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2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 23, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Republic of Congo, with two massive outbreaks of chikungunya observed this decade, little is known about the insecticide resistance profile of the two major arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Here, we established the resistance profile of both species to insecticides and explored the resistance mechanisms to help Congo to better prepare for future outbreaks. METHODS: Immature stages of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were sampled in May 2017 in eight cities of the Republic of the Congo and reared to adult stage. Larval and adult bioassays, and synergist (piperonyl butoxide [PBO]) assays were carried out according to WHO guidelines. F1534C mutation was genotyped in field collected adults in both species and the polymorphism of the sodium channel gene assessed in Ae. aegypti. RESULTS: All tested populations were susceptible to temephos after larval bioassays. A high resistance level was observed to 4% DDT in both species countrywide (21.9-88.3% mortality). All but one population (Ae. aegypti from Ngo) exhibited resistance to type I pyrethroid, permethrin, but showed a full susceptibility to type II pyrethroid (deltamethrin) in almost all locations. Resistance was also reported to 1% propoxur in Ae. aegypti likewise in two Ae. albopictus populations (Owando and Ouesso), and the remaining were fully susceptible. All populations of both species were fully susceptible to 1% fenitrothion. A full recovery of susceptibility was observed in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus when pre-exposed to PBO and then to propoxur and permethrin respectively. The F1534C kdr mutation was not detected in either species. The high genetic variability of the portion of sodium channel spanning the F1534C in Ae. aegypti further supported that knockdown resistance probably play no role in the permethrin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that both Aedes species were susceptible to organophosphates (temephos and fenitrothion), while for other insecticide classes tested the profile of resistance vary according to the population origin. These findings could help to implement better and efficient strategies to control these species in the Congo in the advent of future arbovirus outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Congo , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 556, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992707

RESUMO

Rivers are a major supplier of particulate and dissolved material to the ocean, but their role as sources of bio-essential dissolved iron (dFe) is thought to be limited due to rapid, efficient Fe removal during estuarine mixing. Here, we use trace element and radium isotope data to show that the influence of the Congo River margin on surface Fe concentrations is evident over 1000 km from the Congo outflow. Due to an unusual combination of high Fe input into the Congo-shelf-zone and rapid lateral transport, the Congo plume constitutes an exceptionally large offshore dFe flux of 6.8 ± 2.3 × 108 mol year-1. This corresponds to 40 ± 15% of atmospheric dFe input into the South Atlantic Ocean and makes a higher contribution to offshore Fe availability than any other river globally. The Congo River therefore contributes significantly to relieving Fe limitation of phytoplankton growth across much of the South Atlantic.


Assuntos
Compostos de Ferro/análise , Ferro/análise , Rios/química , Água do Mar/química , Oceano Atlântico , Congo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/análise , Rádio (Elemento)/análise , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(676-7): 55-58, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961085

RESUMO

Among carefully selected patients, an early oral antibiotic switch is safe and efficient in severe bacterial infections. New data are available on dual antibiotherapy in severe Staphylococcus aureus infections. Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains resistant to ceftriaxone emerge, highlighting the necessity to develop new therapeutic strategies. Alongshan virus is a new tick-borne virus discovered in China. Ebola continues to rage in Democratic Republic of Congo, while Europe and Switzerland face measles outbreaks. North american guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Influenza have been updated, shortly before the FDA approval of baloxavir marboxil, a new antiviral treatment for Influenza infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Congo , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suíça
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 203, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692798

RESUMO

Introduction: Medication-overuse headaches (MOHs) are the least studied of all headaches in Africa. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in order to describe our experience with patients placed in Neurology Outpatient observation in Brazzaville over a period of 4 years, from September 2010 to August 2014. All patients with chronic primary headaches, according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) (2nd edition), were included in the study. All patient with secondary headaches or who hadn't given consent were excluded. The patients were divided into two groups: those who had progressed to medication-overuse and those who didn't meet the criteria for medication-overuse (without-MOH). The variables used were the sociodemographic characteristics of patients, the clinical features of primary headaches and MOH treatment. Results: The study population was constituted by 193 patients out of 212. The average age of patients was 42 ± 14 years, of whom 66.32% were women. MOH rate was 35.75%. The associated factors were: early age (p=0.003), concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol (p=0.0001) as well as self-medication (p<0.0001). By contrast, higher education (p<0.0001) and the use of NSAID alone (0.002) were protective factors against the onset of MOH. Ambulatory withdrawal was the most practiced treatment and amitriptyline was the most commonly used medication. Conclusion: Medication-overuse headaches are frequent in patients placed in Neurology Outpatient observation in Africa and deserve identification for a better management.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Congo , Escolaridade , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia/terapia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Secundários/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 311: 108356, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670141

RESUMO

Different samples of three products including Bikalga and Soumbala from Burkina Faso (West Africa) and Ntoba Mbodi from Congo-Brazzaville (Central Africa) were evaluated. The bacteria (400) were phenotyped and genotypically characterized by Rep-PCR, PFGE, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing and spa typing. Their PFGE profiles were compared with those of 12,000 isolates in the Center for Disease Control (CDC, USA) database. They were screened for the production of enterotoxins, susceptibility to 19 antimicrobials, presence of 12 staphylococcal toxin and 38 AMR genes and the ability to transfer erythromycin and tetracycline resistance genes to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. Fifteen coagulase negative (CoNS) and positive (CoPS) species characterized by 25 Rep-PCR/PFGE clusters were identified: Staphylococcus arlettae, S. aureus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis, S. pasteuri, S. condimenti, S. piscifermentans, S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri, S. simulans, S. warneri and Macrococcus caseolyticus. Five species were specific to Soumbala, four to Bikalga and four to Ntoba Mbodi. Two clusters of S. gallinarum and three of S. sciuri were particular to Burkina Faso. The S. aureus isolates exhibited a spa type t355 and their PFGE profiles did not match any in the CDC database. Bacteria from the same cluster displayed similar AMR and toxin phenotypes and genotypes, whereas clusters peculiar to a product or a location generated distinct profiles. The toxin genes screened were not detected and the bacteria did not produce the staphylococcal enterotoxins A, B, C and D. AMR genes including blazA, cat501, dfr(A), dfr(G), mecA, mecA1, msr(A) and tet(K) were identified in CoNS and CoPS. Conjugation experiments produced JH2-2 isolates that acquired resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, but no gene transfer was revealed by PCR. The investigation of the heterogeneity of Staphylococcus species from alkaline fermented foods, their relationship with clinical and environmental isolates and their safety in relation to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and toxin production is anticipated to contribute to determining the importance of staphylococci in alkaline fermented foods, especially in relation to the safety of the consumers.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/genética , Staphylococcus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Burkina Faso , Coagulase/genética , Congo , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4571(4): zootaxa.4571.4.1, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715789

RESUMO

The type specimens of Lecithoceridae which are deposited in the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), Tervuren, Belgium (five species of Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer and two of Homaloxestis Meyrick) were re-examined. The results are: 1) two species of Lecithocera are transferred to Thubdora Park and Torodora Meyrick respectively, with new combinations: Thubdora barbata (Meyrick, 1933), comb. nov. and Torodora semnodora (Meyrick, 1933), comb. nov.; 2) six species which were misidentified as L. barbata are described as new species in the genus Thubdora: T. ealeaensis sp. nov., T. ghesquierei sp. nov., T. gladiator sp. nov., T. kapangaensis sp. nov., T. neobarbata sp. nov. and T. seydeli sp. nov.; 3) four species which were misidentified as L. semnodora are described as new species in the genus Torodora: T. amplignathosa sp. nov. , T. lichanosa sp. nov., T. planusa sp. nov. and T. triloba sp. nov.; 4) L. schoutedeniella Ghesquière is transferred to Dichomeris Hübner of the family Gelechiidae; 5) Homaloxestis pancrocopa Meyrick does not belong to Homaloxestis nor to Lecithoceridae, and should be transferred to a different family of Gelechioidea; 6) a lectotype is designated for Lecithocera semnodora Meyrick, 1933; 7) the species names of Lecithocera eugenopa Meyrick and Homaloxestes chloromorpha Meyrick based on the type-labels under two specimens are revealed as unpublished manuscript names. Illustrations of the adults and their genitalia of all the types are provided.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Animais , Bélgica , Congo , Genitália , Museus
8.
Zootaxa ; 4674(3): zootaxa.4674.3.1, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716000

RESUMO

While Africa's lacustrine gastropod fauna, in particular of Lake Tanganyika, has received much attention, the continent's riverine malacofauna has long been neglected. Pseudocleopatra is a relatively poorly known paludomid gastropod genus with species found throughout the lower reaches of the West African Volta and Congo rivers. In the course of ongoing systematic revisions of African paludomids, we present here a morphometric analysis and revision of the recent species assigned to the genus, i.e., P. togoensis, P. voltana, P. dartevellei and P. bennikei, to improve taxonomic acuity for this group. We use available museum material for geometric morphometrics, multivariate ratio analysis and comparisons of radular and opercular characters. Our results demonstrate that the four recent species of Pseudocleopatra are clearly distinguishable on the basis of ratios of shell measurements as well as radular and opercular characters. Pseudocleopatra has generic-level synapomorphies including: concentric opercula with relatively large paucispiral nuclei, and rachidian radular teeth with usually 13-20 cusps. On the basis of this characterisation, the nominal species Cleopatra broecki is transferred to Pseudocleopatra. Additionally, the nominal taxon P. bennikei is synonymized with P. broecki n. comb. The phylogenetic relationships of Pseudocleopatra are currently unknown, but the observed tendency of some fossil taxa assigned to Pseudocleopatra towards thalassoidism, i.e., the resemblance to marine gastropods, has led to the hypothesis that some of the thalassoid endemics in Lake Tanganyika may have originated from or be related to Pseudocleopatra. Should this hypothesis be correct, which is in need of testing by molecular genetic methods when suitable samples become available, Pseudocleopatra may play a crucial role in understanding of the evolution of thalassoidism in African Paludomidae.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Caramujos , Animais , Congo , Filogenia , Tanzânia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4609(3): zootaxa.4609.3.6, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717096

RESUMO

The species of Diaclina Jacquelin du Val, 1861 (Tenebrioninae: Alphitobiini) from the Sub-Saharan Africa are revised. Following new species are proposed: Diaclina ashantica sp. nov. (Ghana), D. grandis sp. nov. (Congo), D. muehlei sp. nov. (Rwanda). Diaclina ovalis Gebien, 1921 is revalidated. Following new synonyms are introduced: Diaclina gracilis (Fåhraeus, 1870) = Diaclina depressa Ardoin, 1963 syn. nov., Diaclina elliptica Ardoin, 1969 syn. nov.; Diaclina ovalis Gebien, 1921 = Diaclina decellei Ardoin, 1969 syn. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Diaclina brevicollis Gebien, 1921, D. cameruna Gebien, 1921, D. minuta Gebien, 1921, and D. ovalis Gebien, 1921. Habitus photographs and figures of aedeagi of all examined species are provided, and an identification key for the African species is added.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Congo , Gana , Tamanho do Órgão , Ruanda
10.
Zootaxa ; 4603(2): zootaxa.4603.2.1, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717225

RESUMO

Six new species of Stenometopiini are described: Stirellus paracatalinus sp. nov. from Mexico, Stirellus lesioensis sp. nov. from Republic of Congo, Stirellus paralesioensis sp. nov. from South Africa, Stirellus kitwensis sp. nov. from Zambia, Stirellus madagascarensis sp. nov. from Madagascar, and Stirellus petfordensis sp. nov. from Australia. Ten species are redescribed: Kinonia elongata Ball, Stirellus catalinus (Beamer Tuthill), Stirellus labiatus (Gillette), Stirellus mexicanus (Osborn Ball), Stirellus picinus (Berg), Stirellus laetus (Melichar), Stirellus multipunctatus Duan, Webb Zhang, Stirellus neospeciosus Duan, Webb Zhang, Stirellus rubrolineatus (Distant), and Stirellus sagittarius (Naudé). Kinonia elongata Ball, S. catalinus (Beamer Tuthill) and S. labiatus (Gillette), all described from the Southwestern USA, are recorded from Mexico for the first time. Stirellus picinus (Berg) is recorded from the Virgin Islands (Guana Island) for the first time. Stirellus laetus (Melichar), S. multipunctatus Duan, Webb Zhang, S. neospeciosus Duan, Webb Zhang, and S. rubrolineatus (Distant) are recorded from Thailand for the first time.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , Austrália , Congo , Madagáscar , México , África do Sul , Tailândia , Zâmbia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007838, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658269

RESUMO

Gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (gHAT) is one of several neglected tropical diseases that is targeted for elimination by the World Health Organization. Recent years have seen a substantial decline in the number of globally reported cases, largely driven by an intensive process of screening and treatment. However, this infection is highly focal, continuing to persist at low prevalence even in small populations. Regional elimination, and ultimately global eradication, rests on understanding the dynamics and persistence of this infection at the local population scale. Here we develop a stochastic model of gHAT dynamics, which is underpinned by screening and reporting data from one of the highest gHAT incidence regions, Kwilu Province, in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We use this model to explore the persistence of gHAT in villages of different population sizes and subject to different patterns of screening. Our models demonstrate that infection is expected to persist for long periods even in relatively small isolated populations. We further use the model to assess the risk of recrudescence following local elimination and consider how failing to detect cases during active screening events informs the probability of elimination. These quantitative results provide insights for public health policy in the region, particularly highlighting the difficulties in achieving and measuring the 2030 elimination goal.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Previsões , Mapeamento Geográfico , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3194912, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380417

RESUMO

Several studies have established a relationship between morphological and behavioral asymmetry making investigations of bilateral bone asymmetry an attractive and important research area. The purpose of this study was to investigate bilateral asymmetry patterns of skeletal specimen from five geographical locations (Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Kenya, and Uganda) at Galloway Osteological Collection, Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, Makerere University College of Health Sciences. The angle of torsion and retroversion, mid-shaft circumference, length, and weight of 232 pairs of humeri were determined. A Torsiometer was used to measure the angle of torsion in degrees according to Krahl and Evans 1945, a tape was used to measure the mid-shaft circumference at the level of the apex of the deltoid V, and the length in cm was determined. An osteometric board was used to measure the length of the humerus in centimeters. A weighing balance was used to measure the weight of the humerus in grams. The analysis of humeral asymmetry with respect to parameters of the human skeletal specimen at the Galloway Osteological Collection Mulago revealed bilateral asymmetrical status observed in the angle of torsion, length, weight, and mid-shaft circumference. Our result mostly showed lateralization to the right in all the parameters investigated except the torsion angle which is to the left. Our investigation revealed that humeral torsion is inversely proportional to weight, length, and mid-shaft circumference of the humerus. This study established the existence of bilateral asymmetries in the humeri of all the geographical regions investigated with more asymmetry observed in the male compared with the female.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/anatomia & histologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Úmero/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Burundi/epidemiologia , Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ruanda/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 88: 41-48, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five worldwide. As no published data is available on the occurrence of this infection in the Republic of Congo, this study aimed at (1) determining the prevalence and (2) characterizing genotypes of norovirus strains in Brazzaville. METHODS: From June 2012 to June 2013, stool samples were collected from hospitalized young children with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 545 samples were tested for GI and GII norovirus infections using nested duplex reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: The GI and GII norovirus infection were detected in 148 samples. Males (28%) were not significantly more infected than females (25%). Norovirus infection was found exclusively in children aged under 24 months with a higher prevalence (P=0,048) in the age group of 7-12 months, and throughout the year with a peak in August and September. Genetic diversity of norovirus strains revealed that GII was the most prevalent (87%). No risk factor was significantly associated with norovirus infection. CONCLUSION: This study showed that noroviruses are important agents responsible for acute diarrhea in Congolese children and highlights the importance of continued surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Diarreia/enzimologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença Aguda , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Biol Lett ; 15(8): 20190284, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455171

RESUMO

Tropical savannah and forest are thought to represent alternative stable states in ecosystem structure in some climates. The implication is that biomes are maintained by positive feedbacks, e.g. with fire, and that historical distributions could play a role in determining modern ones. In this context, climate alone does not govern transitions between biomes, and understanding the causes and pathways of such transitions becomes crucial. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis of a 2000-year core to evaluate modes of transition in vegetation structure and fire regimes. We demonstrate a first transition ca 1540 BP, when a cyclic fire regime entered a forested landscape, eventually resulting, by ca 1060 BP, in a transition to a more open savannah-like or mosaicked structure. This pattern may parallel currently accelerating fire regimes in tropical forests suggesting that fires can savannize forests, but perhaps more slowly than feared. Finally, ca 540 BP, a drought combined with anthropogenic influences resulted in a conclusive transition to savannah, probably resembling the modern landscape in the region. We show here that fire interacted with drought to transition forest to savannah, suggesting that disturbance by fire can be a major driver of biome change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fogo , Congo , Florestas , Árvores
20.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 36(5): 267-276, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339399

RESUMO

Background: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is the most common genetic diseases in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It is estimated 30,000 to 40,000 neonates with SCA are born annually. Despite this high incidence rate, and the severity of the Bantu haplotype found in Congolese patients, major clinical characteristics remain poorly defined. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical and haematological profile of the SCA in patients less than 24 years of age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, the large city of the DRC. Patients were consecutively selected in three health institutions. Results: The study includes 256 sickle cell patients. The mean age of 8.4 (SD = 4.9) years. The Hand-foot syndrome was most common (52.7%) first presentation revealing the disease in our series. The most prevalent crises found in our series were vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in 170 cases (66.4%) and severe hemolysis in 136 cases (53.1%). Splenic sequestration was noted in 19 cases (7.4%). The age at the first pain crisis was 18.2±15.2 months-of-age and the age at the first transfusions was 29.2±27.6 months-of -age. The most common signs associated with sickle cell disease in our series were hepatomegaly (53.9%), splenomegaly (41.7%), and adenotonsillar hypertrophy (34.8%). Epistaxis was reported in 9.4%. Conclusion: The clinical course of patients in DRC was comparable to reports from Western countries, with the notable exception of epistaxis which was significantly higher in patients in the DRC.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Epistaxe , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Congo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo , Epistaxe/epidemiologia , Epistaxe/fisiopatologia , Epistaxe/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência
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