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2.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 5, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Workplace stress carries considerable costs for the employees' wellbeing and for the organization's performance. Recent studies demonstrate that perceptions of psychological contract breach are a source of stress for employees. That is, when employees notice that their employer does not fulfil certain obligations, they will perceive that certain resources are threatened or lost, which in turn translates into increased stress. In this study, we zoom in on how stress unfolds in the aftermath of breach, dependent on the organization's reaction to the breach. More specifically, we examined the influence of different types of social accounts (i.e., denial, apology, blaming and exonerating justification) on individuals' stress resolution process using physiological (i.e., heart rate) and psychological (self-report) data. METHOD: We used an experimental design in which we manipulated psychological contract breach and social account type. To test our hypotheses, we performed two sets of functional Principal Component Analyses: first to examine the effects of breach and second to examine the effects of social accounts. RESULTS: Our results indicate that breach elicits a physiological stress reaction, reflected in a short-lived increase in heart rate. However, no increase in the self-reported stress measure was found. Further, we did not find a significant effect of social accounts on the psychological and physiological recovery process. CONCLUSIONS: The current research allows us to demonstrate that psychological contract breach will trigger a short-lived increase in heart rate. Further research is needed to better understand unfolding trajectories of physiological reactions to contract breach and the effect of social accounts as organizational recovery efforts.


Assuntos
Contratos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Responsabilidade Social , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico , Confiança , Comportamento Cooperativo , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443149

RESUMO

Effective states govern by some combination of enforcement and voluntary compliance. To contain the COVID-19 pandemic, a critical decision is the extent to which policy makers rely on voluntary as opposed to enforced compliance, and nations vary along this dimension. While enforcement may secure higher compliance, there is experimental and other evidence that it may also crowd out voluntary motivation. How does enforcement affect citizens' support for anti-COVID-19 policies? A survey conducted with 4,799 respondents toward the end of the first lockdown in Germany suggests that a substantial share of the population will support measures more under voluntary than under enforced implementation. Negative responses to enforcement-termed control aversion-vary across the nature of the policy intervention (e.g., they are rare for masks and frequent for vaccination and a cell-phone tracing app). Control aversion is less common among those with greater trust in the government and the information it provides, and among those who were brought up under the coercive regime of East Germany. Taking account of the likely effectiveness of enforcement and the extent to which near-universal compliance is crucial, the differing degrees of opposition to enforcement across policies suggest that for some anti-COVID-19 policies an enforced mandate would be unwise, while for others it would be essential. Similar reasoning may also be relevant for policies to address future pandemics and other societal challenges like climate change.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Aglomeração/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Política , Quarentena , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 89, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been mirrored by diffusion of misinformation and conspiracy theories about its origins (such as 5G cellular networks) and the motivations of preventive measures like vaccination, social distancing, and face masks (for example, as a political ploy). These beliefs have resulted in substantive, negative real-world outcomes but remain largely unstudied. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, online survey (n=660). Participants were asked about the believability of five selected COVID-19 narratives, their political orientation, their religious commitment, and their trust in science (a 21-item scale), along with sociodemographic items. Data were assessed descriptively, then latent profile analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar believability profiles. Bivariate (ANOVA) analyses were run, then multivariable, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with membership in specific COVID-19 narrative believability profiles. RESULTS: For the full sample, believability of the narratives varied, from a low of 1.94 (SD=1.72) for the 5G narrative to a high of 5.56 (SD=1.64) for the zoonotic (scientific consensus) narrative. Four distinct belief profiles emerged, with the preponderance (70%) of the sample falling into Profile 1, which believed the scientifically accepted narrative (zoonotic origin) but not the misinformed or conspiratorial narratives. Other profiles did not disbelieve the zoonotic explanation, but rather believed additional misinformation to varying degrees. Controlling for sociodemographics, political orientation and religious commitment were marginally, and typically non-significantly, associated with COVID-19 belief profile membership. However, trust in science was a strong, significant predictor of profile membership, with lower trust being substantively associated with belonging to Profiles 2 through 4. CONCLUSIONS: Belief in misinformation or conspiratorial narratives may not be mutually exclusive from belief in the narrative reflecting scientific consensus; that is, profiles were distinguished not by belief in the zoonotic narrative, but rather by concomitant belief or disbelief in additional narratives. Additional, renewed dissemination of scientifically accepted narratives may not attenuate belief in misinformation. However, prophylaxis of COVID-19 misinformation might be achieved by taking concrete steps to improve trust in science and scientists, such as building understanding of the scientific process and supporting open science initiatives.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Política , Religião , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Liberdade , Humanos , Internet , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Máscaras , Análise Multivariada , Ciência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 3, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398078

RESUMO

This N = 173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey - an open science effort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Governo , Humanos , Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Confiança
7.
Acad Med ; 96(1): 11, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394648

Assuntos
Confiança , Humanos
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 269: 113569, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309154

RESUMO

We investigate the links between corruption and compliance with social distancing during COVID-19 pandemic in America. Both theory and empirical evidence point to a corrosive effect of corruption on trust/social capital which in turn determine people's behavior towards compliance with public health policies. Using data from 50 states we find that people who live in more corrupt states are less likely to comply with so called shelter in place/stay at home orders. Our results are robust to different measures of corruption.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , /epidemiologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Capital Social , Confiança/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 42-49, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225758

RESUMO

COVID-19 created a substantial set of challenges for health communication practitioners in the process of planning, implementing, and evaluating entertainment-education (EE) campaigns. EE is a theory and evidence-based communication strategy that employs entertainment media for educational messaging. Here, we briefly review EE campaigns in response to previous health emergencies and present three cases of EE responses to the COVID-19 pandemic from leading global organizations (PCI Media, BBC Media Action, and Sesame Workshop). Responses ranged from adaptation and re-distribution of existing content to creating new content under social-distancing restrictions and utilizing transmedia. These cases demonstrate that EE initiatives responding to future pandemics may be well served by starting with existing infrastructure to quickly build capacity, support, and trust; working with partners to tailor programs to the local context; and continuing to focus on good storytelling while simultaneously considering evolving media formats and theory.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Narração , Fortalecimento Institucional , Competência Cultural , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Confiança
11.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 9-13, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322939

RESUMO

Online misinformation regarding COVID-19 has undermined public health efforts to control the novel coronavirus. To date, public health organizations' efforts to counter COVID-19 misinformation have focused on identifying and correcting false information on social media platforms. Citing extant literature in health communication and psychology, we argue that these fact-checking efforts are a necessary, but insufficient, response to health misinformation. First, research suggests that fact-checking has several important limitations and is rarely successful in fully undoing the effects of misinformation exposure. Second, there are many factors driving misinformation sharing and acceptance in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic-such as emotions, distrust, cognitive biases, racism, and xenophobia-and these factors both make individuals more vulnerable to certain types of misinformation and also make them impervious to future correction attempts. We conclude by outlining several additional measures, beyond fact-checking, that may help further mitigate the effects of misinformation in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Confiança
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24069, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infodemic, a surge of information and misinformation, has sparked worry about the public's perception of the coronavirus pandemic. Excessive information and misinformation can lead to belief in false information as well as reduce the accurate interpretation of true information. Such incorrect beliefs about the COVID-19 pandemic might lead to behavior that puts people at risk of both contracting and spreading the virus. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was two-fold. First, we attempted to gain insight into public beliefs about the novel coronavirus and COVID-19 in one of the worst hit countries: the United States. Second, we aimed to test whether a short intervention could improve people's belief accuracy by empowering them to consider scientific consensus when evaluating claims related to the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a 4-week longitudinal study among US citizens, starting on April 27, 2020, just after daily COVID-19 deaths in the United States had peaked. Each week, we measured participants' belief accuracy related to the coronavirus and COVID-19 by asking them to indicate to what extent they believed a number of true and false statements (split 50/50). Furthermore, each new survey wave included both the original statements and four new statements: two false and two true statements. Half of the participants were exposed to an intervention aimed at increasing belief accuracy. The intervention consisted of a short infographic that set out three steps to verify information by searching for and verifying a scientific consensus. RESULTS: A total of 1202 US citizens, balanced regarding age, gender, and ethnicity to approximate the US general public, completed the baseline (T0) wave survey. Retention rate for the follow-up waves- first follow-up wave (T1), second follow-up wave (T2), and final wave (T3)-was high (≥85%). Mean scores of belief accuracy were high for all waves, with scores reflecting low belief in false statements and high belief in true statements; the belief accuracy scale ranged from -1, indicating completely inaccurate beliefs, to 1, indicating completely accurate beliefs (T0 mean 0.75, T1 mean 0.78, T2 mean 0.77, and T3 mean 0.75). Accurate beliefs were correlated with self-reported behavior aimed at preventing the coronavirus from spreading (eg, social distancing) (r at all waves was between 0.26 and 0.29 and all P values were less than .001) and were associated with trust in scientists (ie, higher trust was associated with more accurate beliefs), political orientation (ie, liberal, Democratic participants held more accurate beliefs than conservative, Republican participants), and the primary news source (ie, participants reporting CNN or Fox News as the main news source held less accurate beliefs than others). The intervention did not significantly improve belief accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The supposed infodemic was not reflected in US citizens' beliefs about the COVID-19 pandemic. Most people were quite able to figure out the facts in these relatively early days of the crisis, calling into question the prevalence of misinformation and the public's susceptibility to misinformation.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comunicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Crowdsourcing , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(1): 97-115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003225

RESUMO

The purpose of food processing today is to make food safer, more nutritious and tastier, and to increase storage life. Consumers have a lack of trust in the way food is produced, formulated and processed, particularly with possible contaminants or chemical residues from production. Food manufacturers are not seen as being highly trusted sources. This may partly result from manufacturers' reluctance to share all information and to protect intellectual property via patents and thus maintain a competitive edge. There is a need to inform the consumer better about what operations the involved ingredients are subjected to and why. Various ways of food processing are reviewed. New food processing technologies face challenges when introduced and factors influencing consumers' and other stakeholders' acceptance should be part of decision-making process when adopting new technologies. Consumers' perception of risks is not the same as the risk assessment made by experts. A few specific cases are being discussed to further highlight the multiplicity of factors that may contribute to the development of a certain consumer perception about a product or a class of products. This is also linked to the emergence of certain terminologies that are associated with an increasingly negative perception of the processing of foods. We recommend more transparency on food formulation and food processing to restore consumer trust, which enables to take the advantage of the benefits different processing methods offer. Food manufacturers must make an effort to let consumers know how their food is being processed within the walls of the factory and highlight the benefits vis-à-vis preparing foods in a domestic environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Confiança , Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
14.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 170-191, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356819

RESUMO

The present study is comparative in natures that focus on understanding the factors that influence the GM food trust level in the BRA framework and food technology neophobia in China and the USA. For this purpose, we collected 300 and 350 valid responses, respectively, through a structured questionnaire. By carefully evaluating the above relationships, we found that trust determinants such as institutional trust, technology trust, information revealed with GM food vary across both datasets. However, GM knowledge has a better association with GM food trust in both cases. Apart from this, the food technology neophobia slightly moderates the benefits-risk perception of consumers and GM trust. This study guides the policymakers to enhance GM knowledge, as GM food is scientifically proven safe for health and environment and can be a financial incentive for the farmers. Further, the study also provides direction for corporate managers to design effective marketing and communication strategies in two different countries by investigating GM food trust's primary motivators in both nations.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Confiança , China , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Medição de Risco
15.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 449-457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370752

RESUMO

Crisis usually involves participants who trust and distrust each other, commonly in the same time. COVID-19 infodemic induced confidence crisis and distrust in authorities, science communities, governments and institutions can lead to harmful health behaviors and ill mental health and become a serious threat to public and global mental health as another kind of virus. Distrust mentality, conspiracy thinking and blame games may have detrimental effects not just on the individual level, but on the level of the whole groups, communities and global world. Public distrust and mistrust are related to the crisis in the domain of social and political relations, not only on the same country level, but also between different countries at regional or global level. Dynamics between public trust and mental health is a complex and bidirectional, ill mental health is causing and enhancing the inclination to confidence crisis, distrust, conspiracy theories and blame games and vice versa confidence crisis, distrust, conspiracy thinking and blame games are leading to ill mental health. It is important to have a holistic transdisciplinary integrative understanding of these dynamics and science-based treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública , Confiança
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382719

RESUMO

How can states with a history of recent armed conflict trust one another? Distrust between Ukraine and Russia aggravates security fears and limits hopes for a meaningful resolution of the bloodiest armed conflict in Europe since 1994. Hostility levels have risen dramatically between the populations of Ukraine and Russia after the events of 2013-2015. Political psychology offers two competing approaches to increase trust between the publics of different countries: appealing to an overarching, common identity above the national level vs. affirming a sense of national identity. This project asks which of these approaches increases trust towards Russia among the Ukrainian public. The study employs a survey experiment (between-subjects design) to evaluate these competing claims. The survey is to be fielded by a reputable public opinion research firm, the Kiev International Institute of Sociology, based in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Confiança/psicologia , Guerras e Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internacionalidade/história , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Ucrânia , Guerras e Conflitos Armados/história
18.
JAMA ; 324(23): 2373-2375, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320208
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