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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502734

RESUMO

This perspective article highlights a recent surge of interest in the application of textiles containing carbon nanotube (CNT) sensors for human health monitoring. Modern life puts more and more pressure on humans, which translates into an increased number of various health disorders. Unfortunately, this effect either decreases the quality of life or shortens it prematurely. A possible solution to this problem is to employ sensors to monitor various body functions and indicate an upcoming disease likelihood at its early stage. A broad spectrum of materials is currently under investigation for this purpose, some of which already entered the market. One of the most promising materials in this field are CNTs. They are flexible and of high electrical conductivity, which can be modulated upon several forms of stimulation. The article begins with an illustration of techniques for how wearable sensors can be built from them. Then, their application potential for tracking various health parameters is presented. Finally, the article ends with a summary of this field's progress and a vision of the key directions to domesticate this concept.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Têxteis
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502835

RESUMO

Electronic textiles (e-textiles) have become more and more important in daily life and attracted increased attention of the scientific community over the last decade. This interdisciplinary field of interest ranges from material science, over chemistry, physics, electrical engineering, information technology to textile design. Numerous applications can already be found in sports, safety, healthcare, etc. Throughout the life of service, e-textiles undergo several exposures, e.g., mechanical stress, chemical corrosion, etc., that cause aging and functional losses in the materials. The review provides a broad and critical overview on the functional ageing of electronic textiles on different levels from fibres to fabrics. The main objective is to review possible aging mechanisms and elaborate the effect of aging on (electrical) performances of e-textiles. The review also provides an overview on different laboratory methods for the investigation on accelerated functional ageing. Finally, we try to build a model of cumulative fatigue damage theory for modelling the change of e-textile properties in their lifetime.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Têxteis , Condutividade Elétrica
3.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 703-708, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459170

RESUMO

The temperature dependence of relative permittivity and conductivity of ex-vivo pig liver, lung and heart at 2 450 MHz was studied. The relative permittivity and conductivity of three kinds of biological tissues were measured by the open-end coaxial line method. The dielectric model was fitted according to the principle of least square method. The results showed that the relative permittivity and conductivity of pig liver, pig lung and pig heart decreased with the increase of tissue temperature from 20 to 80 ℃. The relative permittivity and conductivity models of pig liver, pig lung and pig heart were established to reflect the law of dielectric properties of biological tissue changing with temperature and provide a reference for the parameters setting of thermal ablation temperature field.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Fígado , Animais , Condutividade Elétrica , Pulmão , Suínos , Temperatura
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445255

RESUMO

One of the most important features of striated cardiac muscle is the excitability that turns on the excitation-contraction coupling cycle, resulting in the heart blood pumping function. The function of the heart pump may be impaired by events such as myocardial infarction, the consequence of coronary artery thrombosis due to blood clots or plaques. This results in the death of billions of cardiomyocytes, the formation of scar tissue, and consequently impaired contractility. A whole heart transplant remains the gold standard so far and the current pharmacological approaches tend to stop further myocardium deterioration, but this is not a long-term solution. Electrically conductive, scaffold-based cardiac tissue engineering provides a promising solution to repair the injured myocardium. The non-conductive component of the scaffold provides a biocompatible microenvironment to the cultured cells while the conductive component improves intercellular coupling as well as electrical signal propagation through the scar tissue when implanted at the infarcted site. The in vivo electrical coupling of the cells leads to a better regeneration of the infarcted myocardium, reducing arrhythmias, QRS/QT intervals, and scar size and promoting cardiac cell maturation. This review presents the emerging applications of intrinsically conductive polymers in cardiac tissue engineering to repair post-ischemic myocardial insult.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Infarto do Miocárdio , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Engenharia Tecidual
5.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(17): 3167-3175, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375091

RESUMO

With the great success of graphene in the biomedical field, carbon nanotubes have attracted increasing attention for different applications in ophthalmology. Here, we report a novel retinal sheet composed of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that can enhance retinal cell therapy. By tuning our CNTs to regulate the mechanical characteristics of retina sheets, we were able to improve the in vitro viability of retinal ganglion cells derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells incorporated into CNTs. Engrafted retinal ganglion cells displayed signs of regenerating processes along the optic nerve. Compared with PLGA scaffolds, CNT-PLGA retinal sheet tissue has excellent electrical conductivity, biocompatibility, and biodegradation. This new biomaterial offers new insight into retinal injury, repair, and regeneration.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Polímeros , Retina , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Engenharia Tecidual
6.
Soft Matter ; 17(34): 7940-7952, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378618

RESUMO

The importance of electrically functional biomaterials is increasing as researchers explore ways to utilise them in novel sensing capacities. It has been recognised that for many of these materials the state of hydration is a key parameter that can heavily affect the conductivity, particularly those that rely upon ionic or proton transport as a key mechanism. However, thus far little attention has been paid to the nature of the water morphology in the hydrated state and the concomitant ionic conductivity. Presented here is an inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiment on hydrated eumelanin, a model bioelectronic material, in order to investigate its 'water morphology'. We develop a rigorous new methodology for performing hydration dependent INS experiments. We also model the eumelanin dry spectra with a minimalist approach whereas for higher hydration levels we are able to obtain difference spectra to extract out the water scattering signal. A key result is that the physi-sorbed water structure within eumelanin is dominated by interfacial water with the number of water layers between 3-5, and no bulk water. We also detect for the first time, the potential signatures for proton cations, most likely the Zundel ion, within a biopolymer/water system. These new signatures may be general for soft proton ionomer systems, if the systems are comprised of only interfacial water within their structure. The nature of the water morphology opens up new questions about the potential ionic charge transport mechanisms within hydrated bioelectronics materials.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Água , Condutividade Elétrica
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443318

RESUMO

In this study, the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) technique and electroless deposition of silver (Ag) were used to prepare a novel multi-functional cotton (Cotton-Ag), possessing both conductive and antibacterial behaviors. It was found that the optimal electroless deposition time was 20 min for a weight gain of 40.4%. The physical and chemical properties of Cotton-Ag were investigated. It was found that Cotton-Ag was conductive and showed much lower electrical resistance, compared to the pristine cotton. The antibacterial properties of Cotton-Ag were also explored, and high antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fibra de Algodão/análise , Condutividade Elétrica , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
8.
Nano Lett ; 21(16): 6990-6997, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387505

RESUMO

We here demonstrate the multifunctional properties of atomically thin heterojunctions that are enabled by their strong interfacial interactions and their application toward self-powered sensors with unprecedented performance. Bonding between tin diselenide and graphene produces thermoelectric and mechanoelectric properties beyond the ability of either component. A record-breaking ZT of 2.43 originated from the synergistic combination of graphene's high carrier conductivity and SnSe2-mediated thermal conductivity lowering. Moreover, spatially varying interaction at the SnSe2/graphene interface produces stress localization that results in a novel 2D-crack-assisted strain sensing mechanism whose sensitivity (GF = 450) is superior to all other 2D materials. Finally, a graphene-assisted growth process permits the formation of high-quality heterojunctions directly on polymeric substrates for flexible and transparent sensors that achieve self-powered strain sensing from a small temperature gradient. Our work enhances the fundamental understanding of multifunctionality at the atomic scale and provides a route toward structural health monitoring through ubiquitous and smart devices.


Assuntos
Grafite , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Polímeros , Temperatura
9.
J Neural Eng ; 18(4)2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404037

RESUMO

Neural electrodes are primary functional elements of neuroelectronic devices designed to record neural activity based on electrochemical signals. These electrodes may also be utilized for electrically stimulating the neural cells, such that their response can be simultaneously recorded. In addition to being medically safe, the electrode material should be electrically conductive and electrochemically stable under harsh biological environments. Mechanical flexibility and conformability, resistance to crack formation and compatibility with common microfabrication techniques are equally desirable properties. Traditionally, (noble) metals have been the preferred for neural electrode applications due to their proven biosafety and a relatively high electrical conductivity. Carbon is a recent addition to this list, which is far superior in terms of its electrochemical stability and corrosion resistance. Carbon has also enabled 3D electrode fabrication as opposed to the thin-film based 2D structures. One of carbon's peculiar aspects is its availability in a wide range of allotropes with specialized properties that render it highly versatile. These variations, however, also make it difficult to understand carbon itself as a unique material, and thus, each allotrope is often regarded independently. Some carbon types have already shown promising results in bioelectronic medicine, while many others remain potential candidates. In this topical review, we first provide a broad overview of the neuroelectronic devices and the basic requirements of an electrode material. We subsequently discuss the carbon family of materials and their properties that are useful in neural applications. Examples of devices fabricated using bulk and nano carbon materials are reviewed and critically compared. We then summarize the challenges, future prospects and next-generation carbon technology that can be helpful in the field of neural sciences. The article aims at providing a common platform to neuroscientists, electrochemists, biologists, microsystems engineers and carbon scientists to enable active and comprehensive efforts directed towards carbon-based neuroelectronic device fabrication.


Assuntos
Carbono , Eletricidade , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrodos , Metais
10.
Chemistry ; 27(52): 13161-13171, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383383

RESUMO

Hydrogels with mechanical elasticity and conductivity are ideal materials in wearable devices. However, traditional hydrogels are fragile upon mechanical loading and lose functions in climate change because the internal water undergoes freeze and dehydration. Herein, we synthesize stable emulsions at high and low temperatures by introducing glycerol into the W/W emulsions. Then the high-stable emulsions are used as templates to produce the freestanding emulsion gels with enhanced mechanical strength and conductivity. The introduction of glycerol endows emulsions and emulsion gels with high and low temperature resistance (-20 to 90 °C). The fabricated strain sensors based on emulsion gels show high sensitivity (gauge factor=6.240), high stretchability (1081 %), fatigue resistance, self-healing and adhesion properties, realizing the repeatable and accurate detection of various human motions. These high-performance and eco-friendly emulsion gels can be promising candidates for next-generation artificial skin and human-machine interface.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Emulsões , Géis , Humanos , Temperatura
11.
Anal Chem ; 93(36): 12320-12328, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460223

RESUMO

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful tool to measure and quantify the system impedance. However, EIS only provides an average result from the entire electrode surface. Here, we demonstrated a reflection impedance microscope (RIM) that allows us to image and quantify the localized impedance on conductive surfaces. The RIM is based on the sensitive dependence between the materials' optical properties, such as permittivity, and their local surface charge densities. The localized charge density variations introduced by the impedance measurements will lead to optical reflectivity changes on electrode surfaces. Our experiments demonstrated that reflectivity modulations are linearly proportional to the surface charge density on the electrode and the measurements show good agreement with the simple free electron gas model. The localized impedance distribution was successfully extracted from the reflectivity measurements together with the Randles equivalent circuit model. In addition, RIM is used to quantify the impedance on different conductive surfaces, such as indium tin oxide, gold film, and stainless steel electrodes. A polydimethylsiloxane-patterned electrode surface was used to demonstrate the impedance imaging capability of RIM. In the end, a single-cell impedance imaging was obtained by RIM.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Ouro , Condutividade Elétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Eletrodos
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39641-39651, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374517

RESUMO

Biomaterial-based memristors (bio-memristors) are often adopted to emulate biological synapse functions and applied to construct neural computing networks in brain-inspired chip systems. However, the randomness of conductive filament formation in bio-memristors inhibits their switching performance by causing the dispersion of the device-switching parameters. In this case, a facile porous silk fibroin (p-SF) memristor was obtained through a protein surface reconstruction strategy, in which the size of the hole can be adjusted by the density of hybrid nanoseeds. The porous SF memristors exhibit greatly enhanced electrical characteristics, including uniform I-V cycles, centralized distribution of the switching voltages, and both high and low resistances, compared to devices without pores. The results of three-dimensional (3D) simulations based on classical density functional theory (cDFT) suggest that the reconstructed pores in the SF layers guide the formation and fracture of Ag filaments under an electric field and enhance the overall conductivity by separating Ag+ ion and electron diffusion pathways. Ag+ ions are predicted to preferentially diffuse through pores, whereas electrons diffuse through the SF network. Interestingly, the device conductance can be bidirectionally modulated gradually by positive and negative voltages, can faithfully simulate short-term and long-term plasticity, and can even realize the triplet-spike-timing-dependent plasticity (triplet-STDP) rule, which can be used for pattern recognition in biological systems. The simulation results reveal that a memristor network of this type has an accuracy of ∼95.78% in memory learning and the capability of pattern learning. This work provides a facile technology route to improve the performance of bionic-material memristors.


Assuntos
Sinapses Elétricas/química , Sinapses Elétricas/metabolismo , Fibroínas/química , Encéfalo , Cátions/química , Simulação por Computador , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Condutividade Elétrica , Modelos Biológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Porosidade , Prata/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 40013-40031, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375080

RESUMO

Flexible and wearable hydrogel strain sensors have attracted tremendous attention for applications in human motion and physiological signal monitoring. However, it is still a great challenge to develop a hydrogel strain sensor with certain mechanical properties and tensile deformation capabilities, which can be in conformal contact with the target organ and also have self-healing properties, self-adhesive capability, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties, high strain sensitivity, and stable electrical performance. In this paper, an ionic conductive hydrogel (named PBST) is rationally designed by proportionally mixing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), borax, silk fibroin (SF), and tannic acid (TA). SF can not only be a reinforcement to introduce an energy dissipation mechanism into the dynamically cross-linked hydrogel network to stabilize the non-Newtonian behavior of PVA and borax but it can also act as a cross-linking agent to combine with TA to reduce the dissociation of TA on the hydrogel network, improving the mechanical properties and viscoelasticity of the hydrogel. The combination of SF and TA can improve the self-healing ability of the hydrogel and realize the adjustable viscoelasticity of the hydrogel without sacrificing other properties. The obtained hydrogel has excellent stretchability (strain > 1000%) and shows good conformal contact with human skin. When the hydrogel is damaged by external strain, it can rapidly self-repair (mechanical and electrical properties) without external stimuli. It shows adhesiveness and repeatable adhesiveness to different materials (steel, wood, PTFE, glass, iron, and cotton fabric) and biological tissues (pigskin) and is easy to peel off without residue. The obtained PBST conductive hydrogel also has a wide strain-sensing range (>650%) and reliable stability. The hydrogel adhered to the skin surface can monitor large strain movements such as in finger joints, wrist joints, knee joints, and so on and detect swallowing, smiling, facial bulging and calming, and other micro-deformation behaviors. It can also distinguish physical signals such as light smile, big laugh, fast and slow breathing, and deep and shallow breathing. Therefore, the PBST conductive hydrogel material with multiple synergistic functions has great potential as a flexible wearable strain sensor. The PBST hydrogel has antibacterial properties and good biocompatibility at the same time, which provides a safety guarantee for it as a flexible wearable strain sensor. This work is expected to provide a new way for people to develop ideal wearable strain sensors.


Assuntos
Adesivos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Fibroínas/química , Hidrogéis/química , Substâncias Viscoelásticas/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/metabolismo , Boratos/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Movimento , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Reologia , Pele , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície , Taninos/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Cicatrização
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39868-39879, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383459

RESUMO

Wearable electronic devices have attracted significant attention as important components in several applications. Among various wearable electronic devices, interest in textile electronic devices is increasing because of their high deformability and portability in daily life. To develop textile electronic devices, fiber-based electronic devices should be fundamentally studied. Here, we report a stretchable and sensitive fiber strain sensor fabricated using only harmless materials during an in situ formation process. Despite using a mild and harmless reducing agent instead of typical strong and hazardous reducing agents, the developed fiber strain sensors feature a low initial electrical resistance of 0.9 Ω/cm, a wide strain sensing range (220%), high sensitivity (∼5.8 × 104), negligible hysteresis, and high stability against repeated stretching-releasing deformation (5000 cycles). By applying the fiber sensors to various textiles, we demonstrate that the smart textile system can monitor various gestures in real-time and help users maintain accurate posture during exercise. These results will provide meaningful insights into the development of next-generation wearable applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Têxteis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Modelos Químicos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372305

RESUMO

Flexible pressure sensors with piezoresistive polymer composites can be integrated into elastomers to measure pressure changes in sealings, preemptively indicating a replacement is needed before any damage or leakage occurs. Integrating small percentages of high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into polymers does not significantly change its mechanical properties but highly affects its electrical properties. This research shows a pressure sensor based on homogeneous dispersed MWCNTs in polydimethylsiloxane with a high sensitivity region (0.13% kPa-1, 0-200 kPa) and sensitive up to 500 kPa. A new 3D-printed mold is developed to directly deposit the conductive polymer on the electrode structures, enabling sensor thicknesses as small as 100 µm.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrodos , Polímeros
16.
J Chem Phys ; 155(5): 055102, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364335

RESUMO

Ratcheted multi-step hopping electron transfer systems can plausibly produce directional charge transport over very large distances without requiring a source-drain voltage bias. We examine molecular strategies to realize ratcheted charge transport based on multi-step charge hopping, and we illustrate two ratcheting mechanisms with examples based on DNA structures. The charge transport times and currents that may be generated in these assemblies are also estimated using kinetic simulations. The first ratcheting mechanism described for nanoscale systems requires local electric fields on the 109 V/m scale to realize nearly 100% population transport. The second ratcheting mechanism for even larger systems, based on electrochemical gating, is estimated to generate currents as large as 0.1 pA for DNA structures that are a few µm in length with a gate voltage of about 5 V, a magnitude comparable to currents measured in DNA wires at the nanoscale when a source-drain voltage bias of similar magnitude is applied, suggesting an approach to considerably extend the distance range over which DNA charge transport devices may operate.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletroquímica , Cinética , Eletricidade Estática
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4880, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385444

RESUMO

Accurate and imperceptible monitoring of electrophysiological signals is of primary importance for wearable healthcare. Stiff and bulky pregelled electrodes are now commonly used in clinical diagnosis, causing severe discomfort to users for long-time using as well as artifact signals in motion. Here, we report a ~100 nm ultra-thin dry epidermal electrode that is able to conformably adhere to skin and accurately measure electrophysiological signals. It showed low sheet resistance (~24 Ω/sq, 4142 S/cm), high transparency, and mechano-electrical stability. The enhanced optoelectronic performance was due to the synergistic effect between graphene and poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), which induced a high degree of molecular ordering on PEDOT and charge transfer on graphene by strong π-π interaction. Together with ultra-thin nature, this dry epidermal electrode is able to accurately monitor electrophysiological signals such as facial skin and brain activity with low-motion artifact, enabling human-machine interfacing and long-time mental/physical health monitoring.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Epiderme/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Artefatos , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrofisiologia/instrumentação , Eletrofisiologia/normas , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Grafite/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Movimento (Física) , Polímeros/química , Poliestirenos/química , Pele
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5072, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417473

RESUMO

In vivo bioprinting has recently emerged as a direct fabrication technique to create artificial tissues and medical devices on target sites within the body, enabling advanced clinical strategies. However, existing in vivo bioprinting methods are often limited to applications near the skin or require open surgery for printing on internal organs. Here, we report a ferromagnetic soft catheter robot (FSCR) system capable of in situ computer-controlled bioprinting in a minimally invasive manner based on magnetic actuation. The FSCR is designed by dispersing ferromagnetic particles in a fiber-reinforced polymer matrix. This design results in stable ink extrusion and allows for printing various materials with different rheological properties and functionalities. A superimposed magnetic field drives the FSCR to achieve digitally controlled printing with high accuracy. We demonstrate printing multiple patterns on planar surfaces, and considering the non-planar surface of natural organs, we then develop an in situ printing strategy for curved surfaces and demonstrate minimally invasive in vivo bioprinting of hydrogels in a rat model. Our catheter robot will permit intelligent and minimally invasive bio-fabrication.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Cateteres , Imãs/química , Robótica , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Elasticidade , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Suínos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viscosidade
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450977

RESUMO

Certain applications require a contactless measurement to eliminate the risk of sensor-induced sample contamination. Examples can be found in chemical process control, biotechnology or medical technology. For instance, in critically ill patients requiring renal replacement therapy, continuous in-line monitoring of blood conductivity as a measure for sodium should be considered. A differential inductive sensing system based on a differential transformer using a specific flow chamber has already proven suitable for this application. However, since the blood in renal replacement therapy is carried in plastic tubing, a direct measurement through the tubing offers a contactless method. Therefore, in this work we present a differential transformer for measuring directly through electrically non-conductive tubing by winding the tube around the ferrite core of the transformer. Here, the dependence of the winding type and the number of turns of the tubing on the sensitivity has been analyzed by using a mathematical model, simulations and experimental validation. A maximum sensitivity of 364.9 mV/mol/L is measured for radial winding around the core. A longitudinal winding turns out to be less effective with 92.8 mV/mol/L. However, the findings prove the ability to use the differential transformer as a truly contactless sensing system.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Modelos Teóricos , Fenômenos Químicos , Condutividade Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206438

RESUMO

Sensing of the interaction forces at fingertips is of great value in assessment and rehabilitation therapy. Current force sensors are not compliant to the fingertip tissue and result in loss of touch sensation of the user. This work shows the development and characterization of a flexible fully-3D-printed piezoresistive shear and normal force sensor that uses the mechanical deformation of the finger tissue. Two prototypes of the sensing structure are evaluated using a finite element model and a measurement setup that applies normal and shear forces up to 10 N on a fingertip phantom placed inside the sensing structure, which is fixed to prevent slippage. Furthermore, the relation between strain (rate) and resistance of the conductive TPU, used for the strain gauges, is characterized. The applied normal and shear force components of the 3D-printed sensing structure can be partly separated. FEM analysis showed that the output of the sensor is largely related to the sensor geometry and location of the strain gauges. Furthermore, the conductive TPU that was used has a negative gauge factor for the strain range used in this study and might cause non-linear behaviors in the sensor output.


Assuntos
Dedos , Tato , Condutividade Elétrica , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Impressão Tridimensional
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