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1.
JAMA ; 326(2): 133-134, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255004
2.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253577, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270563

RESUMO

Memory conformity may develop when people are confronted with distinct memories reported by others in social situations and knowingly/unknowingly adhere to these exogenous memories. Earlier research on memory conformity suggests that (1) subjects were more likely to conform to confederate with high confidence; (2) subjects with low confidence on their memory accuracy were more likely to conform, and; (3) this subjective confidence could be adjusted by social manipulations. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how the confidence levels of ours and others may interact and produce a combined effect on our degree of conformity. More importantly, is memory conformity, defined by a complete adoption of the opposite side, the result of a gradual accumulation of subtler changes at the confidence level, i.e., a buildup of confidence conformity? Here, we followed participant's confidence transformation quantitatively over three confederate sessions in a memory test. After studying a set of human motion videos, participants had to answer simultaneously whether a target or lure video had appeared before by indicating their side (i.e., Yes/No) and their associated confidence rating. Participants were allowed to adjust their responses as they were being shown randomly-generated confederates' answers and confidence values. Results show that participants indeed demonstrated confidence conformity. Interestingly, they tended to become committed to their side early on and gain confidence gradually over subsequent sessions. This polarizing behaviour may be explained by two kinds of preferences: (1) Participant's confidence enhancement towards same-sided confederates was greater in magnitude compared to the decrement towards an opposite-sided confederate; and (2) Participants had the most effective confidence boost when the same-sided confederates shared similar, but not considerably different, confidence level to theirs. In other words, humans exhibit side- and similarity-biases during confidence conformity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Adulto , Humanos , Memória , Conformidade Social , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15349, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321512

RESUMO

Ecological factors, such as predation, have traditionally been used to explain sociability. However, it is increasingly recognised that individuals within a group do not associate randomly, and that these non-random associations can generate fitness advantages. The majority of the empirical evidence on differentiated associations in group-living mammals, however, comes from a limited number of taxa and we still know very little about their occurrence and characteristics in some highly social species, such as rats (Rattus spp.). Here, using network analysis, we quantified association patterns in four groups of male fancy rats. We found that the associations between rats were not randomly distributed and that most individuals had significantly more preferred/avoided associates than expected by random. We also found that these preferences can be stable over time, and that they were not influenced by individuals' rank position in the dominance hierarchy. Our findings are consistent with work in other mammals, but contrast with the limited evidence available for other rat strains. While further studies in groups with different demographic composition are warranted to confirm our findings, the occurrence of differentiated associations in all male groups of rats have important implications for the management and welfare of captive rat populations.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Distância Psicológica , Conformidade Social , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Predomínio Social
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099578

RESUMO

What is an effective vaccination policy to end the COVID-19 pandemic? We address this question in a model of the dynamics of policy effectiveness drawing upon the results of a large panel survey implemented in Germany during the first and second waves of the pandemic. We observe increased opposition to vaccinations were they to be legally required. In contrast, for voluntary vaccinations, there was higher and undiminished support. We find that public distrust undermines vaccine acceptance, and is associated with a belief that the vaccine is ineffective and, if enforced, compromises individual freedom. We model how the willingness to be vaccinated may vary over time in response to the fraction of the population already vaccinated and whether vaccination has occurred voluntarily or not. A negative effect of enforcement on vaccine acceptance (of the magnitude observed in our panel or even considerably smaller) could result in a large increase in the numbers that would have to be vaccinated unwillingly in order to reach a herd-immunity target. Costly errors may be avoided if policy makers understand that citizens' preferences are not fixed but will be affected both by the crowding-out effect of enforcement and by conformism. Our findings have broad policy applicability beyond COVID-19 to cases in which voluntary citizen compliance is essential because state capacities are limited and because effectiveness may depend on the ways that the policies themselves alter citizens' beliefs and preferences.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Aglomeração , Conformidade Social , Normas Sociais , Vacinação , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Imunológicos , Motivação
5.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 47(7): 1205-1217, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092146

RESUMO

Although people often disapprove of conformity, they also dislike when others deviate from group norms. What explains this ambivalence? We hypothesized that judgments of conformity would be affected by whether people view it as motivated by self-interested or benevolent motives. Four studies (N = 808), using both hypothetical and real-life instances of conformity, support this prediction. We find that people judge those who conform to gain social approval (self-interested conformity) as weak-willed, but those who conform out of concern for their group (benevolent conformity) as competent and possessing strong character. In addition, we predict and find that people view self-interested conformity as "fake" but benevolent conformity as revealing one's true self. Finally, we show that differences in perceived intentions explain how people sustain positive self-regard while succumbing to group pressures and why people judge their own conformity more favorably than others' conformity. We discuss implications for encouraging and discouraging conformity.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Conformidade Social , Humanos , Motivação , Comportamento Social
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019557

RESUMO

Studies on physiotherapists are generally focused on clinical professionalism, with very few examining job performance from a management standpoint. To address this gap, this study sought to investigate the relationship between impression management and organizational citizenship behavior and job performance. This study targeted medical institutions offering rehabilitation and physiotherapy services and conducted a questionnaire survey based on scales developed by domestic and foreign scholars. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 523 valid ones collected. The data was tested and verified using regression analysis and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). In the survey, the Impression Management Scale, Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale, and Job Performance Scale indicated that at the individual level, the impression management of physiotherapists is significantly related to their organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. The organizational citizenship behaviors were also found to have a mediating effect between impression management and job performance. At the group level, impression management had a conditioning effect on organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. In terms of statistical methods, group-level variables act as moderators, which affects the power of individual-level explanatory variables on outcome variables, i.e., the influence of the slope. The job behaviors of physiotherapists entail direct service and their performance is closely related to organizational development. Impression management gives people certain purposes and behaviors while organizational citizenship behaviors are a type of non-self-seeking, selfless dedication behaviors. Therefore, the motivation of physiotherapists who demonstrate organizational citizenship behaviors should be further explored.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cultura Organizacional , Fisioterapeutas/psicologia , Desempenho Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Altruísmo , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Conformidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Desempenho Profissional/ética
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939734

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that behavioural mimicry fosters affiliation, and can be used to infer whether people belong to the same social unit. However, we still know very little about the generalizability of these findings and the individual factors involved. The present study intends to disentangle two important variables and assess their importance for affiliation: the matching in time of the behaviours versus their matching in form. In order to address this issue, we presented participants with short videos in which two actors displayed a set of small movements (e.g. crossing their legs, folding their arms, tapping their fingers) arranged to be either contingent in time or in form. A dark filter was used to eliminate ostensive group marks, such us phenotype or clothing. Participants attributed the highest degree of affiliation to the actors when their subsequent movements matched in form, but were delayed by 4-5 seconds, and the lowest degree when the timing of their movements matched, but they differed in form. To assess the generalizability of our findings, we took our study outside the usual Western context and tested a matching sample of participants from a traditional small-scale society in Kenya. In all, our results suggest that movements are used to judge the degree of affiliation between two individuals in both large- and small-scale societies. While moving in different ways at the same time seems to increase the perceived distance between two individuals, movements which match in form seem to invoke closeness.


Assuntos
Movimento , Conformidade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Vestuário/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distância Psicológica
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2718, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976160

RESUMO

A key function of morality is to regulate social behavior. Research suggests moral values may be divided into two types: binding values, which govern behavior in groups, and individualizing values, which promote personal rights and freedoms. Because people tend to mentally activate concepts in situations in which they may prove useful, the importance they afford moral values may vary according to whom they are with in the moment. In particular, because binding values help regulate communal behavior, people may afford these values more importance when in the presence of close (versus distant) others. Five studies test and support this hypothesis. First, we use a custom smartphone application to repeatedly record participants' (n = 1166) current social context and the importance they afforded moral values. Results show people rate moral values as more important when in the presence of close others, and this effect is stronger for binding than individualizing values-an effect that replicates in a large preregistered online sample (n = 2016). A lab study (n = 390) and two preregistered online experiments (n = 580 and n = 752) provide convergent evidence that people afford binding, but not individualizing, values more importance when in the real or imagined presence of close others. Our results suggest people selectively activate different moral values according to the demands of the situation, and show how the mere presence of others can affect moral thinking.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Infuência dos Pares , Ajustamento Social , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 29, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public perceptions and personal characteristics are heterogeneous between countries and subgroups, which may have different impacts on health-protective behaviors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To assess whether self-reported perceptions of COVID-19 and personal characteristics are associated with protective behaviors among general adults and to compare patterns in six different countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study uses the secondary data collected through an online survey between 15 and 23 April 2020 across six countries (China, Italy, Japan, Korea, the UK, and the USA). A total of 5945 adults aged 18 years or older were eligible for our analysis. A logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of three recommended behaviors (wearing a mask, handwashing, and avoiding social gatherings). RESULTS: In most countries except for China, the participants who perceived wearing a mask as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to wear a mask (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 4.14, 2.08-8.02; Japan: 3.59, 1.75-7.30; Korea: 7.89, 1.91-31.63: UK: 9.23, 5.14-17.31; USA: 4.81, 2.61-8.92). Those who perceived that handwashing was extremely effective had higher ORs of this preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: Italy: 16.39, 3.56-70.18; Japan: 12.24, 4.03-37.35; Korea: 12.41, 2.02-76.39; UK: 18.04, 2.60-152.78; USA: 10.56, 2.21-44.32). The participants who perceived avoiding social gathering as being extremely effective to curtail the pandemic were more likely to take this type of preventive behavior (OR, 95%CI: China: 3.79, 1.28-10.23; Korea: 6.18, 1.77-20.60; UK: 4.45, 1.63-11.63; USA: 4.34, 1.84-9.95). The associations between personal characteristics, living environment, psychological status, and preventive behaviors varied across different countries. Individuals who changed their behavior because of recommendations from doctors/public health officials were more likely to take preventive behaviors in many countries. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that higher perceived effectiveness may be a common factor to encourage preventive behaviors in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These results may provide a better understanding of the homogeneity and heterogeneity of factors related to preventive behaviors and improve public health policies in various countries and groups.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Conformidade Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113609, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418458

RESUMO

Despite the established relations between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and substance use problems in general, there is a dearth of research on the relation between BPD pathology and opioid use problems, as well as factors that may explain this relation. Therefore, this study examined the indirect relations of BPD pathology to opioid use problems (i.e., prescription opioid misuse, apprehension about prescription opioid use, and opioid cravings) through motives for opioid use (i.e., coping, enhancement, social, and conformity motives) among 68 patients endorsing prescription opioid misuse in a residential correctional substance use disorder (SUD) treatment facility. Participants completed measures of BPD pathology, motives for opioid use, and opioid use problems. Findings revealed significant indirect relations of BPD pathology to opioid misuse through coping and enhancement motives, apprehension about opioid use through coping, enhancement, and social motives, and opioid cravings through coping motives within this SUD sample. Results illustrate the relevance of both emotion- and interpersonal-related motives for opioid use to opioid use problems among patients with BPD pathology in SUD treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/patologia , Motivação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Social , Conformidade Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Psychol Res ; 85(5): 2069-2078, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623511

RESUMO

A key aspect of metacognition is the ability to monitor performance. A recent line of work has shown that error-monitoring ability captures both the magnitude and direction of timing errors, thereby pointing at the metric composition of error monitoring [e.g., Akdogan and Balci (J Exp Psychol https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000265 , 2017)]. These studies, however, primarily used a composite variable that combined isolated measures of ordinal confidence ratings (as a proxy for error magnitude judgement) and "shorter/longer than the target" judgements. In two experiments we tested temporal error monitoring (TEM) performance with a more direct measure of directional error magnitude rating on a continuum. The second aim of this study is to test if TEM performance is modulated by the feeling of being watched that was previously shown to influence metacognitive-like monitoring processes. We predicted that being watched would improve TEM performance, particularly in participants with high timing precision (a proxy for high task mastery), and disrupt TEM performance in participants with low timing precision (a proxy for low task mastery). In both experiments, we found strong evidence for TEM ability. However, we did not find any reliable effect of the social stimulus on TEM performance. In short, our results demonstrate that metric error monitoring is a robust metacognitive phenomenon, which is not sensitive to social influence.


Assuntos
Metacognição , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Emoções , Humanos , Julgamento , Autoimagem , Autocontrole , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
12.
Child Dev ; 92(2): e201-e220, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845017

RESUMO

Across three pre-registered studies with children (ages 4-9) and adults (N = 303), we examined whether how a group is predicted evaluations of how group members should be (i.e., a descriptive-to-prescriptive tendency), under conditions in which the descriptive group norms entailed beliefs that were fact-based (Study 1), opinion-based (Study 2), and ideology-based (Study 3). Overall, participants tended to disapprove of individuals with beliefs that differed from their group, but the extent of this tendency varied across development and as a function of the belief under consideration (e.g., younger children did not show a descriptive-to-prescriptive tendency in the context of facts and ideologies, suggesting that they prioritized truth over group norms). Implications for normative reasoning and ideological polarization are discussed.


Assuntos
Grupo Associado , Conformidade Social , Identificação Social , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Autoeficácia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243996, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326481

RESUMO

Previous studies have proved that observational learning can induce placebo analgesia, but the factors that influence observationally induced placebo analgesia have not yet been extensively examined. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the effect of information about the role that the observed person (model) plays in the experiment on the magnitude of the observationally induced placebo effect. This study also examined the contribution of the observer's empathy, conformity and fear of pain to the placebo analgesia induced by observational learning. The effects induced in two experimental groups and one control group were compared. Participants in the experimental groups observed a model introduced as either another participant taking part in the study or a coworker of the experimenter. The model rated the intensity of pain induced by electrocutaneous stimuli preceded by color stimuli. One-half of all participants watched a model rating pain stimuli preceded by the color orange as higher than stimuli preceded by the color blue; for the other half, the ratings were the opposite. There was no observation in the control group. Subsequently, all participants received pain stimuli of the same intensity preceded by orange and blue stimuli and rated the intensity of the experienced pain. Placebo analgesia was found in both experimental groups. However, the way the observed model was introduced to participants did not affect the magnitude of placebo analgesia. Thus, the study showed that the role played by the model is not crucial for observationally induced placebo analgesia. The examined observer's individual characteristics did not predict the magnitude of placebo effect.


Assuntos
Analgesia/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Percepção da Dor , Efeito Placebo , Adulto , Analgesia/métodos , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conformidade Social , Percepção Visual
14.
Biol Lett ; 16(11): 20200660, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232652

RESUMO

Conformist transmission is a cognitively simple decision-making process by which observers are disproportionately likely to follow the majority. It has been studied in multiple species because theory suggests it can create stable cultural variation. However, the current theory assumes that while conformist transmission favours the majority, it is otherwise unbiased and does not systematically transform information, even though such biases are widely documented. Here, we relax this assumption, requiring conformist observers to infer the size of the majority from finite observations of their group mates. Because such inference can be subject to bias, it can lead to the biased transformation of transmitted information. We find that when individuals are biased (even weakly) the capacity of conformist transmission to sustain traditions is reduced and, in many cases, removed entirely. This suggests that the emphasis on conformist transmission as a source of stable cultural variation may be misplaced.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Conformidade Social , Humanos
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201259, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811312

RESUMO

Recent studies have emphasized the role of social learning and cultural transmission in promoting conformity and uniformity in animal groups, but little attention has been given to the role of negative frequency-dependent learning in impeding conformity and promoting diversity instead. Here, we show experimentally that under competitive conditions that are common in nature, social foragers (although capable of social learning) are likely to develop diversity in foraging specialization rather than uniformity. Naive house sparrows that were introduced into groups of foraging specialists did not conform to the behaviour of the specialists, but rather learned to use the alternative food-related cues, thus forming groups of complementary specialists. We further show that individuals in such groups may forage more effectively in diverse environments. Our results suggest that when the benefit from socially acquired skills diminishes through competition in a negative frequency-dependent manner, animal societies will become behaviourally diverse rather than uniform.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Social , Conformidade Social , Aprendizado Social , Pardais/fisiologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem
16.
Soc Work ; 65(3): 235-244, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710114

RESUMO

Recent reports have highlighted disparities in representation of Black men within research, calling for more work to be done with this group. The authors take up this call by exploring whether adherence to masculine norms influences mental health outcomes among young Black men. The sample included survey responses from 18- to 30-year-old Black men (N = 273) enrolled at five colleges and universities in the midwestern United States. Two theoretically relevant subscales from the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (that is, self-reliance and emotional control) were used to measure adherence to masculine norms, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicate that the model fit the data well. Furthermore, self-reliance was associated with higher rates of depressive symptoms (ß = .358, p < .001), but emotional control was not (ß = .137, p = .099). Study findings suggest that depression treatment interventions should be tailored to incorporate aspects of masculinity that are most salient to young Black men. In addition, social work researchers, clinicians, and service providers are uniquely positioned to contribute to the promotion of mental wellness among this underserved population and should be prepared to attend to young Black men's mental health needs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Masculinidade , Conformidade Social , Normas Sociais/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580416

RESUMO

Sekentei (social appearance) is a Japanese concept that describes a person's sense of implicit societal pressure to conform to social norms. However, evidence of a relationship between sekentei and health outcomes is sparse. This study examined the association between sekentei and cognitive function among community-dwelling older Japanese people. Baseline data were obtained from the Neuron to Environmental Impact across Generations (NEIGE) study conducted in 2017; 526 randomly sampled community-dwelling individuals aged 65-84 years living in Tokamachi, Niigata Prefecture, Japan were analyzed. The 12-item Sekentei Scale was used to assess sekentei. Cognitive function levels were evaluated with the Japanese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-J; ranging from 0-30). Approximately 10% and 25% had cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment, respectively (MMSE-J scores of ≤23 and 24-26, respectively). Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that both high and low levels of sekentei were associated with lower cognitive function, particularly mild cognitive impairment, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, health conditions, and genetic factors. The current findings suggest that a moderate level of sekentei consciousness is beneficial for cognitive health, and that sekentei could be an important socio-cultural factor affecting cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Vida Independente , Conformidade Social , Normas Sociais , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13603-13614, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461360

RESUMO

Conformist bias occurs when the probability of adopting a more common cultural variant in a population exceeds its frequency, and anticonformist bias occurs when the reverse is true. Conformist and anticonformist bias have been widely documented in humans, and conformist bias has also been observed in many nonhuman animals. Boyd and Richerson used models of conformist and anticonformist bias to explain the evolution of large-scale cooperation, and subsequent research has extended these models. We revisit Boyd and Richerson's original analysis and show that, with conformity based on more than three role models, the evolutionary dynamics can be more complex than previously assumed. For example, we show the presence of stable cycles and chaos under strong anticonformity and the presence of new equilibria when both conformity and anticonformity act at different variant frequencies, with and without selection. We also investigate the case of population subdivision with migration and find that the common claim that conformity can maintain between-group differences is not always true. Therefore, the effect of conformity on the evolution of cooperation by group selection may be more complicated than previously stated. Finally, using Feldman and Liberman's modifier approach, we investigate the conditions under which a rare modifier of the extent of conformity or the number of role models can invade a population. Understanding the dynamics of conformist- and anticonformist-biased transmission may have implications for research on human and nonhuman animal behavior, the evolution of cooperation, and frequency-dependent transmission in general.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Conformidade Social , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384598

RESUMO

How to overcome informational conformity consumer behavior when faced with threats of death is a social problem in response to COVID-19. This research is based on the terror management theory, the need to belong theory and the materialism theory. It uses a theoretical model to determine the relationships between threats of death and informational conformity consumer behavior. From 1453 samples collected during outbreak of COVID-19 in China, we used a structural equation model to test multiple research hypotheses. The result shows that threats of death are positively associated with a need to belong, materialism and informational conformity consumer behavior. The need to belong and materialism can play a mediating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior, and perceived social support can play a moderating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral , Conformidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 196: 104865, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386853

RESUMO

Past research suggests that children have biased negative appraisals of gender-variant (GV) peers (i.e., peers who display behaviors/interests that do not align with gender stereotypes). In the current study, Canadian cisgender 4- and 5-year-olds and 8- and 9-year-olds (N = 183; 48.6% girls), who were ethnically diverse (36% White European heritage) and from mostly middle- to upper-income families, viewed vignettes depicting boys and girls as either gender-conforming (GC) or GV. Multiple measures gauged children's appraisals in various domains (i.e., friendship/social preference, popularity, happiness, imitation, and moral judgment). Children's bias against GV peers was modest. Children preferred peers who presented as the same gender and/or with same-gender-typed behaviors/interests. Compared with GC peers, GV peers were rated as less happy, and older children rated a GV boy as less popular. When juxtaposed with a previous study of Hong Kong children that used the same study design, there were several parallels in the patterns observed, but Canadian children had a weaker and less consistent pattern of bias against GV peers than children from Hong Kong. In addition, children from these two cultures showed discrepant patterns for certain aspects of appraisals (e.g., happiness, moral judgment). Overall, these findings inform age-, gender-, and cultural-related influences on children's appraisals of GV peers.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conformidade Social
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