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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180441, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059132

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the limitations, strategies, importance and obstacles in mental health education in undergraduate nursing, focused on the role of nurses in Primary Health Care. Method: An exploratory descriptive study conducted with 103 professors in the mental health area of Bachelor/Postgraduate nursing courses from 89 public Higher Education Institutions in the five regions of Brazil. Results: Only 23.3% (24) of the professors teach mental health classes only in primary health care. Of the sample, the limitations to teaching in primary care education are few class hours (46.6%), faculty to expand teaching beyond specialty settings (38.8%), and prioritization of other scenarios (48.5%). When teaching, the strategies used are home visits (43.7%), educational actions (34.0%) and active search for mental health cases (29.1%). The professors consider them important to support mental health actions (58.3%); and the barriers are the lack of articulation between the Collective Health and Health disciplines to conduct teaching (87.5%). Conclusion: It is suggested that the institutions, courses and professors make the commitment and focus efforts to overcome the gaps, which hinder the nurse's education process regarding primary knowledge in mental health, so that they can offer care to patients in psychological distress in the context of the community, as well as strengthen national mental health policy.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar limitaciones, estrategias, importancia y obstáculos en el ejercicio de la enseñanza de salud mental en la carrera de grado de Enfermería, para el desempeño de los enfermeros en la Atención Primaria de la Salud. Método: estudio descriptivo y exploratorio realizado con 103 docentes del área de salud mental de las carreras de Licenciatura/Post-grado en Enfermería de 89 Instituciones de Enseñanza Superior públicas de las cinco regiones de Brasil. Resultados: solamente el 23,3% (24) de los docentes se desempeñan en la enseñanza de salud mental apenas en la atención primaria de la salud. A partir de la muestra, las limitaciones para dictar clases en la atención primaria son la escasa carga horaria (46,6%), la poca cantidad de docentes para expandir la enseñanza fuera de los ámbitos de la especialidad (38,8%) y la priorización de otros ámbitos (48,5%). Cuando se realiza, las estrategias utilizadas son la visita domiciliaria (43,7%), acciones educativas (34,0%) y búsqueda activa de casos de salud mental (58,3%) y, como obstáculo, se erige la falta de articulación entre las asignaturas de Salud Colectiva y Salud para ejercer la docencia (87,5%). Conclusión: se sugiere que las instituciones, las carreras universitarias y los docentes asuman el compromiso y centren sus esfuerzos en superar las deficiencias que dificultan el proceso de formación de los enfermeros sobre los conocimientos primarios en salud mental, para que dichos profesionales puedan ofrecer atención a personas que padecen enfermedades psíquicas en el contexto de la comunidad, además de fortalecer la política nacional de salud mental.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar limitações, estratégias, importância e entraves na condução do ensino de saúde mental na graduação em Enfermagem para a atuação do enfermeiro na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: estudo descritivo exploratório, realizado com 103 docentes da área de saúde mental de cursos de bacharelado/licenciatura em enfermagem de 89 Instituições de Ensino Superior públicas das cinco regiões do Brasil. Resultados: somente (24) 23,3% dos docentes conduzem o ensino de saúde mental apenas na atenção primária à saúde. Da amostra, as limitações para conduzir o ensino na atenção primária são pouca carga horária (46,6%), docentes para expandir o ensino além dos cenários de especialidade (38,8%), e priorização de outros cenários (48,5%). Quando conduzido, as estratégias utilizadas são visita domiciliar (43,7%), ações educativas (34,0%), busca ativa de casos de saúde mental (29,1%). Os docentes consideram importante para subsidiar ações em saúde mental (58,3%), e como entrave, a falta de articulação entre as disciplinas de Saúde Coletiva e Saúde para conduzir o ensino (87,5%). Conclusão: sugere-se que as instituições, cursos e docentes assumam o compromisso e centrem esforços para superar as lacunas, que dificultam o processo formativo do enfermeiro sobre conhecimentos primários em saúde mental, para que estes consigam ofertar cuidado para a sujeito em sofrimento psíquico no contexto da comunidade bem como fortalecer a política nacional de saúde mental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Saúde Mental , Enfermagem , Currículo , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Conhecimento , Educação em Enfermagem , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Docentes
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180407, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059137

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze university teaching in nursing from an institutional dialectic approach. Method: a qualitative research based on Institutional Socioclinics. Eighteen nursing professors from four regions of Brazil and from six public institutions of higher education participated. For data production, interviews, observations, documentary analyses, individual and collective restitution and use of the research diary were performed. Data was organized for analysis by transcription/translation, recomposition/rearrangement, and final reconstruction/narration. Data analysis was produced from analyzers, based on Socioclinics, Institutional Analysis current of thought, and on the qualitative mode of analysis by questioning and writing. Results: two main analyzers made the institution 'teaching in higher education and the nursing professor' emerge: time-money relation and resistance. Teaching time, increasingly associated with money, in managerialist logic, has formatted the nursing professors as passive subjects in the production of knowledge, induced by the evaluation model of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel and its link to the progression in the university career. In this model, the nursing professor is driven to devote more to research than to teaching. This interferes with teaching conceptions and practices, which are more influenced by managerialism and less grounded in pedagogical theories. Resistance against this model has not yet encountered coping mechanisms. Conclusion: from the analysis produced with the participants, the choices of the nursing professor are so much more grounded in managerialism and so much less based on pedagogical references, especially those arising from dialectical theories. In this sense, resistance is transformed into a movement of adaptation.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la docencia universitaria en enfermería a partir de la dialéctica institucional. Método: investigación cualitativa fundamentada en la Socioclínica Institucional. Participaron 18 profesores-enfermeros de cuatro regiones de Brasil y seis establecimientos públicos de educación superior. Para producir los datos se realizaron entrevistas, observaciones, análisis documentales, restituciones individuales y colectivas, además de utilizarse un diario de investigación. La organización de los datos para su análisis se dio mediante la transcripción/traducción de los mismos, su recomposición/reordenamiento, y por su reconstitución/narración final. El análisis de los datos se produjo a partir de analizadores, y se fundamentó en la Socioclínica, una vertiente del Análisis Institucional, y en la modalidad cualitativa de análisis por cuestionamiento y en forma escrita. Resultados: dos analizadores principales hicieron surgir la institución de 'docencia en la educación superior y el profesor-enfermero', a saber: relación tiempo/dinero y resistencia. El tiempo docente, cada vez más asociado al dinero en la lógica gerencialista, ha conformado al profesor-enfermero como un sujeto pasivo en la producción de conocimientos, inducido por el modelo evaluativo de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento para Personal de Nivel Superior y su vínculo con el avance en la carrera universitaria. En ese modelo, el profesor-enfermero está motivado a dedicarse más a la investigación que a la enseñanza. Eso interfiere con las concepciones y prácticas docentes, que quedan más influenciadas por el gerencialismo y menos fundamentadas en teorías pedagógicas. La resistencia contra ese modelo todavía no encontró mecanismos de confrontación. Conclusión: de acuerdo con el análisis elaborado con los participantes, las elecciones de los profesores-enfermeros están tanto más fundamentadas en el gerencialismo como menos basadas en referenciales pedagógicos, especialmente en aquellos devenidos de teorías dialécticas. En este sentido, la resistencia se transforma en un movimiento de adaptación.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a docência universitária em enfermagem a partir da dialética institucional. Método: pesquisa qualitativa fundamentada na Socioclínica Institucional. Participaram 18 professores-enfermeiros de quatro Regiões do Brasil e seis estabelecimentos públicos de educação superior. Para a produção de dados, foram realizadas entrevistas, observações, análises documentais, restituições individuais e coletivas e uso do diário de pesquisa. A organização dos dados para análise se deu pela transcrição/tradução dos mesmos, pela recomposição/rearranjo, e pela reconstituição/narração final. A análise dos dados foi produzida a partir de analisadores, fundamentada na Socioclínica, vertente da Análise Institucional e na modalidade qualitativa de análise por questionamento e pela escrita. Resultados: dois principais analisadores fizeram a instituição 'docência no ensino superior e o professor-enfermeiro' emergir: relação tempo-dinheiro e resistência. O tempo docente, cada vez mais associado ao dinheiro, na lógica gerencialista, tem formatado o professor-enfermeiro como sujeito passivo na produção de conhecimentos, induzido pelo modelo avaliativo da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e seu atrelamento à progressão na carreira universitária. Nesse modelo, o professor-enfermeiro é impulsionado a se dedicar mais à pesquisa do que ao ensino. Isso interfere nas concepções e práticas docentes, que ficam mais influenciadas pelo gerencialismo e menos fundamentadas em teorias pedagógicas. A resistência contra esse modelo não encontrou ainda mecanismos de enfrentamento. Conclusão: pela análise produzida com os participantes, as escolhas dos professores-enfermeiros estão tão mais fundamentadas no gerencialismo e tão menos baseadas em referenciais pedagógicos, notadamente naqueles advindos de teorias dialéticas. Nesse sentido, resistir se transfigura em movimento de adaptar-se.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Ensino , Universidades , Indicadores de Produção Científica , Docentes de Enfermagem , Tempo , Conhecimento , Educação Superior , Docentes
3.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1275-1284, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999206

RESUMO

In April 2018, as part of their fifth-year pre-clinical education curriculum, pharmacy students at Setsunan University attended a lecture presented by hepatitis B patients and their lawyer entitled "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients". This lecture was intended to help the students to understand the circumstances and difficulties encountered by hepatitis B patients on a daily basis. For this study, we conducted questionnaire surveys of the pharmacy students before and after the lecture. The survey items pertained to students' knowledge about hepatitis B (e.g., its spread and infection possibility in daily life). Students' responses before and after the lecture varied depending on the survey topic. Hepatitis B knowledge acquired by the students in their junior year increased after the lecture; moreover, attitudes to hepatitis B patients and understanding of the difficulties and prejudice that they experienced showed a significant change. For example, responses to the items, "Feel sympathy for patients suffering from discrimination and prejudice" and "Hard to work…" were much more sympathetic after the lecture; additionally, students were less likely to "Fear infection when near patients" and more likely "… to associate with patients". Thus, the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients" had a significant impact on the pharmacy students' perceptions of these patients, allowing them to cultivate greater empathy. From an educational standpoint, it is of the utmost importance for pharmacy/medical students to develop their humanity as members of healthcare teams. Educational real-world experiences, such as the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients", provide opportunities for this development.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Empatia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Currículo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 28, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062129

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a rapidly growing pandemic that has grown from a few cases in Wuhan, China to millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide within a few months. Sub-Saharan Africa is not spared. Radiology has a key role to play in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 as literature from Wuhan and Italy demonstrates. We therefore share some critical knowledge and practice areas for radiological suspicion and diagnosis. In addition, emphasis on how guarding against healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) by applying "red" and "green" principle is addressed. Given that pandemics such as COVID-19 can worsen the strain on the scantily available radiological resources in this region, we share some practical points that can be applied to manage these precious resources also needed for other essential services. We have noted that radiology does not feature in many main COVID-19 guidelines, regionally and internationally. This paper therefore suggests areas of collaboration for radiology with other clinical and management teams. We note from our local experience that radiology can play a role in COVID-19 surveillance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Atuação Profissional/tendências , Radiologia/organização & administração , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/ética , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
5.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6859157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029401

RESUMO

Despite several efforts globally, the problem of perinatal mortality remained an unsolved agenda. As a result, it continued to be an essential part of the third sustainable development goals to end preventable child deaths by 2030. With a rate of 33 per 1000 births, Ethiopia has the highest level of perinatal mortality in the world. Thus, determining the magnitude and identifying the determinants are very crucial for evidence-based interventions. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia among 3474 pregnant women to estimate the magnitude of perinatal mortality. Then, a case-control study among 120 cases and 360 controls was conducted to identify the determinants of perinatal mortality. Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables having a significant association with perinatal mortality at p < 0.05. The perinatal mortality rate was 34.5 (95% CI: 28.9, 41.1) deaths per 1000 births. Attending ≥4 ANC visits (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.91), having good knowledge on key danger signs (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75), and having a skilled attendant at birth (AOR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61) were significantly associated with a reduction of perinatal mortality. Being a primipara (AOR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.90, 6.00), twin births (AOR = 5.29; 95% CI: 1.46, 19.21), previous history of perinatal mortality (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.27, 8.72), and obstetric complication during labor (AOR = 4.27; 95% CI: 2.40, 7.59) significantly increased perinatal mortality. In conclusion, the magnitude of perinatal mortality in the study area was high as compared to the national target for 2020. Care during pregnancy and childbirth and conditions of pregnancy and labor were identified as determinants of perinatal mortality. Hence, interventions need to focus on increasing knowledge of danger signs and utilization of skilled maternity care. Special emphasis needs to be given to mothers with a previous history of perinatal mortality, twin pregnancies, and having obstetric complications.


Assuntos
Assistência Perinatal , Mortalidade Perinatal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Competência Clínica , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Conhecimento , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Paridade , Gravidez , Gravidez de Gêmeos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6153146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062334

RESUMO

Introduction: Obstetric danger signs are those signs that a pregnant woman will see or those symptoms that she will feel which indicate that something is going wrong with her or with the pregnancy. Evidence on the prevalence of obstetric danger signs and contributing factors were crucial in designing programs in the global target of reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the prevalence of obstetric danger signs during pregnancy and associated factors among mothers in a Shashemene rural district, South Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 395 randomly selected women who gave birth in the last six months. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was utilized. Data were cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi data manager version 4.1 and then exported to SPSS version 20. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the association between independent variables with the outcome variable. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. Result: One hundred sixty-three (41.3%) of women had a history of obstetric danger signs during pregnancy. The most prevalent obstetric danger signs were vaginal bleeding (15.4%) followed by swelling of the body 12.7% and severe vomiting 5.3%. Women who have less than four times antenatal care visits were 6.7 times more likely to experience obstetric danger signs (AOR 6.7 (95% CI 3.05, 14.85)) compared to those who had antenatal care visit four times and above. Women who have inadequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs were 2.5 times more likely to experience obstetric danger signs during pregnancy (AOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.34, 4.71)), and primigravida women were 6.3 times more likely to have obstetric danger signs during pregnancy (AOR 6.3 (95% CI 2.61, 15.09)) compared to multiparous women. Conclusion: About half of the pregnant mothers have experienced at least one obstetric danger signs. Public health interventions on maternal health should give priority to the prevalent causes of obstetric danger signs, strengthening completion of four antenatal care visits and health education on obstetric danger signs for pregnant mothers at community level especially for primgravid women.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Edema/epidemiologia , Edema/etiologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Mortalidade Materna , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia , Hemorragia Uterina/prevenção & controle , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 50(4): 533-540, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895340

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate nursing students' understanding of the prevention of COVID-19, as well as their anxiety towards the disease and their perception of their professional identity in the wake of the pandemic, in Zhengzhou, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate 474 nursing students by cluster sampling using a stratified questionnaire from February 15 to March 31, 2020. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the factors affecting professional identity. Binary and multiple logistic regression were used to identify the factors affecting anxiety. RESULTS: Responders with a high level of understanding of COVID-19 and frequent use of behavioral strategies for its prevention comprised 93.2% and 30.0% of the cohort, respectively. Professional identity was significantly associated with gender and anxiety (p < .050). The prevalence of anxiety among nursing students was 12.4%. Male (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26~4.52), sophomores (OR = 5.30; 95% CI = 1.61~7.45), and infrequent use of prevention measures (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.16~5.19) had a significant effect on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic gives an adverse effect on the professional identity of nursing in students. Nursing education institutions need to provide psychological counseling services for nursing students, in addition to improving their teaching of COVID-19 prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimento , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4783, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963219

RESUMO

Relations between task elements often follow hidden underlying structural forms such as periodicities or hierarchies, whose inferences fosters performance. However, transferring structural knowledge to novel environments requires flexible representations that are generalizable over particularities of the current environment, such as its stimuli and size. We suggest that humans represent structural forms as abstract basis sets and that in novel tasks, the structural form is inferred and the relevant basis set is transferred. Using a computational model, we show that such representation allows inference of the underlying structural form, important task states, effective behavioural policies and the existence of unobserved state-trajectories. In two experiments, participants learned three abstract graphs during two successive days. We tested how structural knowledge acquired on Day-1 affected Day-2 performance. In line with our model, participants who had a correct structural prior were able to infer the existence of unobserved state-trajectories and appropriate behavioural policies.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Waste Manag ; 118: 323-330, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920495

RESUMO

Effective minimisation of construction material waste has demonstrated that environmental pollution arising from construction activities can be reduced. Yet, there is insufficient knowledge on the role of architects in minimising waste, especially at the design phase. The purpose of this article is to identify the causes, barriers, approaches, driving factors to waste minimisation and to investigate strategies employed by architects at the design phase. This study adopted a survey questionnaire with both open and close-ended questions to elicit information from architects in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Empirical results indicate that the major cause of waste at the design phase is the client's last minutes changes to design. Lack of training and design for flexibility and adaptability were the top barrier and approach to construction waste minimisation respectively. The driving factors were training, waste management policy and legislation while the top three strategies employed by the architects are modular coordination, proper detailing and market survey. Findings recommend that a design checklist be created and implemented, that waste minimisation options be considered and that architects take more responsibility for their actions during the design phase.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Materiais de Construção , Poluição Ambiental , Conhecimento , Nigéria
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881957

RESUMO

The theory of evolution is one of the greatest scientific achievements in the intellectual history of humankind, yet it is still contentious within certain social groups. Despite being as robust and evidence-based as any other notable scientific theory, some people show a strong reluctance to accept it. In this study, we used the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) and Knowledge of Evolution Exam (KEE) questionnaires with university students from four academic degree programs (Chemistry, English, History, and Biology) of ten universities from Spain to measure, respectively, acceptance and knowledge of evolutionary theory among third-year undergraduate students (nMATE = 978; nKEE = 981). Results show that acceptance of evolution is relatively high (87.2%), whereas knowledge of the theory is moderate (5.4 out of 10) although there are differences across degrees (Biology>Chemistry>History>English), and even among various universities (ranging from 4.71 to 5.81). Statistical analysis reveals that knowledge of evolutionary theory among Biology students is partially explained by the relative weight of evolutionary themes within the curriculum, suggesting that an increase in the number of hours dedicated to this topic could have a direct influence on students' knowledge of it. We also found that religion may have a significant-although relatively small-negative influence on evolutionary theory acceptance. The moderate knowledge of evolution in our undergraduate students, together with the potential problem of acceptance in certain groups, suggests the need for a revision of the evolutionary concepts in the teaching curricula of our students since primary school.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Conhecimento , Estudantes/psicologia , Currículo , Humanos , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22068, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected renal transplant care. During this time of social distancing, limited in-person visits, and uncertainty, patients and donors are relying more than ever on telemedicine and web-based information. Several factors can influence patients' understanding of web-based information, such as delivery modes (instruction, interaction, and assessment) and social-epistemological dimensions (choices in interactive knowledge building). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systemically evaluate the content, delivery modes, and social-epistemological dimensions of web-based information on COVID-19 and renal transplantation at time of the pandemic. METHODS: Multiple keyword combinations were used to retrieve websites on COVID-19 and renal transplantation using the search engines Google.com and Google.nl. From 14 different websites, 30 webpages were examined to determine their organizational sources, topics, delivery modes, and social-epistemological dimensions. RESULTS: The variety of topics and delivery modes was limited. A total of 13 different delivery modes were encountered, of which 8 (62%) were instructional and 5 (38%) were interactional; no assessment delivery modes were observed. No website offered all available delivery modes. The majority of delivery modes (8/13, 62%) focused on individual and passive learning, whereas group learning and active construction of knowledge were rarely encountered. CONCLUSIONS: By taking interactive knowledge transfer into account, the educational quality of eHealth for transplant care could increase, especially in times of crisis when rapid knowledge transfer is needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Internet , Transplante de Rim , Conhecimento , Doadores Vivos/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferramenta de Busca , Incerteza
13.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 140-143, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994606
14.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es9, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870091

RESUMO

Transfer of knowledge from one context to another is one of the paramount goals of education. Educators want their students to transfer what they are learning from one topic to the next, between courses, and into the "real world." However, it is also notoriously difficult to get students to successfully transfer concepts. This issue is of particular concern in biology and the life sciences, for which transfer of concepts between disciplines is especially critical to understanding. Students not only struggle to transfer concepts like energy from chemistry to biology but also struggle to transfer concepts like chromosome structures in cell division within biology courses. This paper reviews the current research and understanding of transfer from cognitive psychology. We discuss how learner abilities, taught material, and lesson characteristics affect transfer and provide best practices for biology and life sciences education.


Assuntos
Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Biologia/educação , Cognição , Currículo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Estudantes
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 714, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency virus continues to be a major global health problem infecting 75 million and killing 32 million people since the beginning of the epidemic. It badly hit Sub Saharan Africa than any country in the world and youths are sharing the greatest burden. The study aims to assess the level of HIV-knowledge and its determinants among Ethiopian youths using the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data. METHODS: A nationally representative 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data were used. A total of 10,903 youths comprising 6401 females and 4502 males were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and multilevel order logistic regression were used and confidence interval was used to declare statistical significance in the final model. RESULTS: The mean age and SD of youths included in this study was 19.10 (±2.82). Among Ethiopian youths, 20.92% (95% CI: 18.91, 23.09%) had low knowledge of HIV whereas, 48.76% (95% CI: 47.12, 50.41%) and 30.31% (95% CI: 28.51, 32.18%) of them had moderate and comprehensive HIV knowledge respectively. Being male, access to TV and radio, ever tested for HIV/AIDS, owning a mobile telephone, and attending primary school and above compared to non-attendants were associated with having higher HIV knowledge. But, dwelling in rural Ethiopia, being in the Protestant and Muslim religious groups as compared to those of Orthodox followers and being in married groups were associated with having lower HIV knowledge. Approximately, 12% of the variation in knowledge of HIV was due to regions. CONCLUSION: Only one-third of Ethiopian youths have deep insight into the disease, whereas, nearly one-fifth of them have lower HIV-knowledge. There is a significant disparity in HIV-related knowledge among Ethiopian youths living in different regions. Rural residents, less educated, female, and married youths have less knowledge of HIV as compared to their counterparts. Youths who do not have a mobile phone, who lack health insurance coverage, and who have limited access to media have less knowledge about HIV. Therefore, the due focus should be given to the aforementioned factors to minimize the disparities between regions and to enhance Ethiopian youths' HIV-knowledge.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Conscientização , Conhecimento , Acesso à Informação , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 579, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is the 10th leading cause of death. Despite no country achieved its target, the world health organization (WHO) proposed a 90-90-90 approach to fastening the end TB strategy. Improvement and progression of TB control need good knowledge and a favorable attitude towards the disease. However, interventions designed don't take migrants and seasonal farmworkers into account. Therefore, this study aimed at estimating the level of knowledge and attitude on Tuberculosis among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the West Gondar zone from October to November 2018. A two-stage cluster sampling was used to select 949 migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. A p-value of < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. The goodness of fit was checked using Hosmer and Lemeshow test. RESULTS: In this study, (41.8%), (95% CI: 38.73, 45.01) and (50.5%), (95% CI: 47.29, 53.65) of migrants and seasonal farmworkers had good knowledge and a favorable attitude, respectively. The odds of good knowledge among mass media exposed migrants were AOR = 1.42, 95% CI: (1.02, 2.01). Moreover, urban residence and having good knowledge increase the odds of favorable attitude by 1.66, (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.62) and 4.3 (AOR = 4.3, 95%CI: 3.26, 5.75), respectively. CONCLUSION: In this study, the overall knowledge and attitude of migrant and seasonal farmworkers on TB were low. Family size and mass media exposure significantly affect knowledge of the migrants on TB. On the other hand, the attitude was affected by urban residence, health information, and having good knowledge. Health promotion interventions, focused on TB cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and treatment are important to migrant and seasonal farmworkers to improve the knowledge and attitude of migrants and seasonal farmworkers.


Assuntos
Atitude , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimento , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Migrantes/psicologia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(7-8): 509-511, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779900

RESUMO

Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) is a rare benign epithelial lesion of the salivary glands, of unknown etiology, mainly affecting the parotid gland. We report the first clinical case of SPA involving the deep parotid gland with extension in the parapharyngeal space and the masticatory region. It has been resected by an external parotidectomy approach exclusively, despite the median extension of the lesion. The objective of this article is to complete the small series of cases described in the literature, and to update the knowledge of this rare disease.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Glândula Parótida , Humanos , Espaço Parafaríngeo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan was a serious threat to public health. This study aimed to evaluate the risk perception of COVID-19 among college students in China during the quarantine, explore its related factors, and provide reference for future study. METHODS: This study invited college students from various provinces of China to participate in the survey through the Internet, and a total of 1,461 college students were included. T-test and analysis of variance were used to explore the relationship between demographic characteristics, social pressure, knowledge and risk perception. Multiple linear regression was used to identify factors associated with risk perception. RESULTS: This study shows that college students in China have high risk perception of COVID-19. Female college students (p<0.01), non-medical students (p<0.01), college students whose schools are located in Hubei (p = 0.01) and college students with higher knowledge level (p<0.01) have higher risk perception. CONCLUSION: Due to the strong infectivity and occult nature of COVID-19, it is necessary to improve the risk perception of college students through health education in various ways, and attention should be paid to some college students with low risk perception.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Compreensão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena , Estudantes/psicologia , Conscientização , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At present, current didactic teaching delivery method help nursing students apply theory to clinical situations in an inefficient way. The flipped classroom (FC), a novel teaching mode emphasizing self-study and critical thinking, has generated interest in nursing education in China. However, there are a gap in the literature and no consistent outcomes of current studies which compared FC and lecture-based learning (LBL), and no systematic review has comprehensively compared theoretical scores as an affected outcome in FC versus LBL modes. METHODS: In this review, we analyze flipped-learning nursing students' scores, and aim to assess the efficacy and provide a deeper understanding of the FC in nursing education. Following the inclusion criteria, articles were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase and Chinese data, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and VIP database until 3 January 2020. Data were extracted from eligible articles and quality was assessed. A meta-analysis was then performed using a random effects model with a standardized mean value (SMD) and a 95% confidence interval (CI).32 studies were included after reviewing 2,439 citations. All studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The FC theoretical knowledge scores in FC were significantly positively affected compared to those of the traditional classroom (SMD = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.64; P < 0.001). In addition, 23 studies reported skill scores, indicating significant difference between the FC mode and LBL mode (SMD = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.23-1.93; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that compared to the LBL teaching method, the FC mode dose significantly improve Chinese nursing students' theoretical scores. However, the problems of heterogeneity and publication bias in this study need to be remedied high-quality future studies.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , China , Avaliação Educacional , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Viés de Publicação , Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237859, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study is to examine the association between knowledge about the World War II (WWII)-related traumatic experiences of their ancestors and subjective well-being (SWB) of young adults, i.e., descendants of Polish survivors of WWII. Specifically, we focus on the life satisfaction and the mental, physical, and psychosocial well-being of our participants in relation to their knowledge about WWII trauma in their family histories. METHOD: The sample comprised 500 Polish young adults recruited from a nonclinical general population. Participants first filled out a questionnaire assessing their knowledge about traumatic events that their ancestors could have experienced during WWII (see grandparents/mothers, great-grandparents/mothers). After that, subjects were given inventories to assess their SWB, i.e., the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). RESULTS: Latent profile analysis was applied to extract profiles of participants differing with regard to the scope of knowledge about WWII-related traumatic experiences among ancestors. Specifically, six profiles were observed, and a general lack of knowledge about this kind of trauma in the family was characteristic of the sample. We also found differences in SWB across profiles of participants, with worse SWB in the profiles with the highest lack of knowledge about WWII-related traumatic experiences in the family. CONCLUSION: Our study adds to the literature on intergenerational trauma by applying a person-centred perspective, a methodological approach almost invisible in research on that topic. In addition, our findings can serve as a stimulus for more comprehensive debate on WWII trauma in Polish society.


Assuntos
Família , Conhecimento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , II Guerra Mundial , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Negociação , Satisfação Pessoal , Estatística como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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