by systematic text condensation by using NVivo V.11. RESULTS: Participants' experiences were summarised by three main themes: 'cycling is cumbersome', 'cycling reflects the desirable me', and 'breaking the cycling code'. Time use, planning, logistics, wet and cold weather, long distances, and no cycling habit were frequently mentioned barriers, and the most notable facilitator was the children's attitude towards cycling. In general, children loved to cycle and preferred cycling to driving. Additionally, the freedom and independence of cycling were emphasised and valued. CONCLUSION: In challenging weather conditions, parents of young children may experience cycling as cumbersome but desirable, and bike access could increase the feasibility of daily cycling.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Motivação , Pais/psicologia , Transportes/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Estudos Cross-Over , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estações do Ano , Transportes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(5): 909-917, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773054

RESUMO

Advancing age is associated with increasing risk of activities important for independence, such as driving and living alone. Cognitive impairment is more common with older age; financial resources and social support may dwindle. Risk, cognitive impairment, and decisional capacity each change over time. Transparent decision making and harm reduction help balance risk and safety. When a patient lacks decisional capacity, an option that considers the patient's preferences and shows respect for the person is favored. Vulnerable patients making choices that are high risk, and patients for whom others are making such choices, may require state intervention.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Vida Independente , Segurança , Populações Vulneráveis , Idoso , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Vida Independente/ética , Vida Independente/psicologia , Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
13.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(2): 147-155, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780676

RESUMO

HIV prevalence among truckers in Africa is high and testing rates suboptimal. With numerous African countries having approved HIV self-testing kits, more information on how to design acceptable and accessible self-testing programs for high-risk populations is necessary. We explored views about self-testing via in-depth interviews with 24 truckers participating in a randomised controlled trial who refused HIV testing. A social-ecological lens was used to guide data analysis and frame study findings. While most participants said that they would use an HIV self-test, perceived barriers and facilitators were identified at multiple levels. Many participants noted lack of time to test or obtain a self-test kit as a major barrier (intrapersonal) and varied in their views about self-testing with a partner (interpersonal). Participants offered programmatic/policy recommendations, suggesting that they preferred accessing self-test kits in settings where training could be provided. Participants believed they should be able to pick up multiple test kits at the same time and that the test kits should be free or low cost. These study findings will help guide the design of self-testing programs for truckers and other mobile populations.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoadministração , Parceiros Sexuais
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A variety of visual and psychometric tests have been developed for assessing on-road driving performance and fitness to drive. The diagnostic power of a state of the art psychometric test battery (Vienna Test System) combined with a set of standard visual parameters recommended for assessing fitness to drive is investigated using an on-road driving test. The study aimed to determine whether a psychometric test battery could predict older adults' on-road driving performance. The relevance of visual standards required by law is discussed. METHODS: Vision impairment is more prevalent in later adulthood and many studies on visual and cognitive impact on driving safety and performance therefore focus on adults above 60 years of age. We therefore acquired an extensive set of driving-related visual and psychometric performance parameters in a group of elderly drivers (N = 84, median age 69, SD 6.6 years). Visual assessment included foveal acuity, perimetric field size, and dynamic aspects of peripheral vision (termed "PP") in the computer-based Vienna Test System (VTS; Schuhfried), as well as letter contrast thresholds in foveal and parafoveal vision in a separate setup. A selection of psychometric driving-aptitude tests that demonstrated the battery's capacity to predict aspects of driving performance and safety were further conducted on the VTS. Driving performance was assessed in a standardized on-road driving test. Two independent observers rated driving performance using a fixed scoring system assessing the number of driving errors in pre-defined traffic situations. In addition, globalized driving competence scores were assigned on a 6-point scale. RESULTS: The test battery performed excellent in identification of good drivers but failed in the prediction of bad driving performance. Visual performance indicators required by German law were less indicative of driving ability than psychometric assessment. Selective and divided attention turned out to be much more important for predicting fitness to drive than either visual acuity, size of the visual field, or contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Predicting fitness to drive by means of visual and psychometric tests is an ambitious challenge. On the one hand sensitivity of a multi-disciplinary test-battery is too low to predict reliable driving ability in diagnostic settings which require an unambiguous interpretation of test results for individual drivers. Low sensitivity and low predictive values are incompatible with that objective. On the other hand, the results are valuable for a routine screening of fitness to drive. For that case, the assessment of attentional abilities in particular appears to be promising. Performance measures of divided and selective attention showed themselves to be the most predictive for fitness to drive in a sample pre-screened for clear visual deficits. Visual performance parameters required by law, in contrast, had no meaningful impact on driving performance, indicating a gap between mandatory regulations of state authorities and research results. Our results suggest that visual acuity tests designed for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of eye diseases should not at all be the choice for a screening of fitness to drive.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicometria/métodos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Testes Visuais/normas , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716956

RESUMO

Driving accidents due to hypovigilance are common but the role of hypnotics is unclear in patients suffering from sleep disorders. Our study examined factors influencing accidents and near miss accidents attributed to sleepiness at the wheel (ANMAS). Using data from an online questionnaire aimed at patients with sleep disorders, we analysed the associations between ANMAS, sociodemographic data, symptoms of sleep disorders, severity of insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)) symptoms of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale with depression (HADD) and anxiety (HADA) subscales), chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale ESS), hypnotic use and information about sleep habits. Hypnotics were hierarchically grouped into Z-drugs, sedative medication, melatonin and over the counter (OTC) alternative treatments. Of 10802 participants; 9.1% reported ANMAS (Men 11.1% women 8.3%) and 24.4% took hypnotics (Z-drugs 8.5%, sedative medication 8%, melatonin 5.6% and alternative treatments 2.5%). Logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for ANMAS: moderate (OR 2.4; CI: 2.10-2.79) and severe sleepiness (ESS OR 5.66; CI: 4.74-6.77), depression (HADD OR 1.2; CI: 1.03-1.47), anxiety (HADA OR 1.2;CI: 1.01-1.47), and insufficient sleep (OR1.4; CI: 1.2-1.7). Hypnotics were not associated with an increased risk of ANMAS in patients suffering from insomnia. Risk factors varied according to sex: in females, sex (OR 0.; CI: 0.55-0.74), mild insomnia (OR 0.5; CI: 0.3-0.8) and use of alternative treatments (OR 0.455, CI:0.23-0.89) were protective factors and risk was increased by sleepiness, sleep debt, social jetlag, caffeine use, anxiety and depression. In men no protective factors were identified: sleepiness, sleep debt, and severe insomnia were associated with an increased risk of ANMAS. In clinical practice, all patients with daytime sleepiness and men with severe insomnia should be counselled concerning driving risk and encouraged to avoid sleep debt.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Near Miss , Caracteres Sexuais , Sonolência , Vigília , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comportamento , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236589, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716978

RESUMO

Despite discernible improvements in the last decades, speeding is still a pertinent problem for road safety, fuel efficiency, and greenhouse gas mitigation. In order to understand individual speeding decisions, we need a better understanding of who speeds. In our paper, we test whether individuals' general pace of life is associated with speeding decisions. We use a novel speed-choice experiment that confronts participants with a scenario in which they repeatedly decide between driving fast or slow. This decision is associated with different accident risks. Before the experiment, each participant's pace of life was measured. Our results show that individuals with a slower pace of life are more likely to choose slow in the experiment and are also more likely to switch to slow, even when they had success by driving fast in the preliminary round. Therefore, individuals' pace of life may contribute to our understanding of speeding.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Estilo de Vida , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105682, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659493

RESUMO

The study analyses the Human-Machine-Interface (HMI) of a driver assistance system for cooperative driving, such as merging or turning left situations. Three versions of the HMI are varied as independent variables within subjects. Two versions, displayed in the instrument cluster, focus either on a dynamic or a static illustration of the current status of the system. The third HMI, developed in a preliminary study, serves as benchmark to compare the cluster-based HMIs. The benchmark HMI uses the same status messages and highlights the partner directly in the environment by augmented reality elements. The results of the present study show that the Benchmark best supported cooperative behavior. Both versions of the HMI located in the instrument cluster also support cooperative behavior and are accepted by the drivers. However, more glances are shifted from the relevant area in the driving scenario towards the cluster compared to the Benchmark HMI. With the static version, the participants felt more distracted compared to the dynamic HMI. In conclusion, as long as it is not technically possible to display the partner directly in the environment, a dynamic display in cooperation situations is a good alternative.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730270

RESUMO

Increasing concerns about air pollution and the promise of enhancing energy security have stimulated the growth of electric vehicles (EVs) worldwide. Compared with gasoline vehicles (GVs), EVs have no emissions and are more environmentally friendly to the sustainable transportation system. Since these two types of vehicles with different emission externalities and observable differences, in this paper, we propose a differentiable road pricing for EVs and GVs to simultaneously manage congestion and emissions by establishing a two-class bi-objective optimization (TCBO) model. First, we investigate whether the differentiable road pricing can induce user equilibrium pattern into a unique pareto-efficient pattern. Then performance of the bi-criteria system optimal is measured by bounding the deviation gap of the Pareto frontier. Specifically, we bound how far the total system travel time and total system emissions at a given Pareto optimum can deviate from their respective single-criterion based system optimum. Finally, we investigate the maximum efficiency gain of the bi-criteria system achieved through implementing differentiable road pricing by comparing total system travel time and total system emissions under two states. After defining two types of price of anarchy (POA), the theoretical bound for the worst possible ratio of total system travel time\ total system emissions in user equilibrium state to the total system travel time\ total system emissions in Pareto-efficient state is derived out. In order to validate the feasibility of theoretical bound, we conduct case studies to calculate the numerical bound of POA based on two Chinese cities: Shenzhen and Lasa. Overall, quantifying the maximum efficiency of differentiable road pricing is beneficial for improving the network designing, policy implementation and social efficiency with regard to congestion and emissions caused by EV and GV users.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Automóveis/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Eletricidade , Gasolina , Humanos , Motivação , Fatores de Tempo , Viagem , Emissões de Veículos
19.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 70, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue can affect the behavior of drivers. While the driver must be able to respond and cope appropriately to the critical situations, which is known as the ability to cope with a crisis. It is likely that the fatigue can change the people's coping style and thereby increase the chance of the crashes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of fatigue on the coping behavior of international truck drivers. METHODS: This study was conducted on 239 of international truck drivers employed in Iran. The Endler and Parker coping strategies questionnaire (CISS) and Persian version of the Fatigue Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) were used to evaluate the coping styles of the drivers and the drivers' fatigue, respectively. RESULTS: The mean values of the total fatigue before and after traveling were 36.77 and 76.13, respectively. The mean values of coping styles of the problem-oriented, emotion-oriented, and avoidance before traveling were 53.66, 40.91, and 38.17, respectively, and those after traveling were 45.59, 51.18, and 36.45, respectively. The chi-square test demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the coping style of drivers before and after the trip (P <  0.001), and the percent of individuals with emotion-oriented increased. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the results showed that fatigue due to traveling could change the coping styles of subjects from problem-oriented to emotion-oriented and avoidance. This can increase the statistics of driving accidents.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Fadiga , Veículos Automotores , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Emoções , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105667, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652331

RESUMO

Mountainous highways suffer from high crash rates and fatality rates in many countries, and single-vehicle crashes are overrepresented along mountainous highways. Route familiarity has been found greatly associated with driver behaviour and traffic safety. This study aimed to investigate and compare the contributory factors that significantly influence the injury severities of the familiar drivers and unfamiliar drivers involved in mountainous highway single-vehicle crashes. Based on 3037 cases of mountainous highway single-vehicle crashes from 2015 to 2017, the characteristics related to crash, environment, vehicle and driver are included. Random-effects generalized ordered probit (REGOP) models were applied to model injury severities of familiar drivers and unfamiliar drivers that are involved in the single-vehicle crashes on the mountainous highways, given that the single-vehicle crashes had occurred. The results of REGOP models showed that 8 of the studied factors are found to be significantly associated with the injury severities of the familiar drivers, and 10 of the studied factors are found to significantly influence the injury severities of unfamiliar drivers. These research results suggest that there is a large difference of significant factors contributing to the injury severities between familiar drivers and unfamiliar drivers. The results shed light on both the similar and different causes of high injury severities for familiar and unfamiliar drivers involved in mountainous highway single-vehicle crashes. These research results can help develop effective countermeasures and proper policies for familiar drivers and unfamiliar drivers targetedly on the mountainous highways and alleviate injury severities of mountainous highway single-vehicle crashes to some extent. Based on the results of this study, some potential countermeasures can be proposed to minimize the risk of single-vehicle crashes on different mountainous highways, including tourism highways with a large number of unfamiliar drivers and other normal mountainous highways with more familiar drivers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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