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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 135: 105370, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841864

RESUMO

Behavioral adaptation refers to the change in road user behavior in response to new conditions (Kulmala & Rämä, 2013). Behavioral adaptation can improve safety, but it can also reduce or even eliminate anticipated safety benefits of many well-intentioned road safety countermeasures. To expect driver behavior to remain the same after the implementation of a change in the road, vehicle, or driving environment, is naïve. Empirical studies that do not consider the full range of behavior affected by a countermeasure may similarly overlook the consequences of behavioral adaptation. This paper considers a number of examples of driver safety countermeasure implementation where unexpected results occurred and behavioral adaptation was the likely culprit. These examples are drawn from highway design, traffic control device design, vehicle countermeasures, enforcement countermeasures, driver education countermeasures and impaired driving policies. A previously presented inventory of characteristics to consider when estimating the likelihood for behavioral adaptation (Rudin-Brown et al., 2013) is expanded and presented within the context of the Qualitative Model of Behavioral Adaptation (Rudin-Brown & Noy, 2002; Rudin-Brown, 2010), in the hopes of addressing the question "When can we anticipate the safety effect of a treatment, and when not?"


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Adulto , Ambiente Construído , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105334, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689573

RESUMO

It has been widely agreed that it is risky for patients with diabetes to drive during hypoglycemia. However, driving during non-hypoglycemia may also bring certain safety hazards for some patients with diabetes. Based on previous studies on diabetes-related to early aging effect, as well as gender differences in health belief and driving behavior, we have hypothesized that middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes, compared with the control healthy ones, may experience a decline in driving performance without awareness. And the decline is caused by impaired perceptual and cognitive driving-related functions. To verify these hypotheses, we recruited 56 non-professional male drivers aged between 40 and 60 (27 patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 healthy controls) to perform a simulated car-following task and finish behavioral tests of proprioception, visual search, and working memory abilities during non-hypoglycemia. They also reported their hypoglycemia experience and perceived driving skills. We found that the patients had equal confidence in their driving skills but worse driving performance as shown in larger centerline deviation (t = 2.83, p = .006), longer brake reaction time (t = 3.77, p = .001) and shorter minimum time-to-collision (t = -3.27, p = .002). Such between-group differences in driving performance could be fully mediated by proprioception, visual search ability, and working memory capacity but not by hypoglycemia experience. Regarding the effect sizes of the mediation, the visual search ability played the most important role, and then followed the working memory and the proprioception. This initial study provides original and first-hand evidence demonstrating that the middle-aged male drivers with type 2 diabetes have deteriorated driving performance, but they are unaware of it. We will also discuss the possible measures to identify people of the highest risk and improve their safety awareness by using the findings of the current study.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Autoimagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105349, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707167

RESUMO

The change interval, which includes the yellow and all-red times, plays a crucial role in the safety and operation of signalized intersections. During this interval, drivers not only need to decide to stop or go but also have to interact with drivers both in front and behind, trying to avoid conflicting decisions. Red light running and inconsistent stopping behavior may increase the risk for angular and rear-end crashes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different innovative countermeasures on red light running prevention and safe stopping behavior at signalized intersections. Five different conditions were tested inviting sixty-seven volunteers with a valid driving license. The conditions include a default traffic signal setting (control condition), flashing green signal setting (F-green), red LED ground lights integrated with a traffic signal (R-LED), yellow interval countdown variable message sign (C-VMS), and red light running detection camera warning gantry (RW-gantry). Drivers in each condition were exposed to two different situations based on the distance from the stop line. In the first situation, drivers were located in the indecision zone while in the second situation they were located in the likely stopping zone. A series of logistic regression analyses and linear mixed models were conducted to investigate the overall safety effects of the different countermeasures. The probability of red light running (RLR) was significantly reduced for R-LED in both analyses (i.e. in the total sample, and in the sample of crossed vehicles). Moreover, a clearly inconsistent stopping behavior was observed for the flashing green condition. Furthermore, a unit increase in speed (kph) at the onset of yellow interval significantly increases the probability of RLR by 5.3 %. The study showed that R-LED was the most effective solution for improving red light running prevention and encouraging a consistent stopping behavior at the intersection. In conclusion, the R-LED and the RW-gantry treatments are recommended as effective tools to improve safety at signalized intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Construído , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
BMJ ; 367: l6354, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether fast driving, luxury car ownership, and leniency by police officers differ across medical specialties. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Florida, USA. PARTICIPANTS: 5372 physicians and a sample of 19 639 non-physicians issued a ticket for speeding during 2004-17. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observed rates of extreme speeding (defined as driving >20 mph above the speed limit), luxury car ownership, and leniency of the speeding ticket by police officers, by physician specialty, after adjustment for age and sex. RESULTS: The sample included 5372 physicians who received 14 560 speeding tickets. The proportion of drivers who were reported driving at speeds greater than 20 mph was similar between physicians and a sample of 19 639 non-physicians who received a ticket for speeding (26.4% v 26.8% of tickets, respectively). Among physicians who received a ticket, psychiatrists were most likely to be fined for extreme speeding (adjusted odds ratio of psychiatry compared with baseline specialty of anesthesia 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.14). Among drivers who received a ticket, luxury car ownership was most common among cardiologists (adjusted proportion of ticketed cardiologists who owned a luxury car 40.9%, 95% confidence interval 35.9% to 45.9%) and least common among physicians in emergency medicine, family practice, pediatrics, general surgery, and psychiatry (eg, adjusted proportion of luxury car ownership among family practice physicians 20.6%, 95% confidence interval 18.2% to 23.0%). Speed discounting, a marker of leniency by police officers in which ticketed speed is recorded at just below the threshold at which a larger fine would otherwise be imposed, was common, but rates did not differ by specialty and did not differ between physicians and a sample of non-physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of extreme speeding were highest among psychiatrists who received a ticket, whereas cardiologists were the most likely to be driving a luxury car when ticketed. Leniency by police officers was similar across specialties and between physicians and non-physicians.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 81-92, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183602

RESUMO

Traffic safety is an important social problem. Many accidents are due to non-compliance with traffic regulations. Serious or repeated offenses are sanctioned with penalty points or court conviction, and sanctions can lead to disqualification from driving. This paper explores the relevance of alcohol consumption and personality factors as predictors of driving disqualification. The aim of the study is to determine whether the behaviors of persistent offenders and their propensity for law-breaking are related to their characteristics and patterns of drinking. A sample of 358 drivers participated in the study: 126 non-offender habitual drivers and 232 persistent traffic offenders disqualified from driving for serious or repeated traffic offenses, 127 of them after conviction, 105 without conviction (by accumulation of penalties). Participants were given a battery of tests measuring a set of explanatory personality and alcohol consumption factors. We used a cross-sectional study design and performed statistical analysis of variance and regression searching for differences among the groups. The results reveal group effects, with significant differences in a number of factors between traffic offenders and non-offenders, and between both categories of offenders in a number of variables, including traffic violations that lead to demerit points and/or loss of a driver's license and crash involvement. Certain variables, including problem drinking, high levels of activity or excitement, penchant for thrill or sensation seeking, and propensity to hostility while driving, can accurately predict group membership. Alcohol disorders are the best predictors of disqualification from driving for serious or repeat traffic offenses, both penalized and convicted


La seguridad vial es un importante problema social. Muchos accidentes se deben al incumplimiento de las normas de tráfico. Las infracciones graves o reiteradas se sancionan por la vía administrativa o judicial y en ambos casos las sanciones pueden suponer la pérdida del permiso de conducir. Este artículo explora la relevancia del alcohol y la personalidad como factores predictivos. El objetivo del estudio es determinar si el comportamiento delictivo de los infractores persistentes está relacionado con sus características de personalidad y patrones de consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó una muestra de 358 conductores: 232 infractores persistentes, a los que les había sido retirado el carnet de conducir (127 por sentencia judicial y 105 por pérdida total de puntos), y 126 conductores habituales no infractores. Se administró una batería de pruebas que miden un conjunto de factores explicativos de personalidad y consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó un diseño transversal y se realizaron análisis estadísticos de varianza y regresión buscando diferencias entre los grupos. Los resultados revelan diferencias significativas en el tipo de infracciones y accidentes entre infractores de tráfico y no infractores y entre ambas categorías de infractores. Además, ciertas variables, como el abuso de alcohol, altos niveles de actividad, activación emocional, búsqueda de sensaciones y la tendencia a la hostilidad durante la conducción, pueden predecir con precisión la pertenencia a uno u otro grupo. Los problemas con la bebida son el mejor predictor de la pérdida del permiso de conducir, tanto por condena como por acumulación de sanciones


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Perigoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Direção Agressiva/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas
6.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 10(4): 174-184, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole-body vibration (WBV) and mental workload (MWL) are common stressors among drivers who attempt to control numerous variables while driving a car, bus, or train. OBJECTIVE: To examine the individual and combined effects of the WBV and MWL on the autonomic nervous system. METHODS: ECG of 24 healthy male students was recorded using NeXus-4 while performing two difficulty levels of a computerized dual task and when they were exposing to WBV (intensity 0.5 m/s2; frequency 3-20 Hz). Each condition was examined for 5 min individually and combined. Inter-beat intervals were extracted from ECG records. The time-domain and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters were then extracted from the inter-beat intervals data. RESULTS: A significant (p=0.008) increase was observed in the mean RR interval while the participants were exposed to WBV; there was a significant (p=0.02) reduction in the mean RR interval while the participants were performing the MWL. WBV (p=0.02) and MWL significantly (p<0.001) increased the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals with a moderate-to-large effect size. All active periods increased the low-frequency component and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. However, only the WBV significantly increased the highfrequency component. A significant (p=0.01) interaction was observed between the WBV and MWL on low-frequency component and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio. CONCLUSION: Exposure to WBV and MWL can dysregulate the autonomic nervous system. WBV stimulates both sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system; MWL largely affects sympathetic nervous system. Both variables imbalance the sympatho-vagal control as well.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Vibração , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ruído Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105300, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585229

RESUMO

The increasing number of traffic accidents and their associated traffic congestion have prompted the development of innovative technologies to curb such problems. This paper proposes a novel score-based traffic law-enforcement and network management system (SLEM) that is based on connected vehicles (CV) technology. SLEM assigns a score to each driver which reflects her/his driving performance and compliance with traffic laws. The proposed system adopts a rewarding mechanism that rewards high-performing drivers and penalizes low-performing drivers who fail to obey the laws. The reward mechanism is in the form of a route guidance strategy that restricts low-score drivers from accessing certain roadway sections and time periods that are strategically selected in order to achieve an optimal traffic pattern in the network in which high-score drivers experience less congestion and a higher level of safety. A nationwide survey study was conducted to measure public acceptance of the proposed system. Another survey targeted a focused group of traffic operation and safety professionals. Based on the results of these surveys, a set of logistic regression models were developed to examine the sensitivity of public acceptance to policy and behavioral variables. The results showed that about 65.7 percent of the public and about 60.0 percent of professionals who participated in this study support the real-world implementation of SLEM.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Punição , Recompensa , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105291, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518766

RESUMO

This study applied the revised-Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST) to assess the influence of individual differences in young male and female drivers' risk perceptions and intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in a 60 km/hr zone. Relevant to the current study was the Behavioural Activation System (BAS; sensitive to reward), with a specific focus on the BAS processes: Reward Interest, Goal-Drive Persistence, Reward Reactivity and Impulsivity, and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS; sensitive to punishment). It was hypothesised that young male and female drivers with stronger BAS traits would report lower risk perceptions towards speeding behaviour than those with weaker BAS traits and this risk perception would predict greater intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in 60 km/hr zones. It was further hypothesised that young male and female drivers with stronger FFFS traits would report higher risk perceptions towards speeding behaviour than those with weaker FFFS traits and this risk perception would predict lower intentions to exceed the posted speed limit in 60 km/h zones. Participants were 367 young licensed Australian drivers aged between 17 and 25 years. The results of a mediation analyses showed that females with stronger Impulsivity had low perceptions of risk and higher intentions to speed than participants with weaker Impulsivity. Further, males with stronger Goal-Drive Persistence and reported higher perceptions of risk and lower intentions to speed than participants with weaker Goal-Drive Persistence. Contrary to expectations, the BAS processes of Reward Interest and Reward Reactivity, and the FFFS were not significant. The findings contribute to the theoretical understanding of how the r-RST traits, specifically Goal-Drive Persistence and Impulsivity may influence speeding behaviour as well as the understanding of the unique influence of the four underlying BAS processes.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Intenção , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Complement Ther Med ; 46: 158-164, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519273

RESUMO

Stress induced by driving has been revealed to increase the chances of cardiovascular complications and is involved or related to traffic accidents. In order to develop strategies to avoid health problems during driving we aimed to evaluate the acute effects of auditory stimulation with music on heart rate variability (HRV) during driving in congested urban traffic. This is a prospective cross-sectional randomized controlled pilot study conducted with five healthy women. Subjects were evaluated on two different random days, whose order of execution was established through a randomization process. In the music protocol the volunteers were exposed to music for the entire 20 min of traffic while in the control protocol the subjects performed the same procedures but were not exposed to any music. We noted that all Higuchi fractal dimension parameters except Kmax 10, Kmax 130 and Kmax 140 were reduced between pre-driving in the control protocol vs. driving in the control protocol. The same changes were noted between pre-driving in the music protocol vs. driving in the control protocol. In conclusion, musical auditory stimulation improved nonlinear HRV changes induced by driving.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105277, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514087

RESUMO

The sequence of instantaneous driving decisions and its variations, known as driving volatility, prior to involvement in safety critical events can be a leading indicator of safety. This study focuses on the component of "driving volatility matrix" related to specific normal and safety-critical events, named "event-based volatility." The research issue is characterizing volatility in instantaneous driving decisions in the longitudinal and lateral directions, and how it varies across drivers involved in normal driving, crash, and/or near-crash events. To explore the issue, a rigorous quasi-experimental study design is adopted to help compare driving behaviors in normal vs unsafe outcomes. Using a unique real-world naturalistic driving database from the 2nd Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP), a test set of 9593 driving events featuring 2.2 million temporal samples of real-world driving are analyzed. This study features a plethora of kinematic sensors, video, and radar spatiotemporal data about vehicle movement and therefore offers the opportunity to initiate such exploration. By using information related to longitudinal and lateral accelerations and vehicular jerk, 24 different aggregate and segmented measures of driving volatility are proposed that captures variations in extreme instantaneous driving decisions. In doing so, careful attention is given to the issue of intentional vs. unintentional volatility. The volatility indices, as leading indicators of near-crash and crash events, are then linked with safety critical events, crash propensity, and other event specific explanatory variables. Owing to the presence of unobserved heterogeneity and omitted variable bias, fixed- and random-parameter discrete choice models are developed that relate crash propensity to unintentional driving volatility and other factors. Statistically significant evidence is found that driver volatilities in near-crash and crash events are significantly greater than volatility in normal driving events. After controlling for traffic, roadway, and unobserved factors, the results suggest that greater intentional volatility increases the likelihood of both crash and near-crash events. A one-unit increase in intentional volatility is associated with positive vehicular jerk in longitudinal direction increases the chance of crash and near-crash outcome by 15.79 and 12.52 percentage points, respectively. Importantly, intentional volatility in positive vehicular jerk in lateral direction has more negative consequences than intentional volatility in positive vehicular jerk in longitudinal direction. Compared to acceleration/deceleration, vehicular jerk can better characterize the volatility in microscopic instantaneous driving decisions prior to involvement in safety critical events. Finally, the magnitudes of correlations exhibit significant heterogeneity, and that accounting for the heterogeneous effects in the modeling framework can provide more reliable and accurate results. The study demonstrates the value of quasi-experimental study design and big data analytics for understanding extreme driving behaviors in safe vs. unsafe driving outcomes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Aceleração/efeitos adversos , Big Data , Bases de Dados Factuais , Desaceleração/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105263, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525650

RESUMO

Work zone safety from a psychological perspective has received little attention in scientific literature. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the influence of roadwork characteristics and drivers' individual differences in terms of personality traits and self-assessment of driving skills on speed preferences in a rural work zone. Eight hundred forty-five Norwegian drivers stated their preferred speed for ten pictures of a rural work zone with a 50 km/h reduced speed limit without knowing the speed limit. The results showed that the preferred speeds were greater than the actual reduced speed limit for all pictures. The standard deviations were quite high (from 11 to 14 km/h), indicating that drivers have a rather high variation in preferred speeds. A multilevel model was used to analyse the effects of the variables on speed preference. The results indicated that preferred speeds increased with age, higher scores on the normlessness scale, and higher self-assessment of own driving skills. As for the roadwork characteristics, speed increased with the presence of road markings by 11 km/h, while it decreased by 9 km/h with the presence of road delineators and by 5 km/h with barriers. Implications for respect for the reduced speed limits in work zones were discussed, and recommendations of other countermeasures were presented.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , População Rural , Segurança , Autoavaliação
12.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105273, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521874

RESUMO

This study examined cannabis use and driving outcomes among older drivers in Colorado, which has legalized medical and recreational use. The associations of self-reported past-year cannabis use with diverse driving outcomes were assessed in 598 drivers aged 65-79 (51% female, 70% with postsecondary education), using regression analysis to adjust for health and sociodemographic characteristics. Two hundred forty four (40.8%) drivers reported ever using cannabis. Fifty-four drivers (9.0%) reported past-year use, ranging from more than once a day (13.0%) to less than once a month (50.0%). Of past-year users, 9.3% reported cannabis use within 1 h of driving in the past year. Past-year users were younger, less highly educated, lower income, and reported significantly worse mental, emotional, social and cognitive health status than drivers without past-year use. Past-year users were four times as likely to report having driven when they may have been over the legal blood-alcohol limit (adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.18; 95% CI: 2.11, 8.25) but were not more likely to report having had a crash or citation (aOR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.70, 2.66) in the past year. Users and non-users had similar scores on self-rated abilities for safe driving (adjusted beta=-0.04; 95% CI: -0.23, 0.15) and on driving-related lapses, errors and violations in the past year (adjusted beta = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.12). Further study is needed to establish driving risks and behaviours related to cannabis use, independent of other associated risk factors, among older adults.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
13.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105298, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557617

RESUMO

In this study, we attempted to explain drivers' crash risk variation in car-following for crash avoidance considering the effects of drivers' visual perception, vehicle type, and horizontal curves, with a structural equations model. The model was built by incorporating drivers' speed risk perception and distance risk perception as latent variables. A series of on-road experiments was conducted on the curved segments of a freeway in China to collect naturalistic driving data to approximate the model. The results indicate that (1) the amount of variance in speed risk perception accounted for by the temporal and spatial frequency and the following vehicle type was 21%; (2) the amount of variance in distance risk perception accounted for by the temporal and spatial frequency, leading vehicle type, stopping sight distance (SSD), horizontal sightline offset (HSO), and radius was 29%; and (3) speed risk perception and distance risk perception explained 27% of the total variance in crash risk variation, which is significantly higher than previous similar results that were commonly limited to 10%. The results were explained from the perspective of the effect of line markings, vehicle type (size), and curves on driving behaviors, respectively. In addition, the difference between the effect of speed risk perception and distance perception on crash risk variation was discussed considering the direct and indirect origins of risk in driving. The findings suggests that the incorporation of visual perceptual, vehicular, and roadway factors and its relevant speed risk perception and distance risk perception can better explain the crash risk in car-following. This study also emphasized the possibility and the need of applying the line markings as a visual intervention to prevent the drivers from rear-end crashes on curves, which may provide new insights and be a new solution for roadway safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Ambiente Construído , China , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Fatores de Risco , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105243, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494404

RESUMO

As a way of obtaining a visual expression of knowledge, mapping knowledge domain (MKD) provides a vision-based analytic approach to scientometric analysis which can be used to reveal an academic community, the structure of its networks, and the dynamic development of a discipline. This study, based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) articles on road safety, employs the bibliometric tools VOSviewer and CitNetExplorer to create maps of author co-citation, document co-citation, citation networks, analyze the core authors and classic documents supporting road safety studies and show the citation context and development of such studies. It shows that road safety studies clustered mainly into four groups, whose we will refer to as "effects of driving psychology and behavior on road safety", "causation, frequency and injury severity analysis of road crashes", "epidemiology, assessment and prevention of road traffic injury", and "effects of driver risk factors on driver performance and road safety", respectively. Through our analysis, the core publications and their citation relationships were quickly located and explored, and "crash frequency modeling analysis" has been identified to be the core research topic in road safety studies, with spatial statistical analysis technique emerging as a frontier of this topic.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Bibliometria , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Segurança , Análise Espacial
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509961

RESUMO

Driving a car meets older people's needs, providing utility (getting from A to B), psychosocial (providing identity and roles and feelings of independence and normality) and aesthetic (mobility for its own sake) mobilities. Giving up driving is related to poorer health and wellbeing. This paper addresses how older people cope when they give up driving, using Bourdieu's theory of capital as a way of categorising different barriers and enablers to managing without a car in a hypermobile society. Older people are most likely to mention barriers and enablers to mobility relating to infrastructure capital (technology, services, roads, pavements, finance and economics), followed by social capital (friends, family, neighbourhood and community). Cultural capital (norms, expectations, rules, laws) and individual capital (skills, abilities, resilience, adaptation and desire and willingness to change) are less important but still significantly contribute to older people's mobility. Implications for policy and practice suggest that provision for older people beyond the car must explore capital across all four of the domains.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Transportes , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência , Capital Social
16.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S21-S26, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381428

RESUMO

Objective: Systems that can warn the driver of a possible collision with a vulnerable road user (VRU) have significant safety benefits. However, incorrect warning times can have adverse effects on the driver. If the warning is too late, drivers might not be able to react; if the warning is too early, drivers can become annoyed and might turn off the system. Currently, there are no methods to determine the right timing for a warning to achieve high effectiveness and acceptance by the driver. This study aims to validate a driver model as the basis for selecting appropriate warning times. The timing of the forward collision warnings (FCWs) selected for the current study was based on the comfort boundary (CB) model developed during a previous project, which describes the moment a driver would brake. Drivers' acceptance toward these warnings was analyzed. The present study was conducted as part of the European research project PROSPECT ("Proactive Safety for Pedestrians and Cyclists"). Methods: Two warnings were selected: One inside the CB and one outside the CB. The scenario tested was a cyclist crossing scenario with time to arrival (TTA) of 4 s (it takes the cyclist 4 s to reach the intersection). The timing of the warning inside the CB was at a time to collision (TTC) of 2.6 s (asymptotic value of the model at TTA = 4 s) and the warning outside the CB was at TTC = 1.7 s (below the lower 95% value at TTA = 4 s). Thirty-one participants took part in the test track study (between-subjects design where warning time was the independent variable). Participants were informed that they could brake any moment after the warning was issued. After the experiment, participants completed an acceptance survey. Results: Participants reacted faster to the warning outside the CB compared to the warning inside the CB. This confirms that the CB model represents the criticality felt by the driver. Participants also rated the warning inside the CB as more disturbing, and they had a higher acceptance of the system with the warning outside the CB. The above results confirm the possibility of developing wellsaccepted warnings based on driver models. Conclusions: Similar to other studies' results, drivers prefer warning times that compare with their driving behavior. It is important to consider that the study tested only one scenario. In addition, in this study, participants were aware of the appearance of the cyclist and the warning. A further investigation should be conducted to determine the acceptance of distracted drivers.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Adulto , Ciclismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S157-S161, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381433

RESUMO

Objective: Drowsiness is a major cause of driver impairment leading to crashes and fatalities. Research has established the ability to detect drowsiness with various kinds of sensors. We studied drowsy driving in a high-fidelity driving simulator and evaluated the ability of an automotive production-ready driver monitoring system (DMS) to detect drowsy driving. Additionally, this feature was compared to and combined with signals from vehicle-based sensors. Methods: The National Advanced Driving Simulator was used to expose drivers to long, monotonous drives. Twenty participants drove for about 4 h in the simulator between 10 p.m. and 2 a.m. They were allowed to use cruise control and traffic was sparse and semirandom, with both slower- and faster-moving vehicles. Observational ratings of drowsiness (ORDs) were used as the ground truth for drowsiness, and several dependent measures were calculated from vehicle and DMS signals. Drowsiness classification models were created that used only vehicle signals, only driver monitoring signals, and a combination of the 2 sources. Results: The model that used DMS signals performed better than the one that used only vehicle signals; however, the combination of the two performed the best. The models were effective at discriminating low levels of drowsiness from moderate to severe drowsiness; however, they were not effective at telling the difference between moderate and severe levels. A binary model that lumped drowsiness into 2 classes had an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.897. Conclusions: Blinks and saccades have been shown to be predictive of microsleeps; however, it may be that detection of microsleeps and lane departures occurs too late. Therefore, it is encouraging that the model was able to distinguish mild from moderate drowsy driving. The use of automation may make vehicle-based signals useless for characterizing driver states, providing further motivation for a DMS. Future improvements in impairment detection systems may be expected through a combination of improved hardware, physiological measures from unobtrusive sensors and wearables, and the intelligent integration of environmental variables like time of day and time on task.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Vigília/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Automação , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S92-S96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381434

RESUMO

Objective: When 2 vehicles of different sizes collide, the occupants of the smaller vehicle are more likely to be injured than the occupants of the larger vehicle. The larger vehicle is both more protective of its own occupants and more aggressive toward occupants of the other vehicle. However, larger, heavier vehicles tend to be designed in ways that amplify their incompatibility with smaller, lighter vehicles (by having a higher ride height, for example). A 2012 study by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) concluded that fatalities caused by design incompatibility have decreased in recent years. The current study was conducted to update the 2012 IIHS analysis and to explore trends in vehicle incompatibility over time. Methods: Analyses examined deaths in crashes involving 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles from 1989 to 2016 collected from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Trends in driver risk were examined by comparing driver death rates per million registered vehicle years across vehicle type and size. Trends in aggressivity were examined by comparing partner driver death rates across vehicle type and size. Results: Cars and SUVs have continued their trend toward reduced incompatibility. In 1989-1992, SUVs were 132% more likely to kill the driver in a partner car compared with when a car crashed with another car. By 2013-2016, this value had dropped to 28%. Pickups and cars remain just as incompatible in 2013-2016 as they were in 1989-1992, however (159% vs. 158%). Remaining pickup incompatibility may be largely due to excess curb weight rather than to shape or design features, because light pickups were just 23% more likely to kill the driver in a partner car compared with when a car crashed with another car. Conclusions: The trend toward reduced fleet incompatibility has continued in the latest crash data, particularly for cars and SUVs. Although pickup-car incompatibility has also decreased over time, pickups remain disproportionately aggressive toward other vehicles, possibly due to their greater average curb weight. Reducing the weight of some of the heaviest vehicles and making crash avoidance technology fitment more widespread may be promising means to reduce remaining fleet incompatibility. Identifying the source of remaining incompatibility will be important for safety improvements going forward.


Assuntos
Agressão , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
19.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S177-S181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381442

RESUMO

Objective: Road departures are one of the most severe crash modes in the United States. To help reduce this risk, vehicles are being introduced in the United States with lane departure warning (LDW) systems, which warn the driver of a departure, and lane departure prevention (LDP) systems, which assist the driver in steering back to the roadway. Previous studies have estimated that LDW/LDP systems may prevent one third of drift-out-of-lane road departure crashes. This study investigates the crashes that were not prevented, to potentially set research priorities for next-generation road departure prevention systems. Methods: The event data recorder (EDR) data from 128 road departure crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) from 2011 to 2015 were mapped onto the vehicle trajectory and simulated with LDW/LDP to assess the potential for crash avoidance. The model predicted that 63-83% of single-vehicle road departure crashes may not be prevented by an LDW system and 49% may not be prevented by an LDP system. Results and Conclusions: For LDP systems, which were assumed to have zero latency, no crashes were avoided if the time-to-collision (TTC) from lane crossing to impact was less than 0.55 s. Obstacles such as guardrails and traffic barriers, which tend to be very close to the road, were more common among the remaining crashes. The study shows that LDW/LDP systems are limited by two factors, driver reaction time and TTC to the roadside object. Thus, earlier driver response and longer TTC may help in these situations.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Estados Unidos
20.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 20(sup1): S152-S156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381449

RESUMO

Objective: The handover of vehicle control from automated to manual operation is a critical aspect of interaction between drivers and automated driving systems (ADS). In some cases, it is possible that the ADS may fail to detect an object. In this event, the driver must be aware of the situation and resume control of the vehicle without assistance from the system. Consequently, the driver must fulfill the following 2 main roles while driving: (1) monitor the vehicle trajectory and surrounding traffic environment and (2) actively take over vehicle control if the driver identifies a potential issue along the trajectory. An effective human-machine interface (HMI) is required that enables the driver to fulfill these roles. This article proposes an HMI that constantly indicates the future position of the vehicle. Methods: This research used the Toyota Dynamic Driving Simulator to evaluate the effect of the proposed HMI and compares the proposed HMI with an HMI that notifies the driver when the vehicle trajectory changes. A total of 48 test subjects were divided into 2 groups of 24: One group used the HMI that constantly indicated the future position of the vehicle and the other group used the HMI that provided information when the vehicle trajectory changed. The following instructions were given to the test subjects: (1) to not hold the steering wheel and to allow the vehicle to drive itself, (2) to constantly monitor the surrounding traffic environment because the functions of the ADS are limited, and (3) to take over driving if necessary. The driving simulator experiments were composed of an initial 10-min acclimatization period and a 10-min evaluation period. Approximately 10 min after the start of the evaluation period, a scenario occurred in which the ADS failed to detect an object on the vehicle trajectory, potentially resulting in a collision if the driver did not actively take over control and manually avoid the object. Results: The collision avoidance rate of the HMI that constantly indicated the future position of the vehicle was higher than that of the HMI that notified the driver of trajectory changes, χ2 = 6.38, P < .05. The steering wheel hands-on and steering override timings were also faster with the proposed HMI (t test; P < .05). Conclusions: This research confirmed that constantly indicating the position of the vehicle several seconds in the future facilitates active driver intervention when an ADS is in operation.


Assuntos
Automação , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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