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1.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 50-58, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167731

RESUMO

Metaphors have been widely used in communication about the Covid-19 pandemic. The virus has been described, for example, as an "enemy" to be "beaten," a "tsunami" on health services and even as "glitter" that "gets everywhere." This paper discusses different metaphors for the pandemic, and explains why they are used and why they matter. War metaphors are considered first, as they were particularly frequent and controversial at the beginning of the pandemic. An overview of alternative metaphors is then provided, drawing from the "#ReframeCovid" crowd-sourced multilingual collection of metaphors for Covid-19. Finally, based on both the #ReframeCovid collection and a systematic analysis of a large corpus of news articles in English, it is suggested that Fire metaphors are particularly appropriate and versatile in communication about different aspects of the pandemic, including contagion and different public health measures aimed at reducing it.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Metáfora , Conflitos Armados , Fogo , Humanos , Desastres Naturais , Pandemias , Saúde Pública
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) represents a difficult challenge and could have devastating consequences for the healthcare system and healthcare workers in war-torn countries with poor healthcare facilities such as Yemen. Our study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, preparedness, counselling practices of healthcare workers regarding COVID-19, and the perceived barriers to adequately prevent and control COVID-19 in Yemen. METHODS: Healthcare workers (HCWs) from major healthcare facilities participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of five main domains (demographics, knowledge, self-preparedness, counselling practice, perceived barriers) was distributed among HCWs after obtaining informed consent. A convenient sampling technique was used. Descriptive and inferential analyses were applied using SPSS software. RESULTS: A total of 1000 participants were initially targeted to participate in the study with 514 (51.4%) responding, of which 55.3% were female. Physicians and nurses constituted the largest proportion of participants, with 39.5% and 33.3%, respectively. The median scores for knowledge, self-preparedness, and counselling practice were 8 (out of 9), 9 (out of 15), and 25 (out of 30), respectively. The physician group showed a statistically significant association with better knowledge compared to the nurse group only, P<0.001. Males had higher preparedness scores than females, p<0.001. Also, the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency departments presented a statistically significant difference by which the participants from these departments were more prepared compared to the others (e.g. outpatients, paediatrics and surgery) with P < 0.0001. The lack of awareness among the general population about COVID-19 preventive measures was perceived as the most common barrier for the adequate prevention and control of COVID-19 in Yemen (89.1%). CONCLUSION: The major highlight of this study is that HCWs have, overall, good knowledge, suboptimal preparedness, and adequate counselling practices prior to the outbreak of COVID-19 in Yemen, despite the high number of perceived barriers. However, urgent action and interventions are needed to improve the preparedness of HCWs to manage COVID-19. The perceived barriers also need to be fully addressed by the local healthcare authorities and international organisations working in Yemen for adequate prevention and control measures to be in place in managing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Iêmen/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232342

RESUMO

Anthropogenic change has been associated with population growth, land use change, and changing economies. However, internal migration patterns and armed conflicts are also key drivers of anthropogenic and demographic processes. To better understand the processes associated with this change, we explore the spatial relationship between forced migration due to armed conflict and changing socioeconomic factors in Colombia, a country which has a recent history of 7 million internal migrants. In addition, we use remote sensing, Google Earth Engine, as well as spatial statistical analyses of demographic data in order to measure anthropogenic change between 1984 and 2013-a socio-politically important period in Colombia's armed conflict. We also analyze spatiotemporal relationships between socioeconomic and anthropogenic changes, which are caused by forced migration. We found that forced migration is significantly and positively related to an increasing rural-urban type of migration which results from armed conflict. Results also show that it is negatively related to interregional displacement. Indeed, anthropogenic change pertaining to different regions have had different correlations with forced migration, and across different time periods. Findings are used to discuss how socioeconomic and political phenomena such as armed conflict can have complex effects on the dynamics of anthropogenic and ecological change as well as movement of humans in countries like Colombia.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Dinâmica Populacional , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização , Colômbia , Humanos , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
4.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(5): 690-694, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138908

RESUMO

The present case report describes a pediatric patient that sustained and survived major abdominal trauma due to an open-air explosion during the Syrian civil war. A 9-year-old male patient was brought to our hospital's paediatric emergency department after a bomb explosion that occurred 8 hours prior to presentation. The patient had a severe flap-like skin defect that extended from the below the umbilicus to the right femur. The defect was embedded with multiple stones, plastic, and soil fragments of varying size. Debridement of the anterior abdominal wall was performed, followed by exploratory laparotomy. Multiple sites of perforation of the small bowel were resected, and anastomosis was performed. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) was applied to the large wound area. The VAC dressing was changed every 3 days. Granulation tissue developed post-operatively after 26 days and the defect was repaired using skin grafts harvested from the patient's left leg. The patient was considered fully recovered and was discharged 34 days post-surgery. The presented case shows that despite the severity of the patient's major abdominal injuries, rapid wound debridement, exploratory laparotomy, VAC therapy and a multidisciplinary approach are crucial in preventing death and achieving a full recovery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Traumatismos por Explosões/cirurgia , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Traumatismos Abdominais/etiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Conflitos Armados , Traumatismos por Explosões/complicações , Bombas (Dispositivos Explosivos) , Criança , Desbridamento , Explosões , Humanos , Perfuração Intestinal/etiologia , Intestino Delgado/lesões , Laparotomia , Masculino , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Transplante de Pele , Síria , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193952

RESUMO

Sudan is facing a formidable task of fighting COVID-19. The country is suddenly challenged by this health issue that will test its path towards peace, stability, and development. The fragile task of handling COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan is brought about by several factors such as the weak healthcare system and political conflicts, that have been intertwined with the recent regime. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, there was already high unemployment, soaring inflation and lack of social protection and safety nets for its populace. The government has been trying its best to address the pandemic, however, much still needs to be done. Neglecting Sudan by the international community in terms of support towards containment of COVID-19 has grievous implications for transition out of military dictatorship and efforts to curb the pandemic globally. As no country is safe if all is not safe. It is essential that Sudan should leverage on innovations, country-compatible measures, and other tailor-made strategies for effective responses.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Conflitos Armados , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pobreza , Refugiados , Condições Sociais , Sudão/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Despite a safe and effective vaccine being available for many years, the number of measles cases has been increasing again worldwide since 2018. Our report aims to identify putative reasons for this development. METHODS: We conducted a selective literature search. Further, current reports and data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Bank were evaluated. RESULTS: According to the WHO, Madagascar, the Ukraine, and Israel had the highest incidences of measles worldwide between 1 July 2018 and 30 June 2019. Measles outbreaks are a sign of inadequate vaccination rates caused by multiple structural and psychological barriers. Structural barriers to measles vaccination, such as a lack of routine vaccination programs, have been identified as the main cause of low measles vaccination rates, particularly in fragile countries e.g. due to armed conflicts, but also in some subpopulations of higher-income countries e.g. due to lacking resources for vaccination services. Psychological barriers leading to vaccination skepticism were prevalent mainly in developed countries with well-functioning health systems and a high standard of living. CONCLUSION: The reasons for the global measles crisis are manifold and in some cases have existed for decades. However, the consequences appear to be accumulating and have had a dramatic impact on case numbers since 2018. The goal of measles elimination and maintenance of the necessary vaccination programs is a constant challenge that requires strict and permanent compliance with WHO recommendations. The number of measles cases reported in Germany is still at a level above the key target for measles elimination specified in the national immunization plan. Timely and/or locally restricted as well as nationwide outbreaks continue to occur. Since infectious agents can be transmitted across borders, the international perspective is an essential component of national health policy in Germany.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237929

RESUMO

Children and adolescents who have experienced traumatic events demonstrate a variety of posttraumatic symptoms, including recurrent nightmares, as well as adverse reactions in the school setting. The current study examined nightmare symptoms, posttraumatic stress, sleep disturbance, and self- and teacher-reported school functioning of 64 youths in the Gaza Strip, ages 12 to 16, who have lived through three wars and experience ongoing conflict and political insecurity. Students were treatment-seeking for sleep-problems and reported, on average, five nightmares per week for an average of three years, with concomitant disrupted sleep, fear of going to sleep, and not feeling rested in the morning. Both teachers and students reported that participants exhibited impaired academic functioning and daytime sleepiness. The content of the students' nightmares demonstrated frightening themes of being under attack and loss of self-efficacy/control; threat levels were high, and almost 60% included the threat of death. Approximately half of the nightmares included surreal elements in addition to more realistic scenes of violence. Participants in the study demonstrated substantial posttraumatic sleep problems with intensely distressing, frequent and chronic nightmares, andnightmare symptoms were associated with impairment in school functioning. Given the disruptive and distressing nature of these students' nightmare disturbance, we suggest that increasing self-efficacy in relation to the experience of recurrent nightmares may be a good point of intervention with these recurrently traumatized youth. Thus, increasing the understanding of students' nightmare symptoms may lead to ameliorating the suffering of youths in war zones and may have positive effects on their school functioning.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Árabes/psicologia , Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Sonhos/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/etiologia , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oriente Médio , Testes Psicológicos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Autoeficácia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Violência/psicologia
9.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 2-10, 21/10/2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123556

RESUMO

Objetivo: Explorar la relación entre los sistemas de activación de conducta (SAC) / sistema de inhibición de conducta (SIC) y funciones ejecutivas (FE) en excombatientes del conflicto armado colombiano. Metodología: Estudio observacional, exploratorio, con muestra no aleatoria de 39 excombatientes del programa de la Alta Consejería de la Presidencia para la Reintegración, residentes en Antioquia-Colombia, edad 35±7.6 años, 87.2% hombres, y escolaridad 10±2.8 grados; comparados con un grupo control de 14 no combatientes (edad 33±6.1 años, 71.4% hombres y escolaridad 10±2.7 grados). Se les administró un cuestionario de SAC/SIC, usando la sensibilidad a la recompensa (SR) y la sensibilidad al castigo (SC). Para la FE se aplicó la prueba Ineco Frontal Screening (IFS). Resultados: Hubo alteraciones específicas de la FE: en la ejecución de instrucciones conflictivas (IC), memoria de trabajo verbal (MTV) y control inhibitorio verbal (CIV). Se evidenciaron correlaciones directas, con coeficientes de moderados a altos entre el SAC (SR) y la capacidad de abstracción CA, el control motor inhibitorio (CMI), la MTV, la memoria de trabajo espacial (MTE) y el funcionamiento ejecutivo global (IFSTOT). Conclusiones: Los excombatientes presentaron un rendimiento inferior en la memoria de trabajo verbal y el control inhibitorio verbal, lo que impacta las capacidades de anticipación, establecimiento de metas, diseño de planes, iniciación de conductas voluntarias y el control inhibitorio. Lo anterior puede generar la toma de decisiones equivocadas.


Objective: To explore the correlations between behavior activation and inhibition systems (BAS/ BIS) and executive functions in ex-combatants of the Colombian armed conflict. Methodology: Observational, exploratory study, with a sample of 39 ex-combatants belonging to the "High Counseling of the Presidency for Reintegration" program, residents in Antioquia-Colombia, with an average of 35±7.6 year of age, 87.2% were males, with school grades of10±2.8; who were compared with a control group of 14 non-combatants, with ages between 33±6.1 years-old, 71.4% were males, and with school grades 10±2.7. The BAS/ BIS questionnaire was administered in order to score the Reward Sensitivity (RS) and Punishment Sensitivity (PS). The EF was evaluated with INECO-Frontal Screening (IFS). Results: There were specific alterations of EF in the execution of conflicting instructions (CI), verbal working memory (MTV) and verbal inhibitory control (CIV). Direct correlations, moderate to high coefficients between SAC (SR) and CA abstraction capacity, CMI inhibitory motor control, MTV, spatial working memory (MTE), and global executive functioning (IFSTOT). Conclusions: Colombian ex-combatants have lower performance in verbal working memory and verbal inhibitory control, which would affect anticipation, goal setting, plan design, initiation of voluntary behaviors and inhibitory control, which generates generation of wrong decisions.


Objetivo: Explorar a relação entre os sistemas de ativação de conduta (SAC) / sistema de inibição de conduta (SIC) e funções executivas (FE) em ex-combatentes do conflito armado colombiano. Metodologia: Estudo observacional, exploratório, com amostra não aleatória de 39 ex-combatentes do programa da Alto Conselho da Presidência para a Reintegração, residentes em Antioquia-Colômbia, idade 35±7.6 anos, 87.2% homens, e escolaridade 10±2.8 graus; comparados com um grupo controle de 14 não combatentes (idade 33±6.1 anos, 71.4% homens e escolaridade 10±2.7 graus). Se lhes administrou um questionário de SAC/SIC, usando a sensibilidade à recompensa (SR) e a sensibilidade ao castigo (SC). Para a FE se aplicou a prova Ineco Frontal Screening (IFS). Resultados: Houve alterações específicas da FE: na execução de instruções conflitivas (IC), memória de trabalho verbal (MTV) e controle inibitório verbal (CIV). Se evidenciaram correlações diretas, com coeficientes de moderados a altos entre o SAC (SR) e a capacidade de abstração CA, o controle motor inibitório (CMI), a MTV, a memória de trabalho espacial (MTE) e o funcionamento executivo global (IFSTOT). Conclusões: Os ex-combatientes apresentaram um rendimento inferior na memória de trabalho verbal e o controle inibitório verbal, o que impacta as capacidades de antecipação, estabelecimento de metas, desenho de planos, iniciação de condutas voluntárias e o controle inibitório. O anterior pode gerar a toma de decisões equivocadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Função Executiva , Atividades Cotidianas , Conflitos Armados , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240487, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112885

RESUMO

After the seminal work of Durkheim (1897), many subsequent studies have revealed a decline in suicide rates during wartime. However, their main focus was inter-state wars and whether the same argument holds for civil conflicts within a country is an important unresolved issue in the modern world. Moreover, the findings of the previous studies are not conclusive due to unobserved confounding factors. This study investigated the relationship between civil war and suicide rate through a more rigorous statistical approach using the Sri Lankan civil war as a case study. For this purpose, we employed a linear regression model with district and year fixed effects to estimate a difference-in-difference in the suicide rate between the peacetime and wartime periods as well as the contested and non-contested districts. The results indicate that the suicide rate in the contested districts in the wartime was significantly lower than the baseline by 11.8-14.4 points (95% CI 6.46-17.22 and 7.21-21.54, respectively), which corresponds to a 43-52% decline. The robustness of the possible confounding factors was analyzed and not noted to have so much effect as to alter the interpretation of the results. This finding supports the Durkheimian theory, which places importance on social integration as a determinant of suicide, even for civil conflicts.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conflict and humanitarian crises increase the risk of both intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence against women and girls. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of different forms of violence against women and girls in South Sudan, which has suffered decades of conflict, most recently in 2013. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among women aged 15-64 in three conflict-affected sites in South Sudan: Juba, Rumbek, and the Protection of Civilian Sites (PoCs) in Juba between 2015 and 2016. FINDINGS: A total of 2,244 women between the ages of 15-64 were interviewed. Fifty percent (in the Juba PoCs) to 65% (in Juba and Rumbek) of all female respondents experienced either physical or sexual violence from a partner or non-partner in the course of their lifetimes. Approximately 35% of respondents have experienced rape, attempted rape or other forms of sexual violence by a non-partner during their lifetime. For ever-partnered women, lifetime prevalence of physical and/or sexual partner violence ranged between 54% in the Juba PoCs and 73% in Rumbek. Restrictive marital practices and gender norms, and experiences of conflict were major drivers of both partner and non-partner violence. CONCLUSION: Women and girls in South Sudan suffer among the highest levels of physical and sexual violence in the world. Although the prevalence of sexual assault by non-partners is four times the global average, women are still at greatest risk of physical and sexual assault from intimate partners. Conflict-related and intimate partner violence reinforce each other and are upheld by restrictive gender norms and marital practices. Expansion of comprehensive services, including health and psycho-social support for survivors is urgently needed. Moreover, policies and laws to prevent violence against women and provide survivors with access to justice should be given high priority within the ongoing peacebuilding process in South Sudan.


Assuntos
Violência de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Violência Étnica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Public Health ; 187: 65-66, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927290

RESUMO

Owing to the enduring conflict in Kashmir, there has been an increase in psychological problems. On top of that, the COVID-19 pandemic has added an additional burden on the mental health system of Kashmir. There is an unmet and immediate need to escalate the mental health services in Kashmir consisted of community participation, awareness programs, and mental health rehabilitation services.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938007

RESUMO

Toxicant, teratogen and carcinogen metal war remnants negatively affect human health. The current study analyzes, first, the persistence of heavy metal contamination in newborn hair in four cohorts across time in Gaza Palestine; second, the change in mothers' and infants' heavy metal contamination from birth to toddlerhood; and third, the impact of heavy metal contamination on infants' and toddlers' growth and development. The hair of newborns was analyzed for twelve heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP/MS) in cohorts recruited at delivery in 2011, 2015, 2016, and 2018-2019. In the 2015 cohort, mothers' hair samples were taken at delivery, and toddlers and mothers hair were also analyzed 18 months later. Growth levels of infants at six months and toddlers at 18 months were assessed according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards according to a mother report and pediatric check-up, respectively. 1. The level of metal contamination in utero was persistently high across 8 years, 2011, 2015, 2016, 2019, following three major military attacks (2009, 2012, 2014). 2. The 2015 cohort babies exposed in utero to attacks in 2014 at six months showed association of high load at birth in mother of arsenic and in newborn of barium with underweight, of barium and molybdenum in newborn with stunting. 3. Eighteen months after birth, toddlers had a higher level of metals in hairs than when they were born, while, in their mothers, such levels were similar to those at delivery, confirming persistence in the environment of war remnants. Underweight and stunting, both in infants and toddlers, were higher than reported for previous years, as well as being progressive within the cohort. Severe environmental factors, metal contamination and food insecurity put Gaza's infant health at risk.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Metais Pesados , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ecologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Oriente Médio , Mães
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110121, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759006

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 incidence and mortality in Europe have shown wide variation. Northern Italy in particular the Lombardy region, north-eastern French regions, Switzerland and Belgium were amongst the hardest hit, while the central and southern Italian regions, all the Balkan countries from Slovenia to Greece and the Islands of Malta and Cyprus had much fewer cases and deaths per capita, and deaths per number of cases. Differences in public health measures, and health care delivery, in the author's opinion, can only partly explain the difference. The geographical distribution of Phlebotomus sand-flies and the relative distribution of arthropod borne diseases Leishmaniasis and Phlebovirus infections especially the Sicilian Sandfly fever group corresponds to most areas of low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2. A hypothesis is proposed whereby repeated arthropod or sandfly vector infection of humans by novel viruses of zoonotic origins carrying bat or mammalian RNA/DNA, such as phleboviruses may have resulted in the development of an effective evolutionary immune response to most novel zoonotic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 by means of survival of the fittest possibly over many generations. This process probably ran in parallel and concurrent with the progressive evolution of novel coronaviruses which spread from one mammalian species to another. Other possible, but less likely mechanisms for the role of sandfly meals within a much shorter time frame may have led to, (i) previous exposure and infection of humans with the SARS-Cov-2 virus itself, or a closely related corona virus in the previous decades, or (ii) exposure of human populations to parts coronavirus protein namely either S or more likely N protein carried mechanically by arthropods, but without clinical disease causing direct immunity or (iii) by causing infection with other arthropod borne viruses which could carry bat DNA/RNA and have similar functional proteins resulting in an immediate cross-reactive immune response rather than by natural selection. The Evidence possibly supporting or disputing this hypothesis is reviewed, however the major problem with the hypothesis is that to date no coronavirus has ever been isolated from arthropods. Such a hypothesis can only be supported by research investigating the possible biological relationship of arthropods and coronaviruses where paradoxically they may be promoting immunity rather than disease.


Assuntos
Arbovirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Coletiva , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Pandemias , Phlebotomus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Conflitos Armados , Artrópodes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Mamíferos/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre do Flebótomo Napolitano/imunologia , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Zoonoses
20.
Science ; 369(6505): 866-870, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792403

RESUMO

Can intergroup contact build social cohesion after war? I randomly assigned Iraqi Christians displaced by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) to an all-Christian soccer team or to a team mixed with Muslims. The intervention improved behaviors toward Muslim peers: Christians with Muslim teammates were more likely to vote for a Muslim (not on their team) to receive a sportsmanship award, register for a mixed team next season, and train with Muslims 6 months after the intervention. The intervention did not substantially affect behaviors in other social contexts, such as patronizing a restaurant in Muslim-dominated Mosul or attending a mixed social event, nor did it yield consistent effects on intergroup attitudes. Although contact can build tolerant behaviors toward peers within an intervention, building broader social cohesion outside of it is more challenging.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Islamismo/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Humanos , Iraque
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