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1.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(3): 694-702, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609398

RESUMO

In this paper, we analyse the conditions under which the COVID-19 pandemic will lead either to social order (adherence to measures put in place by authorities to control the pandemic) or to social disorder (resistance to such measures and the emergence of open conflict). Using examples from different countries (principally the United Kingdom, the United States, and France), we first isolate three factors which determine whether people accept or reject control measures. These are the historical context of state-public relations, the nature of leadership during the pandemic and procedural justice in the development and operation of these measures. Second, we analyse the way the crisis is policed and how forms of policing determine whether dissent will escalate into open conflict. We conclude by considering the prospects for order/disorder as the pandemic unfolds.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Distúrbios Civis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distúrbios Civis/legislação & jurisprudência , Distúrbios Civis/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Conflito Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , França/epidemiologia , Governo , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Justiça Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Med Ethics ; 46(6): 360-363, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332154

RESUMO

Healthcare systems around the world are struggling to maintain a sufficient workforce to provide adequate care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Staffing problems have been exacerbated by healthcare workers (HCWs) refusing to work out of concern for their families. I sketch a deontological framework for assessing when it is morally permissible for HCWs to abstain from work to protect their families from infection and when it is a dereliction of duty to patients. I argue that it is morally permissible for HCWs to abstain from work when their duty to treat is outweighed by the combined risks and burdens of that work. For HCWs who live with their families, the obligation to protect one's family from infection contributes significantly to those burdens. There are, however, a range of complicating factors including the strength of duty to treat which varies according to the HCW's role, the vulnerability of family members to the disease, the willingness of family members to risk infection and the resources available to the HCW to protect their family. In many cases, HCWs in 'frontline' roles with a weak duty to treat and families at home will be morally permitted to abstain from work given the risks posed by COVID-19; therefore, society should provide additional incentives to maintain sufficient staff in these roles.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conflito Psicológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
3.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(8): 748-754, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a Decision Quality (DQ) tool to measure parents' DQ concerning ventilation tube (VT) insertion in their children. METHOD: Parental survey during 2017 to 2018 in a tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology clinic comparing a validated Decisional Conflict (DC) scale with a DQ instrument including Shared Decision-Making (SDM) scale, parental treatment goals, and knowledge about VT. RESULTS: Of 100 parent participants, 83% were mothers and 14% were fathers. 94% elected VT insertion, 6% elected monitoring or deferred the decision. 44% of the patients were <18 months, 42% were 19 months to 3 years, and the rest were older. The mean DC score was 8.26 out of 100 (95% CI 4.82-11.69), indicating low DC. Mean DQ score was 82.45 out of 100 (95% CI 80.18-84.72), including mean SDM of 87.71 (95% CI 83.53-91.88,), mean knowledge score of 87.5% (95% CI 84.56-91.59) and mean values score of 7.16 (95% CI 6.90-7.41). Comparisons between those who elected VT and those who did not showed that electors had lower DC scores (7.15 vs 24.74, P < .001), higher DQ scores (83.00 vs 72.61, P = .028) with higher SDM scores (88.70 vs 70.22, P = .044) and higher values score (7.20 vs 6.36, P = .034). Cronbach alpha for the DQ scale was 0.76. Spearman's rho for DQ score versus DC score was -0.458, P < .001. CONCLUSIONS: DQ, as measured with this tool, was higher when parents chose to place tubes. Our DQ instrument has potential use for study of why parents may decline VT when their child meets criteria for them.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Ventilação da Orelha Média/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6196-6204, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132213

RESUMO

Previous research has focused on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as a key brain region in the mitigation of the competition that arises from two simultaneously active signals. However, to date, no study has demonstrated that ACC is necessary for this form of behavioral flexibility, nor have any studies shown that ACC acts by modulating downstream brain regions such as the dorsal medial striatum (DMS) that encode action plans necessary for task completion. Here, we performed unilateral excitotoxic lesions of ACC while recording downstream from the ipsilateral hemisphere of DMS in rats, performing a variant of the STOP-signal task. We show that on STOP trials lesioned rats perform worse, in part due to the failure of timely directional action plans to emerge in the DMS, as well as the overrepresentation of the to-be-inhibited behavior. Collectively, our findings suggest that ACC is necessary for the mitigation of competing inputs and validates many of the existing theoretical predictions for the role of ACC in cognitive control.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/instrumentação , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletrodos Implantados , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/citologia , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/instrumentação
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(3): e1003066, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 44,000 people are forced to flee their homes every day due to conflict or persecution. Although refugee camps are designed to provide a safe temporary location for displaced persons, increasing evidence demonstrates that the camps themselves have become stressful and dangerous long-term places-especially for women. However, there is limited literature focused on refugee women's perspectives on their insecurity. This qualitative study sought to better understand the ways in which women experienced insecurity at a refugee camp in Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between May 2017 and June 2017, ethnographic semi-structured interviews accompanied by observation were conducted with a snowball sampling of 20 Somali (n = 10) and Ethiopian Oromo (n = 10) women, 18 years and older, who had had at least 1 pregnancy while living in Kakuma Refugee Camp. The interviews were orally translated, transcribed, entered into Dedoose software for coding, and analyzed utilizing an ethnographic approach. Four sources of insecurity became evident: tension between refugees and the host community, intra- or intercultural conflicts, direct abuse and/or neglect by camp staff and security personnel, and unsafe situations in accessing healthcare-both in traveling to healthcare facilities and in the facilities themselves. Potential limitations include nonrandom sampling, the focus on a specific population, the inability to record interviews, and possible subtle errors in translation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that women felt insecure in almost every area of the camp, with there being no place in the camp where the women felt safe. As it is well documented that insecure and stressful settings may have deleterious effects on health, understanding the sources of insecurity for women in refugee camps can help to guide services for healthcare in displaced settings. By creating a safer environment for these women in private, in public, and in the process of accessing care in refugee camps, we can improve health for them and their babies.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Características Culturais , Medo , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Paridade , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Medidas de Segurança , Somália , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Viagem , Violência/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(6): 538-546, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006466

RESUMO

The rates of suicide and self-harm in Northern Ireland are high, and have increased from 143 registered suicides in 1996 to 313 in 2010 and 318 in 2015. This Review summarises the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour, as well as the evidence from a small number of studies that have identified risk factors associated with high suicide rates in Northern Ireland. These risk factors were mental illness, trauma, exposure to the conflict known as the Troubles, deprivation, relationship problems, employment difficulties, financial difficulties, being LGBT, childhood adversities, and alcohol or drug use. We highlight the key challenges and opportunities for suicide prevention, emphasising a so-called lifespan approach. More needs to be done to address the relationship between substance misuse and suicide. Future research and prevention efforts should also focus on the transgenerational effect of the conflict, youth suicide, suicide prevention in minority groups, and the criminal justice context. The provision of and access to suicide-specific psychosocial interventions need to be prioritised, more support for people in crisis is required, as well as interventions for mental illness. Protect Life 2, the national suicide prevention strategy, needs to be implemented in full. Given the legacy of conflict in Northern Ireland, all suicide prevention efforts should be trauma informed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conflito Psicológico , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Carência Psicossocial , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(1): 60-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889229

RESUMO

Previous studies have found discrepancies between parent and child reports of parental favoritism. Some studies have also found that these discrepancies have unique effects on children's psychosocial adjustment. Nonetheless, much is still unknown about discrepancies between parent-reports and child-reports of parental favoritism and how they are associated with children's development. The current study examines discrepancies in multi-informant reports on parental favoritism in relation to children's internalizing and externalizing problems. The sample consisted of 556 mother-child dyads and 554 father-child dyads (46% boys, Mage = 12.52 years, SDage = 1.18). Polynomial regression analyses and response surface analyses were used to disentangle the effects of parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental favoritism. The results indicate that children reported higher parental favoritism than their parents. And the highest internalizing and externalizing problems occurred when both the mother and the child reported high maternal favoritism, and when both the father and the child report high paternal favoritism. Therefore, these findings partly support the assumptions based on the operations triad model. The findings also highlight the importance of the discrepancy between child- and parent-reports on parental favoritism in the development of children's internalizing and externalizing problems.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Mecanismos de Defesa , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(3): 639-654, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912190

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Control of reward-seeking behavior under conditions of punishment is an important function for survival. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We designed a task in which rats could choose to either press a lever and obtain a food pellet accompanied by a footshock or refrain from pressing the lever to avoid footshock, in response to tone presentation. In the task, footshock intensity steadily increased, and the task was terminated when the lever press probability reached < 25% (last intensity). Rats were trained until the last intensity was stable. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of the pharmacological inactivation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), and basolateral amygdala (BLA) on task performance. RESULTS: Bilateral inactivation of the vmPFC, lOFC, and BLA did not alter lever press responses at the early stage of the task. The number of lever presses increased following vmPFC and BLA inactivation but decreased following lOFC inactivation during the later stage of the task. The last intensity was elevated by vmPFC or BLA inactivation but lowered by lOFC inactivation. Disconnection of the vmPFC-BLA pathway induced behavioral alterations that were similar to vmPFC or BLA inactivation. Inactivation of any regions did not alter footshock sensitivity and anxiety levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a strong role of the vmPFC and BLA and their interactions in reward restraint to avoid punishment and a prominent role of the lOFC in reward-seeking under reward/punishment conflict situations.


Assuntos
Complexo Nuclear Basolateral da Amígdala/fisiologia , Conflito Psicológico , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Animais , Eletrochoque/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
12.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(3): 279-286, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712763

RESUMO

Across seven experiments and one survey (n = 4,282), people consistently overestimated out-group negativity towards the collective behaviour of their in-group. This negativity bias in group meta-perception was present across multiple competitive (but not cooperative) intergroup contexts and appears to be yoked to group psychology more generally; we observed negativity bias for estimation of out-group, anonymized-group and even fellow in-group members' perceptions. Importantly, in the context of US politics, greater inaccuracy was associated with increased belief that the out-group is motivated by purposeful obstructionism. However, an intervention that informed participants of the inaccuracy of their beliefs reduced negative out-group attributions, and was more effective for those whose group meta-perceptions were more inaccurate. In sum, we highlight a pernicious bias in social judgements of how we believe 'they' see 'our' behaviour, demonstrate how such inaccurate beliefs can exacerbate intergroup conflict and provide an avenue for reducing the negative effects of inaccuracy.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento Competitivo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Processos Grupais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Humanos , Comunicação Persuasiva , Política , Estados Unidos
13.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(1): 45-54, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591519

RESUMO

Hostility towards outgroups contributes to costly intergroup conflict. Here we test an intervention to reduce hostility towards Muslims, a frequently targeted outgroup. Our 'collective blame hypocrisy' intervention highlights the hypocrisy involved in the tendency for people to collectively blame outgroup but not ingroup members for blameworthy actions of individual group members. Using both within-subject and between-subject comparisons in a preregistered longitudinal study in Spain, we find that our intervention reduces collective blame of Muslims and downstream anti-Muslim sentiments relative to a matched control condition and that the effects of the intervention persist one month and also one year later. We replicate the benefits of the intervention in a second study. The effects are mediated by reductions in collective blame and moderated by individual differences in preference for consistency. Together, these data illustrate that the collective blame hypocrisy intervention enduringly reduces harmful intergroup attitudes associated with conflict escalation, particularly among those who value consistency in themselves and others.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Processos Grupais , Hostilidade , Preconceito/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Individualidade , Islamismo , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espanha/etnologia
14.
Dev Sci ; 23(2): e12899, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483912

RESUMO

Only one previous developmental study of Stroop task performance (Schiller, 1966) has controlled for differences in processing speed that exist both within and between age groups. Therefore, the question of whether the early developmental change in the magnitude of Stroop interference actually persists after controlling for processing speed needs further investigation; work that is further motivated by the possibility that any remaining differences would be caused by process(es) other than processing speed. Analysis of data from two experiments revealed that, even after controlling for processing speed using z-transformed reaction times, early developmental change persists such that the magnitude of overall Stroop interference is larger in 3rd- and 5th graders as compared to 1st graders. This pattern indicates that the magnitude of overall Stroop interference peaks after 2 or 3 years of reading practice (Schadler & Thissen, 1981). Furthermore, this peak is shown to be due to distinct components of Stroop interference (resulting from specific conflicts) progressively falling into place. Experiment 2 revealed that the change in the magnitude of Stroop interference specifically results from joint contributions of task, semantic and response conflicts in 3rd- and 5th graders as compared to a sole contribution of task conflict in 1st graders. The specific developmental trajectories of different conflicts presented in the present work provide unique evidence for multiple loci of Stroop interference in the processing stream (respectively task, semantic and response conflict) as opposed to a single (i.e. response) locus predicted by historically - favored response competition accounts.


Assuntos
Teste de Stroop , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Conflito Psicológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Semântica
15.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25041, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048322

RESUMO

O objetivo desta pesquisa é compreender as brincadeiras de lutinha e as brigas vivenciadas no ambiente escolar, sob a perspectiva do cotidiano infantil, em um Centro de Atenção Integral à Criança e ao Adolescente, situado em Sobradinho II ­ DF. O estudo tem natureza qualitativa, de orientação etnográfica, com os aportes teórico-metodológicos das sociologias do cotidiano e da infância. O trabalho de campo foi realizado ao longo de sete meses do ano letivo de 2017, com trinta e quatro crianças, entre nove e 12 anos de idade. Os instrumentos utilizados foram observação participante, produção de desenhos e conversas com as crianças. Os registros de campo permitiram a identificação de categorias que evidenciam as brincadeiras de lutinha e as brigas sob dimensões paradoxais do cotidiano infantil, que carregam no seu bojo aspectos circundantes ao conflito enquanto mediador das relações concebidas dentro e fora da escola


This study looks into children's play-fighting and real fights experienced in the school environment from the perspective of children's daily life in a Center for Whole Attention to Children and Adolescents located in Sobradinho II, DF, Brazil. It is a qualitative, ethnographic study with theoretical-methodological contributions from Sociologies of Daily Life and Childhood. Field research was conducted over seven months of the 2017 school year, with 34 children aged 9-12. The instruments used were participant observation, drawing, and conversations with the children. Field records allowed identifying categories that show play-fighting and real fights under the paradoxical dimensions of children's daily life, which carry aspects surrounding conflict as a mediator of relationships conceived inside and outside the school


El objetivo de esta investigación es comprender los juegos de lucha y las peleas vivenciadas en el ambiente escolar, bajo la perspectiva del cotidiano infantil, en un Centro de Atención Integral a Niños y Adolescentes, situado en Sobradinho II - DF. El estudio tiene naturaleza cualitativa, con orientación etnográfica y con los aportes teóricometodológicos de las sociologías de lo cotidiano y de la infancia. La investigación de campo fue realizada a lo largo de siete meses del año 2017, con treinta y cuatro niños de entre 9 y 12 años de edad. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la observación participante, la producción de dibujos y las conversaciones con los niños. Los registros de campo permitieron la identificación de categorías que evidencian los juegos de lucha y las peleas bajo dimensiones paradójicas del cotidiano infantil, que cargan aspectos circundantes al conflicto como mediador de las relaciones concebidas dentro y fuera de la escuela


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Jogos e Brinquedos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência , Conflito Psicológico
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1693, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a concern in ferry shipping as it has a negative impact on crew members health and plays a major role in marine incidents and accidents. Research within land-based occupational settings has found that work-family conflict is an important risk factor for fatigue and that support from leaders constitutes a possible resource with the potential to buffer a negative impact from work-family conflict. Though, the working conditions of ferry shipping are likely to interfere with employee's family life those two factors have received little attention in research on seafarers' health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the direct associations between work-family conflict as well as leaders' support with fatigue in employees of the Danish ferry shipping industry. Further, the study aimed at testing whether support could buffer potential detrimental associations between work-family conflict and fatigue. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and 193 respondents answered to a self-administered questionnaire. Fatigue was measured with the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory. Perceived work-family conflict and perceived supervisor support were assessed with two subscales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. The association of potential risk factors with fatigue was determined using hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: After controlling for confounding, work-family conflict was found to be positively associated with four of the five subdimensions of fatigue; lack of energy, physical discomfort, lack of motivation and sleepiness, while more support from supervisors was related to less lack of energy, physical exhaustion and lack of motivation. Further, supervisor support was found to moderate the effect from work-family conflict on the physical subdimensions of fatigue. CONCLUSION: Although restricted by its cross-sectional design and a limited sample, this study provides support for the independent relevance of work family conflict and support from nearest superior for employee fatigue in ferry shipping. Further, there was evidence for a moderating role of such support on the negative impact of work-family conflict on the physical aspects of fatigue. Shipping companies may consider commencing initiatives which reduce conflicts between family life and work obligations, and that leader support may be a relevant component in such initiatives.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Família/psicologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Indústrias/organização & administração , Navios , Apoio Social , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMO

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Violência contra a Mulher , Conflito Psicológico , Homicídio/psicologia
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 873, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The statement format of the Decisional Conflict Scale (sf-DCS) is designed and widely used to assess patients' state of uncertainty during health related decision making. As yet no Mandarin version of the sf-DCS has been produced. This study aims to produce the first Mandarin version of the sf-DCS and test its validity and reliability in mainland China. METHODS: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original English version of the sf-DCS into Mandarin was carried out in accordance with previously published guidelines. The psychometric properties of sf-DCS were assessed in two hypothesized decision-making contexts through online surveys. RESULTS: In the online survey designed to test scale validity and reliability, 437 people responded to the influenza immunization survey and 238 responded to the breast cancer screening survey. The results confirm that the Mandarin version of sf-DCS has good criteria validity and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a fitted revised five factors model by removing three items. Respondents who were "unsure" about their decisions/intentions, had read less information, and reported lower self-perceived prior knowledge level scored higher on sf-DCS. The Cronbach's alpha for the sf-DCS total score was 0.963 and that for each subscale ranged from 0.784 to 0.937 in both decision making contexts, and the test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.528. CONCLUSIONS: The Mandarin version of sf-DCS has good criteria validity and its internal consistency is satisfactory. Our analysis suggests a refinement of the original sf-DCS's factor structure is needed.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conflito Psicológico , Tomada de Decisões , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama , China , Cultura , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Incerteza
20.
Br J Nurs ; 28(21): 1380-1386, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: young-onset dementia (under age 65) varies in many respects to typical aged dementia. Health professionals are centrally involved in supporting individuals and families to cope with the unique challenges that young-onset dementia (YOD) brings. AIMS: this study aimed to explore professionals' perceptions of the key challenges faced by people living with YOD and their families, and how they provide support to this group. METHODS: qualitative interviews were conducted with nine health professionals from a range of health and social care contexts. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. FINDINGS: interviewees reported significant challenges in trying to enact support for people with YOD, and families. Particular challenges relate to delays in accessing timely diagnosis, and difficulty in accessing relevant, age-appropriate supports. Interviewees experienced ethical tensions working in this area; interviewees were keen to enact support for the person following diagnosis, but felt constrained by service options that were not relevant or readily accessible to the person, and in some instances, traditional dementia services added to, rather than lessened the stress experienced by those involved. CONCLUSION: dementia and health services should be cognisant of the unique challenges of YOD, and models of service provision should aim to respond accordingly. Nurses and other health professionals should be afforded the necessary structures to support people living with YOD. This relates to dedicated YOD models of care, specifically timely diagnosis, post-diagnosis support and community services that enhance personhood and resilience.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conflito Psicológico , Demência/terapia , Ética Médica , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Adaptação Psicológica , Idade de Início , Demência/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Profissional-Família , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
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