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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684782

RESUMO

Many existing fault diagnosis methods based on deep learning (DL) require numerous fault samples to train the diagnosis model. However, in industrial applications, rotating machines (RMs) operate in normal states for most of their service life with fault events being rare and thus failure samples are very limited. To solve the problem above, a novel wide residual relation network (WRRN) is proposed for intelligent fault diagnosis of the RMs. Specifically, the WRRN is trained by performing a series of learning tasks in RMs with sufficient samples to obtain knowledge about how to diagnose, and then it is directly transferred to realize fault task of the RM with small samples. In this method, a wide residual network-based feature extraction module is used to generate representative fault features from input samples, and a relation module is designed to calculate the relation score between the sample pairs so as to determine their categories. Extensive experiments are conducted on two RMs to validate the WRRN method. The results demonstrate that the WRRN can accurately identify the fault types of the RMs with only small samples or even one sample. The WRRN significantly outperforms the existing popular methods in diagnostic performance.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Conhecimento , Progressão da Doença , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to visualize the evidence in the global research on health education to better improve the nation's health literacy and to guide future research. METHOD: We searched the Web of Science (Core Collection) electronic databases. The search strategies: topic: ("Health Education" OR "Education, Health" OR "Community Health Education" OR "Education, Community Health" OR "Health Education, Community") AND document: (Article) AND language:(English). Articles of evidence from January 2011 to December 2021 with those words in the title or abstract or keywords will be included in this review. We used the Citespace 5.6.R5 (64-bit) to investigate and determine the thematic patterns, and emerging trends of the knowledge domain, and presented a narrative account of the findings. RESULT: We analyzed 10,273 eligible articles. It showed that BMC Public Health displays the most prolific journals. Author MARCO PAHOR is highlighted in health education. The University of Sydney has published the most studies about health education. The USA plays an important role in these studies. Specifically, the visualization shows several hotspots: disease prevalence surveys and a specific population of knowledge, attitude and practice surveys, health intervention, chronic and non-communicable management, youth-health action, sexual and reproductive health, and physical activity promotion. Furthermore, document co-citation analysis indicated that there are 10 main clusters, which means the research front in health education. Meanwhile, by the citation detected, COVID-19, has achieved universal health coverage in related studies, however, public health education and the health workforce might be more popular in the coming years. CONCLUSION: Health education is an effective measure to shift the concept of public health and improve healthy living standards. The present study facilitates an extensive understanding of the basic knowledge and research frontiers that are pivotal for the developmental process of health education and allows scholars to visualize the identification modes and tendencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Previsões , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Publicações
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682457

RESUMO

The urban-rural gap in cervical cancer screening uptake is a significant public health consideration. Educational interventions are commonly adopted to promote cervical cancer screening among females in rural areas; however, the characteristics and effectiveness of these educational interventions remain unclear. In this review, we aimed to identify the characteristics of educational interventions used in rural populations and to evaluate the effects of these interventions on cervical cancer screening-related outcomes. Seven English databases were searched in January 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental studies were included. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist for Randomized Controlled Trials and the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Quasi-Experimental Studies were used for quality appraisal. RevMan 5.4 software was used for the meta-analysis. A narrative synthesis was conducted in instances where a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Three RCTs and seven quasi-experimental studies conducted in six countries were included. A social cognitive theory-based framework, the community setting, group sessions, healthcare professional-led approaches, and culture-tailored materials were implemented in the educational interventions for cervical cancer screening. The educational content mainly included basic information on cervical cancer screening, psychological issues, barriers and strategies to overcome them, and locally available resources. Educational interventions increased the knowledge and uptake of cervical cancer screening in the rural population. However, the studies only evaluated the short-term effects of these educational interventions, with the cervical screening behavior only being assessed in one instance for each participant. Educational interventions promote cervical cancer screening among females in rural areas. Theory-driven, community-involved, group-based, and healthcare professional-led approaches should be prioritized in the application of educational interventions in rural populations. Both the short- and long-term, influences of educational interventions on the cervical cancer screening behavior of females in rural areas need to be recognized.


Assuntos
População Rural , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3408-3418, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antibiotic resistance is a major health threat and efforts should be intensified to reduce its burden. Healthcare providers, especially pharmacists, can be actively involved in the reduction of antibiotic resistance. However, negative practices among pharmacists have been observed. This study evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Jordanian pharmacy students. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study used an online questionnaire that was developed and distributed to Jordanian pharmacy students from five different universities. KAP scores were calculated, with students categorized into low and high levels based on each score mean. RESULTS: A total of 890 pharmacy students completed the questionnaire. High positive response rate (PR%) for the majority of the knowledge items was observed, exceeding 60% in all knowledge items, and similar PR% was observed in attitude items. The variables significantly associated with attitude were age [OR=0.92 (95% CI 0.87: 0.98), p=0.01] and knowledge [OR=1.35 (95% CI 1.01:1.82), p=0.04], while knowledge was significantly associated with practice [OR=0.23 (95% CI 0.16:0.31), p<0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Jordanian pharmacy students showed adequate KAP toward the use of antibiotics although several aspects of malpractice were identified. Hence, adequate knowledge about antibiotics among pharmacy students should be ensured as knowledge is associated with attitudes and practices.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Farmácia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(6): 2241-2253, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649012

RESUMO

The psychosocial paradigm in the field of drugs focuses on the suffering individual in relation to the social reality and values ​​the uniqueness of users and professionals for the development of health care. A concept that bases these characteristics, and that comes from different theoretical frameworks, is the construction of autonomy. However, there is no study in the literature that summarizes it in its different meanings. This article aimed to systematize the concepts of autonomy construction under the psychosocial paradigm in the field of drugs. The methodology used was the integrative review. We searched, in the Psycinfo, PubMed, BVS and Web of Science databases, studies that analyzed the care process using the construction of autonomy. These concepts, their theoretical references and their foundations were identified and systematized. Among the 22 studies, there are concepts based on six theories, such as collective health and harm reduction. It could be considered that the construction of autonomy is a process that mobilizes different actions, such as co-responsibility and territorial sociopolitical action; which can be systematized in three interrelated dimensions; and which has different epistemological roots, such as the psychiatry of deinstitutionalization.


O paradigma psicossocial no campo das drogas traz foco ao sujeito em sofrimento na relação com sua realidade social e valoriza a singularidade de usuários e profissionais para o desenvolvimento da atenção em saúde. O conceito que embasa essas características, proveniente de diversos arcabouços teóricos, é o de construção de autonomia. Porém, não há na literatura estudo que o sintetize em suas diferentes acepções. Este artigo objetivou sistematizar os conceitos de construção de autonomia sob o paradigma psicossocial no campo das drogas. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão integrativa. Pesquisou-se, nas bases Psycinfo, PubMed, BVS e Web of Science, estudos que analisaram o processo de cuidado utilizando a construção de autonomia. Foram identificados esses conceitos e suas referências teóricas, e sistematizados seus fundamentos. Entre os 22 estudos, há conceitos embasados em seis teorias, como a saúde coletiva e a redução de danos. Pôde-se considerar que: a construção de autonomia é um processo que mobiliza diferentes ações, como a corresponsabilização e a atuação sociopolítica territorial; pode ser sistematizada em três dimensões interrelacionadas; e detém diferentes raízes epistemológicas, como a psiquiatria da desinstitucionalização.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria , Humanos , Conhecimento
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 42, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The abandonment of mountain areas in Europe is a process that started during industrialisation and whose traces are still present nowadays. Initiatives aimed at stopping this decline and preserving the local biological and cultural diversities reflect the crucial issue of fostering sustainable rural development. This article contributes to the ongoing debate in assessing and preserving local ecological knowledge (LEK) in a highly marginalised mountain community in the Piedmontese Apennines to support local development. In so doing, it continues a larger project assessing how local botanical knowledge and landscapes evolve over time, in order to understand in more depth which factors affect how LEK is shaped, eroded, and re-created, and how this could be revitalised. METHODS: We compared information about the current gathering and use of local wild plants in the upper Borbera Valley (Carrega Ligure municipality, NW Italy), elicited via 34 in-depth open and semi-structured interviews, with the findings of a field study conducted in the same location, most likely carried out at the end of the 1970s and published in 1981. RESULTS: There were remarkable quantitative and qualitative differences between the two ethnobotanies. The gathering and use of some wild medicinal plants growing in meadows, woodlands, and higher mountain environments (Achillea, Centaurea, Dianthus, Ostrya, Picea, Polygonum, Potentilla, and Thymus) seems to have disappeared, whereas the collection of plants growing in more anthropogenic environments, or possibly promoted via contacts with the "reference" city of Genoa (the largest city close to Carrega and historically the economic and cultural centre to which the valley was mostly connected), has been introduced (i.e. ramsons, safflower, bitter oranges, black trumpets) or reinvigorated (rose petals). This trend corresponds to the remarkable changes in the local landscape ecology and agro-silvo-pastoral system that took place from the first half of the twentieth century, dramatically increasing woodland and secondary vegetation, and decreasing coppices, plantations, grasslands and segregating cultivated land. CONCLUSION: The findings show a very difficult rearrangement of the LEK, as most of the areas the local actors still know are within their villages, and they no longer have daily experience in the rest of the abandoned woodland landscape (except for mushrooming and gathering chestnuts). This situation can be interpreted in two ways: as the start of the complete abandonment of the valley, or as a starting residual resilience lynchpin, which could possibly inspire new residents if the larger political-economic framework would promote measures for making the survival of the mountain settlements of this municipality possible, and not just a chimera.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Rosa , Florestas , Humanos , Itália , Conhecimento
7.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13145, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665954

RESUMO

The Remote Associates Test (RAT) is a word association retrieval task that consists of a series of problems, each with three seemingly unrelated prompt words. The subject is asked to produce a single word that is related to all three prompt words. In this paper, we provide support for a theory in which the RAT assesses a person's ability to retrieve relevant word associations from long-term memory. We present a computational model of humans solving the RAT and investigate how prior knowledge and memory retrieval mechanisms influence the model's ability to match human behavior. We expand prior modeling attempts by investigating multiple large knowledge bases and by creating a cognitive process model that uses long-term memory spreading activation retrieval processes inspired by ACT-R and implemented in Soar. We evaluate multiple model variants for their ability to model human problem difficulty, including the incorporation of noise and base-level activation into memory retrieval. We conclude that the main factors affecting human difficulty are the existence of associations between prompt words and solutions, the relative strengths and directions of those associations compared to associations to other words, and the ability to perform multiple retrievals.


Assuntos
Memória , Semântica , Humanos , Conhecimento , Memória de Longo Prazo
8.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220054, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666984

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the Theory of Professional Bonds from the description and analysis steps of Meleis' theory evaluation model. This is a theoretical, analytical, and philosophical study, with the collection of manuscripts through literature review to deepen knowledge regarding the origin, the theoretical and philosophical frameworks, and the practical application of the Theory of Professional Bonds. The study was developed in two steps: procedures for the evaluation using the model proposed by Meleis' and procedures for validation of the evaluation using the Delphi strategy and the Likert scale. Descriptive-reflective analysis involves an impartial and detailed examination of the theory, and it is possible to define the scope for a middle-range theory based on Leontiev's Activity Theory. Concepts are defined, delimited and interrelated. It is possible to transcend its applicability from the nursing team to the interdisciplinary team. The theory evaluation advanced by reaffirming the importance of theory to practice and identifying potential for theoretical development, contributing to the elaboration of an unprecedented guideline for theoretical nursing studies.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Modelos Teóricos , Humanos , Teoria de Enfermagem
9.
Fam Med ; 54(6): 427-430, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675455

RESUMO

The use of race remains common at all levels of medical science and practice, including education, research, and care delivery. There are ongoing vigorous debates about the validity of the manner in which race is used. Unfortunately, when one looks closely at the manner in which race is used, what one often finds is in fact racism. This article explores some of the ways in which the development of the concept of race as a biological construct, was used to justify racism, and shaped the early development of scientific thought. This historical perspective is used to elaborate the ways in which those seminal ideas continue to distort medical research, education, and care delivery, and perpetuate health disparities.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina , Racismo , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento
10.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(2): 25, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670887

RESUMO

Conservation biology is a branch of ecology devoted to conserving biodiversity. Because this discipline is based on the assumption that knowledge should guide actions, it endows experts with a power that should be questioned. The work of the French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) can be seen as a relevant conceptual resource to think these aspects of conservation biology through. I critically analyse the relevance of the Foucauldian approach to conservation. I argue that Foucauldian arguments are deeply ambiguous, and therefore useless for conservation purposes, unless they are supplemented with unsaid assumptions that are, depending on the case at hand, untenable, or at least at odds with basic assumptions underlying conservation biology. In any case, the prospects of using the Foucauldian approach for conservation purposes are deeply undermined. However, the Foucauldian reasoning contains some ideas that can be important and useful for conservation purposes, if they are duly clarified.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conhecimento
11.
Curr Biol ; 32(11): R511-R512, 2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671721

RESUMO

Indigenous peoples are important stewards of biodiversity, often living near and possessing intimate knowledge of ecosystems. As a result, species new to science may be long known to indigenous people. While the scientific endeavor has long benefitted from indigenous knowledge, it has usually not engaged with it on equal footing1,2. While Linnaean taxonomy offers a broad framework for global comparisons, it may lack the detailed local insights possessed by indigenous peoples. This study illustrates how meaningful engagement with indigenous knowledge - throughout the scientific process - can improve biodiversity science and promote conservation1,2, particularly in studies of crop wild relatives, an international priority3 for food security in the face of climate change4. Two species of fruit trees recognized as distinct by the Iban and Dusun peoples, but considered a single species in current Linnaean taxonomy, were confirmed as distinct taxa by molecular studies. They correspond to Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco and Artocarpus mutabilis Becc., whose distinguishing characteristics were clarified by members of indigenous communities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Povos Indígenas , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Conhecimento , Árvores
12.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 23(1): 89-94, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656664

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women about infant oral healthcare. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire study. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 350 primigravida women aged between 20 and 40 years visiting the DY Patil Medical Hospital for their antenatal examination. A multiple-choice questionnaire with 12 questions in addition to demographic information and socioeconomic status was designed in three languages. RESULTS: Based on the level of education of the pregnant women, there was a statistically significant difference in knowledge and attitude toward infant oral healthcare (p = 0.001). The occupational status resounded significant differences between employed vs housewives and unemployed women (p = 0.000). Socioeconomic status also showed significant differences between the upper strata and lower strata groups (p = 0.000). STATISTICS: Data normality was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test. Since the data were not normally distributed, we used nonparametric tests for analysis. The total scores for different domains were compared between the different subgroups based on age, occupation, education, trimester, and socioeconomic status using nonparametric one-way ANOVA (Kruskal-Wallis test). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons were done using Bonferroni's method. All testing was done using two-sided tests with alpha = 0.05 (95% confidence level). CONCLUSION: This study gives us an insight into the inadequacies existing in our society amongst expectant women in relation to oral health-promoting factors for infants. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Educating pregnant women about maintaining their own oral health and care for their offspring will potentially help to curb early childhood dental diseases in future generations.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Gestantes , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Conhecimento , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(2): 441-460, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674621

RESUMO

The first half of the twentieth century was marked globally by a nationalist shift, which also affected science. The initiatives to block some "national science" (especially from Germany) and the discussions that flooded Western public space are hallmarks of the radical transformations that knowledge and power underwent at the time. Based on historical literature from the time, the article explores the growing polarization of scientific discourse in the first half of the twentieth century. Special attention is given to the interwar period, the (re)founding (after 1918) of international scientific organisms based in Europe (like the International Research Council), and the prohibition of the journal Nature in Nazi Germany in 1937.


A primeira metade do século XX foi globalmente marcada por uma vaga nacionalista que não deixou a ciência incólume. As iniciativas de bloqueio de algumas "ciências nacionais" (em particular a ciência oriunda da Alemanha) e as ruidosas discussões que então inundaram o espaço público ocidental constituem marcas ineludíveis das transformações radicais que o saber, o poder e a relação entre ambos então conheceram. O artigo explora, com base na literatura histórica da época, a crescente politização do discurso científico na primeira metade do século XX. É dada especial atenção ao período entreguerras, à (re)fundação, após 1918, dos organismos científicos internacionais sediados na Europa (como o International Research Council), e à proibição, em 1937, da revista Nature na Alemanha nazista.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Socialismo Nacional , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Socialismo Nacional/história
14.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VII(1): 1-4, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712833

RESUMO

To some, the idea of health that is not beholden to strict notions of biomedical science is already misbegotten. This editorial cannot address this audience, for it believes that it is worth listening to varied knowledge systems. There is now an increased acceptance that the alienation felt by many towards contemporary health practice needs to be taken seriously. This issue contains six articles on the theme of diverse/traditional medical systems, and the need for a nuanced response to the questions they raise with regard to mainstream health practices. One accepts that these diverse/traditional medical systems may be misused, or insufficiently understood; the articles in this issue by Hurford, Rana, and Sachan (1), as well as by Ransing, Kar and Menon make this amply clear (2).


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Humanos
15.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 18(1): 47, 2022 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homegardens in Northern Ethiopia received little investigation into the diversity of plants and no study and recording in the Gozamin District. This study was used to fill the gap in how cultural use and cultural importance conserve species diversity in homegardens in the different agroclimatic zones in northwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: The study district and 12 kebeles were chosen using multistage and stratified random selection procedures based on traditional agroclimatic zones in the Gozamin District, Northwest Ethiopia, respectively. The number of plots chosen in each homegarden was determined by the homegarden's size, which ranges from 0.015 to 0.5 ha. These data were gathered by putting plots with a distance gradient from home (size: 10 × 10 m each). A semi-structured interview and complete plant inventory were conducted to document the informant's knowledge of plant species. Sørensen's similarity indices and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices were used to compare the similarity of sites and three agroclimatic zones, respectively. Direct matrix ranking, cultural importance (CI), the relative frequency of citation, and cultural value were used in quantitative analysis to compare the most common multipurpose plants. RESULTS: A total of 238 culturally important plant species from 81 families were identified. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there was a significant difference among the three agroclimatic zones species diversity (H = 103.4, Hc = 111.2, p < 0.05). Of the total plant species recorded, 59% were reported to be utilized for environmental uses, 35% were food crops, and 35% were medicinal plant species. The same was true for the three agroclimatic zones; food and medicinal uses were the first and second most important use categories, respectively. The similarity index for 64% of the sites investigated was less than 0.5. Cordia africana (FC = 125) was the most culturally significant species with a value of 2.23 on the CI index. CONCLUSION: Homegardens are multifunctional systems. The presence of different agroclimatic zones, cultural uses, cultural importance, and cultural value of the species are central to conserving plant species in the area. As the size of the garden increases, so does the diversity of species and uses. Our findings suggest that conservation strategies should take into account the links between plant composition and cultural importance.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Etiópia , Etnobotânica/métodos , Humanos , Conhecimento , Fitoterapia/métodos
16.
Eye Contact Lens ; 48(7): 277, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35726906

Assuntos
Conhecimento , Humanos
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 66, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gap between knowledge and practice, along with postponing or not implementing research findings in practice and policy-making, is one of the reasons for low-quality services. Hence, this study aimed at presenting a model of knowledge implementation in health system management in Iran. METHODS: The present two-phase study was first performed qualitatively using a directive content analysis approach based on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model. The researchers extracted the barriers and facilitators by conducting semi-structured individual interviews. Then, in a three-stage Delphi study, 25 health experts determined the barrier removal strategies. Data were analysed using MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS:  The content analysis of the interviews led to the emergence of 1212 codes under three categories of evidence, context and facilitation. The findings indicate that health managers make fewer decisions based on research findings. Instead, they make decisions regarding the experiences of service providers and organization data. In addition to the subcategories in the PARIHS model, the researchers extracted political, social and administrative factors under the context category. The relationships between the features of evidence, context, facilitation, barriers and strategies were presented in the final model. CONCLUSION:  The presented model comprehensively emphasizes the evidence resources, context preparation, and facilitation of the knowledge implementation process.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimento , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(5): 901-907, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore threshold concepts in a Basic Health Sciences module. METHODS: The qualitative study was conducted at the Islamabad Medical and Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan, in March 2019, and comprised students and faculty members in the gastrointestinal tract module of spiral I of the integrated modular curriculum in Basic Health Sciences. Data on student experiences was collected using semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions. The data was coded and themes were identified by the researchers independently. A thematic matrix was produced, cross-referencing data relating to troublesome areas identified by the students against the threshold concept criteria. The identified themes were discussed among the researchers to reach consensus. Only the identified themes were taken as the expected threshold concepts in the gastrointestinal tract module. RESULTS: Of the 18 subjects, 14(77.8%) were students and 4(22.2%) were facilitators. There were 8 areas identified by the students as troublesome in the module; development of gastrointestinal tract, anatomical relations, electron transport chain, histology of gastrointestinal tract mucosa, peritoneal disposition, anal canal and ischioanal fossae, peristalsis, and absorption across gastrointestinal tract mucosa. Only development of gastrointestinal tract appeared to cross-match with all the criteria outlined for threshold concepts. The troublesome areas identified by the teachers were development of gastrointestinal tract, peritoneal disposition, anatomical relations, absorption across gastrointestinal tract and peristalsis. CONCLUSIONS: Development of gastrointestinal tract was found to be the threshold concept in the system-based integrated module of gastrointestinal tract. Most of the students found their previous knowledge inadequate in learning concepts of the module.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9230412, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720888

RESUMO

As countries around the world pay more and more attention to the sustainable development of the construction industry, the prefabricated building model has become the best construction type to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. However, the prefabricated building entails higher technical requirements, and the workers involved in the construction must be trained to reduce the risks. For China, where the demographic dividend is gradually disappearing, how to quickly promote the industrializing workers process has become an urgent issue. This research focuses on the training and management of industrializing workers in prefabricated building. First, the facial images of the participants were collected from the actual test data, and the changes of participants' facial expressions were analyzed through multitask convolutional neural network-Lighten Facial Expression Recognition (MTCNN-LFER). The results of the analysis were plugged into the facial expression recognition and evaluation model for industrializing workers training in this research to calculate the weights, and then all the weights were clustered through the improved SWEM-SAM method. The results show the following: (1) the values of objective data were used to judge the participating workers' mastery of each knowledge and to evaluate whether they are qualified. (2) The evaluation results were used to analyze the risk events that may be caused by participating workers.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , China , Humanos , Conhecimento
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 69, 2022 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35717196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Engaging users of health research, namely knowledge users, as partners in the research process may to lead to evidence that is more relevant to the users. This may optimize the uptake of evidence in healthcare practice, resulting in improved health outcomes or more efficient healthcare systems. However, barriers to involving knowledge users in the research process exist. Theories, models and frameworks may help guide the process of involving knowledge users and address barriers to engaging with knowledge users in research; however, there is little evidence identifying or describing the theories, models and frameworks of health research partnerships. OBJECTIVES: Identify and describe theories, models and frameworks of health research partnerships. Report on concepts of knowledge user engagement represented in identified theories, models and frameworks. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review. Database (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PCORI) and ancestry and snowball searches were utilized. Included articles were written in English, published between January 2005 and June 2021, specific to health, a research partnership, and referred to a theory, model or framework. No critical appraisal was conducted. We developed a coding framework to extract details related to the publication (e.g. country, year) and theory, model or framework (e.g. intended users, theoretical underpinning, methodology, methods of development, purpose, concepts of knowledge user engagement). One reviewer conducted data extraction. Descriptive statistics and narrative synthesis were utilized to report the results. RESULTS: We identified 21 874 articles in screening. Thirty-nine models or frameworks were included in data analysis, but no theory. Two models or frameworks (5%) were underpinned by theory. Literature review was the method (n = 11, 28%) most frequently used to develop a model or framework. Guiding or managing a partnership was the most frequently reported purpose of the model/framework (n = 14, 36%). The most represented concept of knowledge user engagement was principles/values (n = 36, 92%). CONCLUSIONS: The models and frameworks identified could be utilized by researchers and knowledge users to inform aspects of a health research partnership, such as guidance or implementation of a partnership. Future research evaluating the quality and applicability of the models and frameworks is necessary to help partners decide which model or framework to implement.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Pesquisadores , Humanos , Conhecimento , Narração , Projetos de Pesquisa
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