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2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690672

RESUMO

The worldwide spread of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) since December 2019 has posed a severe threat to individuals' well-being. While the world at large is waiting that the released vaccines immunize most citizens, public health experts suggest that, in the meantime, it is only through behavior change that the spread of COVID-19 can be controlled. Importantly, the required behaviors are aimed not only at safeguarding one's own health. Instead, individuals are asked to adapt their behaviors to protect the community at large. This raises the question of which social concerns and moral principles make people willing to do so. We considered in 23 countries (N = 6948) individuals' willingness to engage in prescribed and discretionary behaviors, as well as country-level and individual-level factors that might drive such behavioral intentions. Results from multilevel multiple regressions, with country as the nesting variable, showed that publicized number of infections were not significantly related to individual intentions to comply with the prescribed measures and intentions to engage in discretionary prosocial behaviors. Instead, psychological differences in terms of trust in government, citizens, and in particular toward science predicted individuals' behavioral intentions across countries. The more people endorsed moral principles of fairness and care (vs. loyalty and authority), the more they were inclined to report trust in science, which, in turn, statistically predicted prescribed and discretionary behavioral intentions. Results have implications for the type of intervention and public communication strategies that should be most effective to induce the behavioral changes that are needed to control the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Governo , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , /patogenicidade
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5577, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692417

RESUMO

Covid-19 pandemics has fostered a pervasive use of facemasks all around the world. While they help in preventing infection, there are concerns related to the possible impact of facemasks on social communication. The present study investigates how emotion recognition, trust attribution and re-identification of faces differ when faces are seen without mask, with a standard medical facemask, and with a transparent facemask restoring visual access to the mouth region. Our results show that, in contrast to standard medical facemasks, transparent masks significantly spare the capability to recognize emotional expressions. Moreover, transparent masks spare the capability to infer trustworthiness from faces with respect to standard medical facemasks which, in turn, dampen the perceived untrustworthiness of faces. Remarkably, while transparent masks (unlike standard masks) do not impair emotion recognition and trust attribution, they seemingly do impair the subsequent re-identification of the same, unmasked, face (like standard masks). Taken together, this evidence supports a dissociation between mechanisms sustaining emotion and identity processing. This study represents a pivotal step in the much-needed analysis of face reading when the lower portion of the face is occluded by a facemask.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Comunicação , Emoções/fisiologia , Face , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Masculino , Máscaras/tendências , Percepção Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 78, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of community involvement in the response against disease outbreaks has been well established. However, we lack insights into local communities' experiences in coping with the current COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored both the impact of, and response to, COVID-19 within the Orthodox Jewish communities of Antwerp (Belgium) during the first lockdown period (March 2020 - May 2020). METHODS: We conducted an explorative qualitative study using a participatory approach. First, we performed a community mapping to identify relevant stakeholders. Through the active involvement of a community advisory board and based on qualitative interviews with key-informants and community members, we elicited lived experiences, attitudes, and perceptions towards COVID-19. Interviews were conducted both face-to-face and using online web conferencing technology. Data were analyzed inductively according to the principles of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Government-issued outbreak control measures presented context-specific challenges to the Orthodox Jewish communities in Antwerp. They related mainly to the remote organization of religious life, and practicing physical distancing in socially and culturally strongly connected communities. Existing community resources were rapidly mobilized to adapt to the outbreak and to self-organize response initiatives within communities. The active involvement of community and religious leaders in risk communication proved to be of great importance to facilitate the coverage and uptake of pandemic control measures while protecting essential community values and traditions. Creating bottom-up and community-adapted communication strategies, including addressing language barriers and involving Rabbis in the dissemination of prevention messages, fostered a feeling of trust in government's response measures. However, unmet information and prevention needs were also identified, such as the need for inclusive communication by public authorities and the need to mitigate the negative effects of stigmatization. CONCLUSION: The experiences of Orthodox Jewish communities in Antwerp demonstrate a valuable example of a feasible community-centered approach to health emergencies. Increasing the engagement of communities in local decision-making and governance structures remains a key strategy to respond to unmet information and prevention needs.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Judeus/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência
5.
Psychol Aging ; 36(1): 10-21, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705182

RESUMO

Age-related differences in cognition and socioemotional functions, and in associated brain regions, may reduce sensitivity to cues of untrustworthiness, with effects on trust-related decision making and trusting behavior. This study examined age-group differences in brain activity and behavior during a trust game. In this game, participants received "breach-of-trust" feedback after half of the trials. The feedback indicated that only 50% of the monetary investment into their fellow players had resulted in returns. The study also explored the effects of intranasal oxytocin on trust-related decisions in aging, based on suggestions of a modulatory role of oxytocin in response to negative social stimuli and perceptions of trust. Forty-seven younger and 46 older participants self-administered intranasal oxytocin or placebo, in a randomized, double-blind, between-subjects procedure, before they engaged in the trust game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Younger participants invested less into their game partners after breach-of-trust feedback, while older participants showed no significant difference in their investment after breach-of-trust feedback. Oxytocin did not modulate the behavioral effects. However, after breach-of-trust feedback, older participants in the oxytocin group showed less activity in the left superior temporal gyrus. In contrast, older participants in the placebo group showed more activity in left superior temporal gyrus after breach of trust. The findings may reflect reduced responsiveness to cues of untrustworthiness in older adults. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of oxytocin on left superior temporal gyrus activity among older adults supports the neuropeptide's age-differential role in neural processes in aging, including in the context of trust-related decision making. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ocitocina/uso terapêutico , Confiança/psicologia , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Disabil Health J ; 14(2): 101062, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trust of information shapes adherence to recommended practices and speed of public compliance during public health crises. This is particularly important for groups with higher rates of high-risk health conditions, including those aged 65 and over and people with disabilities. OBJECTIVE: We examined trust in information sources and associated adherence to COVID-19 public health recommendations among people with disabilities living in metropolitan, micropolitan, and noncore counties. METHODS: We recruited participants using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and screened for disability status (n = 408). We compared sociodemographic groups with t-tests, Pearson's correlations, and Chi-square, as appropriate. We used linear regression to examine factors associated with trust in information and compliance with CDC recommended COVID-19 practices. RESULTS: Nonmetro respondents had the lowest trust ratings among all demographic groups, and reported significantly less trust in most information sources. Respondents aged 65 and over reported the highest compliance with CDC recommended practices, while those from nonmetro areas reported the lowest. A regression model for adherence to CDC recommended practices was significant (F = 11.87, P ≤ .001), and explained 33% of the variance. Specifically, increased adherence was associated with being over 65, female, and higher general trust scores. Decreased practices were associated with being nonwhite, nonmetro, higher trust scores in President Trump, and having a communication disability. CONCLUSIONS: Trust in information sources is associated with action. It is important to provide clear, consistent, and non-polarizing messages during public health emergencies to promote widespread community action.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Soc Sci Med ; 269: 113569, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309154

RESUMO

We investigate the links between corruption and compliance with social distancing during COVID-19 pandemic in America. Both theory and empirical evidence point to a corrosive effect of corruption on trust/social capital which in turn determine people's behavior towards compliance with public health policies. Using data from 50 states we find that people who live in more corrupt states are less likely to comply with so called shelter in place/stay at home orders. Our results are robust to different measures of corruption.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , /epidemiologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Capital Social , Confiança/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e39144, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1120225

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar estudos referentes à avaliação da qualidade de vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV no Brasil, por meio de uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Método: trata-se de revisão integrativa que incluiu 22 artigos científicos publicados no período de 2011 a 2019. Resultados: os principais instrumentos utilizados na avaliação da qualidade de vida foram o WHOQOL-HIV bref e o HAT-QOL. Os domínios com maiores escores na avaliação foram confiança no médico, psicológico e espiritualidade; as piores avaliações relacionavam-se com os domínios meio ambiente e preocupação com o sigilo. A exposição do diagnóstico impacta negativamente para a qualidade de vida bem como as condições de vida e saúde. Considerações finais: a qualidade de vida é um construto multidimensional e subjetivo com implicação direta na saúde e tratamento das pessoas vivendo com HIV, portanto, compreender os fatores que impactam sua avaliação é primordial na elaboração de políticas públicas e melhores condições de vida.


Objective: to analyze studies on evaluating the quality of life of people living with HIV in Brazil, by integrative literature review. Method: this integrative review included 22 scientific articles published from 2011 to 2019. Results: the instruments most used to assess quality of life were the WHOQOL-HIV bref and the HAT-QOL. The highest-scoring domains were trust in the doctor, psychology and spirituality, while the lowest scores related to the environment and confidentiality concerns. Exposing the diagnosis has adverse impacts on both quality of life and conditions of life and health. Final considerations: quality of life is a multidimensional, subjective construct with direct implications for the health and treatment of people living with HIV. Accordingly, in order to develop public policies and improve conditions of life, it is essential to understand the factors that impact on its assessment.


Objetivo: analizar estudios sobre la evaluación de la calidad de vida de las personas que viven con el VIH en Brasil, mediante revisión integradora de la literatura. Método: esta revisión integradora incluyó 22 artículos científicos publicados entre 2011 y 2019. Resultados: los instrumentos más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de vida fueron el WHOQOL-HIV bref y el HAT-QOL. Los dominios de mayor puntuación fueron la confianza en el médico, la psicología y la espiritualidad, mientras que las puntuaciones más bajas se relacionaron con el medio ambiente y las preocupaciones de confidencialidad. Exponer el diagnóstico tiene impactos adversos tanto en la calidad de vida como en las condiciones de vida y salud. Consideraciones finales: la calidad de vida es un constructo subjetivo multidimensional con implicaciones directas para la salud y el tratamiento de las personas que viven con el VIH. En consecuencia, para desarrollar políticas públicas y mejorar las condiciones de vida, es fundamental conocer los factores que inciden en su evaluación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , HIV , Brasil , Revisão , Confidencialidade/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0239944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382719

RESUMO

How can states with a history of recent armed conflict trust one another? Distrust between Ukraine and Russia aggravates security fears and limits hopes for a meaningful resolution of the bloodiest armed conflict in Europe since 1994. Hostility levels have risen dramatically between the populations of Ukraine and Russia after the events of 2013-2015. Political psychology offers two competing approaches to increase trust between the publics of different countries: appealing to an overarching, common identity above the national level vs. affirming a sense of national identity. This project asks which of these approaches increases trust towards Russia among the Ukrainian public. The study employs a survey experiment (between-subjects design) to evaluate these competing claims. The survey is to be fielded by a reputable public opinion research firm, the Kiev International Institute of Sociology, based in Ukraine.


Assuntos
Opinião Pública , Confiança/psicologia , Guerras e Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Internacionalidade/história , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Ucrânia , Guerras e Conflitos Armados/história
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027262

RESUMO

Individuals who encounter false information on social media may actively spread it further, by sharing or otherwise engaging with it. Much of the spread of disinformation can thus be attributed to human action. Four studies (total N = 2,634) explored the effect of message attributes (authoritativeness of source, consensus indicators), viewer characteristics (digital literacy, personality, and demographic variables) and their interaction (consistency between message and recipient beliefs) on self-reported likelihood of spreading examples of disinformation. Participants also reported whether they had shared real-world disinformation in the past. Reported likelihood of sharing was not influenced by authoritativeness of the source of the material, nor indicators of how many other people had previously engaged with it. Participants' level of digital literacy had little effect on their responses. The people reporting the greatest likelihood of sharing disinformation were those who thought it likely to be true, or who had pre-existing attitudes consistent with it. They were likely to have previous familiarity with the materials. Across the four studies, personality (lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, higher Extraversion and Neuroticism) and demographic variables (male gender, lower age and lower education) were weakly and inconsistently associated with self-reported likelihood of sharing. These findings have implications for strategies more or less likely to work in countering disinformation in social media.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/ética , Mídias Sociais/ética , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Probabilidade , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais/tendências
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis. It is becoming increasingly clear that people's behavioural responses in the USA during this fast-changing pandemic are associated with their preferred media sources. The polarisation of US media has been reflected in politically motivated messaging around the coronavirus by some media outlets, such as Fox News. This resulted in different messaging around the risks of infection and behavioural changes necessary to mitigate that risk. This study determined if COVID-related behaviours differed according to trust in left-leaning or right-leaning media and how differences changed over the first several months of the pandemic. METHODS: Using the nationally representative Understanding America Study COVID-19 panel, we examine preventive and risky behaviours related to infection from COVID-19 over the period from 10 March to 9 June for people with trust in different media sources: one left-leaning, CNN and another right-leaning, Fox News. People's media preferences are categorised into three groups: (1) those who trust CNN more than Fox News; (2) those who have equal or no preferences and (3) those who trust Fox News more than CNN. RESULTS: Results showed that compared with those who trust CNN more than Fox news, people who trust Fox News more than CNN engaged in fewer preventive behaviours and more risky behaviours related to COVID-19. Out of five preventive and five risky behaviours examined, people who trust Fox News more than CNN practised an average of 3.41 preventive behaviours and 1.25 risky behaviours, while those who trust CNN more than Fox News engaged in an average of 3.85 preventive and 0.94 risky behaviours, from late March to June. The difference between these two groups widened in the month of May (p≤0.01), even after controlling for access to professional information and overall diversity of information sources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that behavioural responses were divided along media bias lines. In such a highly partisan environment, false information can be easily disseminated, and health messaging, which is one of the few effective ways to slowdown the spread of the virus in the absence of a vaccine, is being damaged by politically biased and economically focused narratives. During a public health crisis, media should reduce their partisan stance on health information, and the health messaging from neutral and professional sources based on scientific findings should be better promoted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237934, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916694

RESUMO

Interpersonal trust is an important source of social and economic development. Over decades, researchers debated the question whether and how public institutions influence interpersonal trust, making this relationship a much-discussed issue for scientific debate. However, experimental and behavioral data and insights on this relationship and the underlying psychological processes are rare and often inconsistent. The present set of studies tests a model which proposes that institutional trust indirectly affects trust among unrelated strangers by enhancing individuals' feelings of security. Study 1 (survey on trust in a broad spectrum of state institutions), Study 2 (nationally representative data from 16 countries), and Study 3 (experimental manipulation of institutional trust) provide convergent support for this hypothesis. Also, the results show that the effect remains consistent even after controlling for individual dispositions linked to interpersonal and institutional trust (Study 1 and 3) and country level indicators of institutional performance (Study 2). Taken together, these findings inform and contribute to the debate about the relationship between institutions and interpersonal trust by showing that when institutions are trusted, they increase feelings of security, and therefore promote interpersonal trust among strangers.


Assuntos
Cultura Organizacional , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino
16.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 850-856, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910819

RESUMO

Conspiracy theories have been proliferating during the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence suggests that belief in conspiracy theories undermines engagement in pro-health behaviors and support for public health policies. Moreover, previous work suggests that inoculating messages from opinion leaders that expose conspiracy theories as false before people are exposed to them can help to prevent belief in new conspiracies. Goals of this study were to: (a) explore associations between COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions, cooperation with public health recommendations, and support for public health policies among U.S. adults and (b) investigate trusted sources of COVID-19 information to inform strategies to address conspiracy beliefs. A cross-sectional, online survey was conducted with 845 U.S. adults in April 2020. Data were analyzed using analyses of variance and multivariable regressions. One-third (33%) of participants believed one or more conspiracies about COVID-19. Participants who believed conspiracies reported that their intentions to vaccinate were 3.9 times lower and indicated less support for COVID-19 public health policies than participants who disbelieved conspiracies. There were no differences in cooperation with public health recommendations by conspiracy belief endorsement in the multivariable regression analysis. Although there were some key differences in trusted sources of COVID-19 information, doctor(s) were the most trusted source of information about COVID-19 overall with 90% of participants trusting doctor(s). Doctor(s) may play a role in addressing COVID-19 conspiracy theories before people are exposed to them to promote COVID-19 prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública/tendências , Confiança/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Papel do Médico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicologia , Prática de Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Adv ; 6(37)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917709

RESUMO

Mistrust of scientific evidence and government-issued guidelines is increasingly correlated with political affiliation. Survey evidence has documented skepticism in a diverse set of issues including climate change, vaccine hesitancy, and, most recently, COVID-19 risks. Less well understood is whether these beliefs alter high-stakes behavior. Combining GPS data for 2.7 million smartphone users in Florida and Texas with 2016 U.S. presidential election precinct-level results, we examine how conservative-media dismissals of hurricane advisories in 2017 influenced evacuation decisions. Likely Trump-voting Florida residents were 10 to 11 percentage points less likely to evacuate Hurricane Irma than Clinton voters (34% versus 45%), a gap not present in prior hurricanes. Results are robust to fine-grain geographic controls, which compare likely Clinton and Trump voters living within 150 m of each other. The rapid surge in media-led suspicion of hurricane forecasts-and the resulting divide in self-protective measures-illustrates a large behavioral consequence of science denialism.


Assuntos
Negação em Psicologia , Política , Confiança/psicologia , Movimento contra Vacinação , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Florida , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Texas , Estados Unidos , Recusa de Vacinação
18.
Vaccine ; 38(44): 6882-6888, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912643

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Changchun Changsheng Vaccine Incident (CCVI) occurred mid-2018 and involved irregularities in the manufacture and quality control of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and rabies vaccines. This study investigates vaccine confidence amongst Chinese caregivers and vaccination-service providers (VSPs) six months after the CCVI. METHODS: Quantitative surveys were conducted in January 2019 with 2124 caregivers of children and 555 VSPs in three areas in China. The proportions of respondents who agreed to the four statements from the Vaccine Confidence Index™ were used to measure vaccine confidence. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed to study the level of vaccine confidence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 caregivers, 43 VSPs and 9 immunization program managers. Interviews were analyzed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive coding. Media surveillance was conducted to monitor public responses to the CCVI. RESULTS: Media surveillance indicated that public attention to vaccine-related issues increased sharply immediately post-CCVI but declined rapidly thereafter. Six months post-CCVI, 96.0% of caregivers and the same proportion of VSPs reported that vaccination was important and compatible with their religious beliefs. 82.7% and 88.2% of caregivers agreed that vaccines were safe and effective. 92.8% and 94.6% of VSPs agreed that vaccines were safe and effective. Both caregivers and VSPs reported an immediate decline in vaccine confidence post-CCVI. In most cases this trust was regained over time following government and public health responses, however some people remained hesitant about vaccinating their children. Many VSPs were overwhelmed by consultations, workload and psychological pressure after the CCVI. CONCLUSION: After an initial decline, vaccine confidence recovered to pre-incident levels six months after the CCVI. However, some caregivers moved from the higher to the lower end of the vaccine confidence spectrum, pointing to the need to promote the acceptance of vaccination especially given the need for new vaccines to control the coronavirus epidemic.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Controle de Qualidade , Retirada de Medicamento Baseada em Segurança , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Antirrábicas/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238884, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913352

RESUMO

In Australia, physiotherapists are registered healthcare practitioners who possess the knowledge and skills to care for clients with poor physical health as a result of musculoskeletal, neurological, and respiratory conditions. Although physiotherapists are not considered a primary profession in the Australian mental health workforce, the association between suicide and poor physical health suggests that they may encounter clients with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. We used a qualitative approach inspired by phenomenology to explore the experiences of nine physiotherapists who encountered clients with suicidal thoughts and behaviours. We used a combination of focus groups and in-depth interviews to collect this data. The data were analysed inductively using framework analysis. The main themes identified in the data were: i) the importance of trust, ii) the mechanism of conversation, and iii) the 'middle space'. The middle space refers to the experience of working with clients at risk of low or medium risk of suicide. A trusting practitioner-client relationship was reported to be essential in facilitating the disclosure of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Physiotherapists also reported that less structured subjective assessments encourage clients to talk more openly, which in turn facilitates the disclosure of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Once the disclosure of suicidal thoughts and behaviours occurred, physiotherapists reported a lack of confidence regarding role clarity and issues associated with this. Difficulties were most evident during encounters with clients with low to medium suicide risk due to a lack of confidence in the accuracy of assessment of these clients. The findings suggest that physiotherapists are well placed to detect and/or receive disclosure of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, as well as the need for physiotherapists to be trained in how to support clients who disclose suicidal thoughts and behaviours.


Assuntos
Fisioterapeutas/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Revelação da Verdade
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 743-752, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946764

RESUMO

Analyzing genomic data across populations is central to understanding the role of genetic factors in health and disease. Successful data sharing relies on public support, which requires attention to whether people around the world are willing to donate their data that are then subsequently shared with others for research. However, studies of such public perceptions are geographically limited and do not enable comparison. This paper presents results from a very large public survey on attitudes toward genomic data sharing. Data from 36,268 individuals across 22 countries (gathered in 15 languages) are presented. In general, publics across the world do not appear to be aware of, nor familiar with, the concepts of DNA, genetics, and genomics. Willingness to donate one's DNA and health data for research is relatively low, and trust in the process of data's being shared with multiple users (e.g., doctors, researchers, governments) is also low. Participants were most willing to donate DNA or health information for research when the recipient was specified as a medical doctor and least willing to donate when the recipient was a for-profit researcher. Those who were familiar with genetics and who were trusting of the users asking for data were more likely to be willing to donate. However, less than half of participants trusted more than one potential user of data, although this varied across countries. Genetic information was not uniformly seen as different from other forms of health information, but there was an association between seeing genetic information as special in some way compared to other health data and increased willingness to donate. The global perspective provided by our "Your DNA, Your Say" study is valuable for informing the development of international policy and practice for sharing genomic data. It highlights that the research community not only needs to be worthy of trust by the public, but also urgent steps need to be taken to authentically communicate why genomic research is necessary and how data donation, and subsequent sharing, is integral to this.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Genômica/ética , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/ética , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , América , Ásia , Austrália , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública/ética , Inquéritos e Questionários
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