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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454934

RESUMO

Sleep and work-family problems attract a great attention in the construction industry because construction professionals are usually prone to work-family conflicts and sleep problems. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of Family-Role Overload (FRO) and Work Interference with Family (WIF) on sleep sufficiency. We also included life satisfaction as a mediator and family supportive supervision behaviors (FSSB) as a moderator. Using a sample of 193 Chinese construction professionals, we collected objectively-measured sleep sufficiency data with validated wrist actigraphies and self-reported sleep sufficiency data, FRO, WIF, life satisfaction and FSSB with questionnaires through multiple waves. Results demonstrated that FRO was negatively associated with both objectively-measured and self-reported sleep sufficiency and life satisfaction played an important mediating role in this relationship. The moderating effect of life satisfaction on the path between WIF and sleep sufficiency is trivial. In addition, no significant moderating effects of FSSB were found. More substantial policies should be taken to improve the life satisfaction and sleep sufficiency of construction professionals.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Engajamento no Trabalho , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(4-5): 185-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364503

RESUMO

A diverse array of proposed antecedents of social aggression (SA) were examined in two studies. This work is informed by ecological systems theory and examined predictors from the micro- and mesosystems. In Study 1, women (n = 284). completed measures of aggression, digit ratio, emotional intelligence (EI), agreeableness, parenting styles, attachment insecurity with parents and peers, and television (TV) consumption. Aggression correlated with EI, agreeableness, parental authoritarianism, attachment insecurity with fathers and peers, and TV consumption; these variables accounted for 22% of the variance in SA. Father attachment insecurity moderated the TV-SA association, suggesting that positive experiences with parents can buffer negative effects of TV consumption. Study 2 aimed to increase the predictive power of the model. Females (n = 115) completed measures of aggression, digit ratio, EI, agreeableness, parental authoritarianism, interparental conflict, dominance goals, popularity goals, physical appearance comparison, and TV consumption. Aggression correlated with EI, agreeableness, interparental conflict, dominance goals, popularity goals, and appearance comparison. Together, these variables accounted for 40% of the variance in SA; agreeableness, dominance goals, and popularity goals were significant predictors. Interparental conflict moderated the TV-SA association, again suggesting that positive experiences with parents can cushion effects of TV consumption. Implications for development of SA are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Inteligência Emocional , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Grupo Associado , Aparência Física , Televisão , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(6): 690-703, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318261

RESUMO

Despite widespread acknowledgment that "frequent, continuing, and meaningful" (Pruett & DiFonzo, 2014) time with both parents is beneficial for children from divorced or separated families, and that interparental conflict (IPC) is associated with increased child mental health problems, the joint effects of parenting time (PT), parenting quality (PQ), and IPC on children's mental health problems are less clear. The current study integrates two theoretical models in multiple mediator analyses to test indirect effects of mothers' and fathers' PQ and IPC to explain the association between PT and children's mental health problems within the same model. Participants were children aged 9-18 years (N = 141) who had one or both parents participate in a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a court-based prevention program for high-conflict divorcing or separating families. Data were collected at pretest and 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed an indirect effect in which fathers' PQ mediated the association between PT and child internalizing problems both concurrently and 9 months later. There were no significant indirect effects involving IPC. Analyses indicated a significant quadratic relation between PT and fathers' PQ, suggesting that although more PT is associated with better father-child relationships, there is a point beyond which more time is not related to a better relationship. We discuss the study findings, research limitations, and implications for public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Divórcio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo
4.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(7): 775-787, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169393

RESUMO

This study examined changes in mothers' and fathers' rejection and psychological control during parent-child interactions after cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children's anxiety disorders. We studied whether family CBT reduced rejection (vs. warmth) and psychological control (vs. autonomy-granting) more than child CBT, and whether parents own anxiety disorders resulted in smaller decreases in these parenting behaviors. Participants were 128 clinically referred children and adolescents (52 boys; Mage = 12.4, SDage = 2.7) with anxiety disorders and their parents, randomly assigned to either family CBT (n = 64) or child CBT (n = 64). The Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule was used to assess children's and parents' anxiety disorders. Before and after treatment, parents' rejection and psychological control toward their child was rated during conflict and anxiety discussions of mother-child dyads, father-child dyads, and mother-father-child triads. As expected, during dyadic and triadic interactions, mothers' and fathers' rejection toward their child decreased after child and family CBT. Unexpectedly, during triadic conflict interactions, mothers, after child CBT and family CBT, as well as fathers, after child CBT, displayed increased psychological control. During triadic anxiety interactions, only mothers, after child CBT, showed increased psychological control. Changes in parenting did not depend on whether or not parents had anxiety disorders themselves. Thus, CBT for anxiety-disordered children can successfully reduce parents' rejection. The unexpected findings of increased psychological control after treatment, particularly by mothers in the presence of the father, suggests potential benefits of mothers' psychological control with anxious children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Relações Pais-Filho , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
5.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1720-1732, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169398

RESUMO

The deleterious effects of marital conflict on youth outcomes are well-documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. To date, longitudinal studies have focused on repeated measures of youths' outcomes and the temporal dynamics of marital conflict have largely been ignored. Marital conflict changes over time as contextual and relationship characteristics change, and these patterns of change may provide unique predictive power in accounting for differences in youth outcomes. This study provides a novel exploration of an old idea by focusing on dynamic patterns of marital conflict in predicting trajectories of adolescents' adjustment. All variables were measured at ages 16, 17, and 18 with 252 adolescents (53% female) enrolled in the longitudinal Family Stress and Youth Development Study. Latent growth curve models with latent variable interactions were used to determine whether marital conflict at age 16 (intercept), change over time in marital conflict (slope), and the intercept-slope interaction predicted change over time in adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms and levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 18. Youth exposed to high and increasing levels of marital conflict reported high and stable levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms across adolescence. Adolescents exposed to low and decreasing levels of marital conflict had consistently fewer symptoms. Furthermore, exposure to initially low but increasing levels of marital conflict was associated with increases in problems across adolescence, which contrasted with findings for youth with initially high marital conflict exposure that decreased over time. Findings are discussed in relation to both conceptual and methodological advances. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional/fisiologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(9): 1707-1723, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161272

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that predict adolescent delinquency is a key topic in parenting research. An open question is whether prior results indicating relative differences between families reflect the dynamic processes occurring within families. Therefore, this study investigated concurrent and lagged associations among parental behavioral control, parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent delinquency by separating between-family and within-family effects in three-wave annual data (N = 1515; Mage = 13.01 years at T1; 50.6% girls). At the within-family level, parental behavioral control negatively predicted adolescent delinquency. Adolescent disclosure and delinquency, and adolescent disclosure and parental solicitation, reciprocally predicted each other. Parental solicitation negatively predicted parental behavioral control. The findings indicate a prominent role of adolescent disclosure in within-family processes concerning parental-adolescent communication and adolescent delinquency.


Assuntos
Revelação , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(8): 904-913, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parents' comments about their adolescents' weight have been linked with adolescents' disordered eating, but we know little about the personal and contextual conditions that promote or mitigate the effects of parents' perceptions on adolescents' weight concerns. This study examined whether the prospective association between parents' perceptions of adolescents' weight and adolescents' weight concerns differed as a function of exposure to interparental conflict or adolescent gender. METHOD: Participants were 386 adolescents (52% female; ages 11-18 years; predominately Caucasian/European American) from 197 families (i.e., up to two adolescents per family) and their parents. Two-parent families with a firstborn child in 8th, 9th, or 10th grade and a secondborn child 1-4 years younger were recruited to participate in a short-term longitudinal study of adolescent development and family relationships. Annual home interviews were conducted with adolescents and parents. Multilevel models tested whether parents' perceptions of adolescents' weight predicted adolescents' weight concerns one year later and whether interparental conflict and youth gender moderated this prospective association. RESULTS: A significant three-way interaction revealed that when interparental conflict was low, increases in fathers' but not mothers' perceptions of daughters' overweight predicted increases in daughters' weight concerns the following year. In contrast, females exposed to high interparental conflict reported elevated weight concerns the following year regardless of parents' perceptions. Results for males were not significant. DISCUSSION: Findings highlight the role of personal and family context characteristics in the development of weight concerns and the value of addressing family processes within preventive interventions for adolescent females' weight concerns.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Percepção , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(6): 640-648, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180699

RESUMO

Close relationships are an important social context in which emotional experiences, regulation, and coregulation unfold. This interpersonal emotion regulation process is likely intertwined with the self-regulatory capacities and social skills of each individual dyad member. This study aimed to examine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a physiological marker related to self-regulation, moderates the impact of rumination, a maladaptive emotion regulation strategy, on couples' conflict. A dyadic, longitudinal design examined the association among RSA, rumination, and couples' conflict in a sample of 83 cohabiting romantic partners raising young children. At baseline, rumination and RSA from each romantic partner were assessed. Couples' conflict was reported at 3 time points over the following 12 months. Actor-partner interdependence modeling examined the mutual contributions of each couple member's rumination to couples' conflict, as well as the moderating impact of RSA. Results indicated that rumination from both members of the dyad were independently associated with couples' conflict across the 12-month period. Furthermore, RSA moderated the association between one's partner's rumination and couples' conflict, such that high actor RSA attenuated the positive association between partner's rumination and couples' conflict. The findings highlight the interdependent nature of emotion regulation within close relationships, and the impact of RSA on interpersonal emotion regulation processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Ruminação Cognitiva/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(7): 764-774, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204818

RESUMO

Adolescents with externalizing behaviors are at risk for multiple social and health impairments that may persist into adulthood. Although empirically supported treatments are available for teenagers with severe externalizing behavior and their families, only a few parenting programs have been evaluated for adolescents with subclinical levels of behavior problems. In the present randomized controlled trial (N = 75), we examined the feasibility and efficacy of the Parent-Web, a new Internet-based parenting program for parents of teenagers. Participants reported high satisfaction with the program, 74% completed all five modules and dropout was only 14%. Generalized linear mixed models showed short-term (8 weeks) improvements in parent-reported teenager externalizing behaviors, family conflicts, and family warmth compared to a waitlist control condition. Receiving the Parent-Web was also associated with more improvements in parent-reported teenage emotional symptoms and peer problems, as well as parental stress and depression. No differences regarding parenting behaviors between the two groups were found. Those in the intervention group maintained their posttreatment gains on primary outcomes at the follow-up assessment, 6- to 9-months after the program. Although limited by relying solely on parent report, and by a relatively small sample size, we conclude that our study contributes some preliminary evidence for the utility of supporting parents of adolescents at risk of developing behavior problems through an Internet-based intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador/métodos , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Internet , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(3): 1111-1126, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057130

RESUMO

This study tested whether the association between interparental conflict and adolescent externalizing symptoms was moderated by a polygenic composite indexing low dopamine activity (i.e., 7-repeat allele of DRD4; Val alleles of COMT; 10-repeat variants of DAT1) in a sample of seventh-grade adolescents (Mean age = 13.0 years) and their parents. Using a longitudinal, autoregressive design, observational assessments of interparental conflict at Wave 1 predicted increases in a multi-informant measurement of youth externalizing symptoms 2 years later at Wave 3 only for children who were high on the hypodopaminergic composite. Moderation was expressed in a "for better" or "for worse" form hypothesized by differential susceptibility theory. Thus, children high on the dopaminergic composite experienced more externalizing problems than their peers when faced with more destructive conflicts but also fewer externalizing problems when exposed to more constructive interparental conflicts. Mediated moderation findings indicated that adolescent reports of their emotional insecurity in the interparental relationship partially explained the greater genetic susceptibility experienced by these children. More specifically, the dopamine composite moderated the association between Wave 1 interparental conflict and emotional insecurity 1 year later at Wave 2 in the same "for better" or "for worse" pattern as externalizing symptoms. Adolescent insecurity at Wave 2, in turn, predicted their greater externalizing symptoms 1 year later at Wave 3. Post hoc analyses further revealed that the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene was the primary source of plasticity in the polygenic composite. Results are discussed as to how they advance process-oriented Gene x Environment models of emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Emoções/fisiologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1309-1316, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066834

RESUMO

The scope of this study is to analyze the representational content and structure of the family from the viewpoint of co-resident elderly people. This is a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study with the theoretical contribution of Social Representation Theory, from the structural perspective, conducted with 169 elderly people registered in the catchment area of two Family Health Units. The Technique of Free Evocations was used for production of data using the keyword family, and the analysis performed using EVOC software. A probable structured nucleus was identified based on the words love, concern, yearning and relatives, while at the same time the peripheral elements elicit words such as unity and conflict, revealing elements of both positive and negative meanings. The conclusion drawn is that the representational structure reveals a dimension of positive and negative aspects of the elderly with regard to the family.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Amor , Idoso , Brasil , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Dev Psychol ; 55(7): 1509-1522, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070436

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to broaden the developmental understanding of the implications of interparental conflict (IPC) and threat appraisals of conflict for adolescents' relationships with peers. Guided by the cognitive contextual framework and evolutionary perspectives, we evaluated a developmental model in which adolescents who are exposed to IPC perceive these conflicts as threatening to their well-being or that of their family. In turn, threat appraisals of IPC increase risk that adolescents experience worries and fears about the peer context (i.e., social anxiety), leading to decreased support from friends and increased feelings of loneliness and engagement with antisocial peers. Autoregressive analyses were conducted with a sample of 768 two-parent families across four measurement occasions. Exposure to IPC was related to increases in youths' perceived threat, which increased their risk for social anxiety symptoms. Consistent with our hypothesis, heightened social anxiety symptoms undermined youths' subsequent functioning in the peer context. Specifically, youth with greater adolescent social anxiety symptoms experienced increased feelings of loneliness and decreased perceptions of friendship support. Significant indirect effects were substantiated for adolescent loneliness and friendship support. Findings did not vary as a function of adolescent gender. The findings highlight the enduring implications of IPC and threat appraisals of IPC for youths' functioning, which can be expanded beyond broad measures of youth psychopathology, and the critical role of social anxiety symptoms as an explanatory mechanism in this process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Psychoanal Rev ; 106(3): 247-271, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090508

RESUMO

Historically, psychoanalysis has positioned the Oedipus complex as its focal point, based on a parental configuration of two-parent families consisting of a (male) father and a (female) mother. The modern era allows, albeit highly ambivalently, for the diversity of marital and parental configurations, reflecting cultural change as well as advances in the medical-technology of in vitro fertilization and of sperm and egg donations. The author discusses the analyses of two lesbian women who have chosen to mother a baby via an anonymous sperm donation. The author then takes up the question of whether unconscious oedipal conflicts influenced the decisions these patients made. She also questions whether the father in contemporary analytic thinking needs be a (male) "father" who is the "third," the "other." The work of Freud, Loewald, Searles, Poland, Ogden, and others will be brought to bear on these questions.


Assuntos
Complexo de Édipo , Teoria Psicanalítica , Adulto , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Psicanálise , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
14.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 314-322, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181701

RESUMO

Este estudio busca construir y validar la Escala de Comunicación autopercibida en la relación de pareja (CARP) con el fin de ofrecer un instrumento sencillo y útil. Participaron 620 personas que mantenían una relación de pareja. Para estudiar la estructura factorial de la escala se dividió aleatoriamente la muestra en dos submuestras, realizándose una validación cruzada mediante análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) y análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). Asimismo, para comprobar que el modelo se mantenía estable al tener en cuenta la variable sexo, se repitió el análisis factorial confirmatorio con las submuestras de mujeres y de hombres y se aplicó un AFC Multigrupo para comprobar la invarianza factorial en función de esta variable. Se ha obtenido una escala de 8 ítems constituida por dos factores que explican el 46.6% de la varianza y que presenta una buena fiabilidad (alfa = .75), comprobándose la invarianza estricta en función del sexo. Esta escala puede ser útil en el campo de la detección, prevención e intervención en situaciones de conflicto entre la pareja


This study aims to design and validate the Scale of Self-perceived Communication in the Couple Relationship (SCCR) in order to provide a straightforward and useful instrument. 620 persons who were in a couple relationship took part in this study. The sample was divided randomly into two subsamples to study the factor structure of the scale, carrying out a cross-validation by using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Also, and to verify that the model remained stable taking account of the variable gender, the confirmatory factor analysis was repeated with the women and men subsamples, and a multigroup CFA was carried out to check the factor invariance according to this variable An 8-items scale was obtained, made up with two factors explaining 46.6% of the variance who also reported a good reliability (alfa = .75), testing the strict invariance according to the gender. This scale might be useful in the field of detection, prevention and intervention of conflict situations in the couple relationship


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Autoimagem , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Autorrelato , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003474

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore a possible process explaining the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders, including two mediators: work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, since a possible buffering role of work engagement was recently proposed against the detrimental effects of workaholism, the aim was to examine the moderating role of work engagement in the relationship between workaholism and several outcomes such as work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and sleep disorders. Two models were tested using conditional process analysis for testing direct and indirect effects on a sample of 395 employees: (1) a serial multiple mediation model, and (2) the same serial multiple mediation model including the moderating role of work engagement. Results showed a significant mediating effect of both work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, work engagement moderated the relationship between workaholism and work-family conflict and the relationship between workaholism and emotional exhaustion. This work contributes to the understanding of the process underlying the relationship between workaholism and sleep disorders and to the literature reporting the possible protective role of work engagement on the negative outcomes of workaholism. Practical implications are also discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Engajamento no Trabalho , Adulto , Emoções , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
16.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(7): 788-796, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021129

RESUMO

Emerging adulthood is a transitional period for type 1 diabetes management, and aspects of family functioning such as family conflict and responsibility for diabetes management likely change following high school graduation. This study examined changes in diabetes-specific family conflict, family responsibility for diabetes management tasks, and associations with glycemic control up to 1 year after high school. Seventy-nine emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (M age = 18.09 ± .43 years; 51% female; 71% Caucasian) and their parents (73% female) completed self-report measures on diabetes-specific family conflict and family responsibility at 3 consecutive clinic visits, beginning in the spring of their senior year of high school. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was obtained from medical records. Diabetes-specific family conflict was relatively low; scores did not significantly change from baseline to Time 3. Parent responsibility for diabetes care decreased from baseline to Time 3. Higher parent- and emerging adult-reported family conflict and higher parent responsibility for diabetes care were associated with worse glycemic control (ps < .05). Parent-reported family conflict and the interaction between parent-reported family conflict and responsibility predicted HbA1c 1 year after high school. Conversely, HbA1c did not predict diabetes-specific family conflict or responsibility 1 year after high school. Findings indicate that diabetes-specific family conflict is associated with glycemic control after high school, even when emerging adults assume greater responsibility for diabetes self-care. Diabetes-specific family conflict levels were generally low and did not change over time despite this transitional period. If diabetes-specific conflict is present, it should be an important avenue for potential intervention for emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Dev Sci ; 22(5): e12841, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016808

RESUMO

Childhood poverty has been associated with structural and functional alterations in the developing brain. However, poverty does not alter brain development directly, but acts through associated biological or psychosocial risk factors (e.g. malnutrition, family conflict). Yet few studies have investigated risk factors in the context of infant neurodevelopment, and none have done so in low-resource settings such as Bangladesh, where children are exposed to multiple, severe biological and psychosocial hazards. In this feasibility and pilot study, usable resting-state fMRI data were acquired in infants from extremely poor (n = 16) and (relatively) more affluent (n = 16) families in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) was estimated using bilateral seeds in the amygdala, where iFC has shown susceptibility to early life stress, and in sensory areas, which have exhibited less susceptibility to early life hazards. Biological and psychosocial risk factors were examined for associations with iFC. Three resting-state networks were identified in within-group brain maps: medial temporal/striatal, visual, and auditory networks. Infants from extremely poor families compared with those from more affluent families exhibited greater (i.e. less negative) iFC in precuneus for amygdala seeds; however, no group differences in iFC were observed for sensory area seeds. Height-for-age, a proxy for malnutrition/infection, was not associated with amygdala/precuneus iFC, whereas prenatal family conflict was positively correlated. Findings suggest that it is feasible to conduct infant fMRI studies in low-resource settings. Challenges and practical steps for successful implementations are discussed.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Carência Psicossocial , Tonsila do Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bangladesh , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Lobo Parietal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 276: 100-106, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035109

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the potential triggering of negative life events (NLEs) on suicide attempt in rural China. A case-crossover design was used to study 1200 suicide attempters aged 15-70 years. NLEs were assessed by a modification of Paykel's Interview for Recent Life Events. NLEs had significant triggering effects on the day of and month of suicide attempt. Marriage/love, family/home, and friend/relationship were the types of NLEs found to trigger suicide attempt when occurring on the day and month of suicide attempt. Specifically, increased risk of suicide attempt was associated with quarreling with a partner or family member on the day and month of suicide attempt. Being disappointed in a love affair, fighting with a partner, family poverty and loss of face during the month of attempts were linked to increase odds of suicide attempt. Further, when month of suicide attempt was assigned as the case period, the impact of NLEs on suicide attempt was greater among those who were younger and without mental disorders. These findings provide knowledge of the triggering of NLEs on suicide attempt, especially among the young and those without mental disorders. Further, family conflicts should be a greater focus of attention in suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , População Rural/tendências , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Fam Psychol ; 33(5): 554-564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973257

RESUMO

Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for poor couple relationship quality. The goal of the current study was to understand actor and partner associations between daily level of parenting stress and perceived couple interactions using a 14-day daily diary in 186 families of children with ASD. A comparison group of 182 families of children without a neurodevelopmental disability was included to determine if actor and partner associations differed in a context of child ASD. On each day of the 14-day diary, parents independently rated their daily level of parenting stress (7-point scale) and reported on the perceived presence of different types of positive (e.g., hugged and kissed) and negative (e.g., critical comment) couple interactions. Multilevel models were used to examine actor and partner effects, and their interaction, in mothers and fathers and by group (ASD vs. comparison). Results indicated that actor daily level of parenting stress negatively covaried with perceived positive couple interactions in mothers in both groups. In contrast, actor daily level of parenting stress positively covaried with perceived positive couple interactions in fathers in the ASD group. There was a significant interaction between actor and partner daily level of parenting stress for perceived negative couple interactions in both mothers and fathers. Specifically, one's own daily level of parenting stress was more strongly positively related to her/his perceived negative couple interactions on days when her/his partner also had high parenting stress. This interaction was stronger in mothers in the ASD versus comparison group. Implications for family interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(6): 1161-1174, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847637

RESUMO

It is unclear how autonomy-related parenting processes are associated with Latinx adolescent adjustment. This study uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify typologies of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent conflict and examines their association with Latinx youth's school performance and depressive symptoms. The sample included 248 Latinx 9th and 10th graders (50% female) who completed surveys during fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters of the school year. When compared to a high monitoring/low conflict parenting profile, a moderate monitoring/moderate conflict profile was associated with stronger declines in school performance; for boys, a high monitoring/moderately high conflict profile also was associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms. For Latinx immigrant families, researchers should consider monitoring and conflict as co-occurring processes.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autonomia Pessoal , Ajustamento Social , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/etiologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Feminino , Georgia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente
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