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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 3-8, maio-ago. 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252889

RESUMO

Dentes necrosados com rizogêneze incompleta representam um desafio para os endodontistas e odontopediatras, visto que as paredes radiculares desses dentes são mais finas, o que as tornam mais susceptíveis a fraturas. Durante muitos anos a técnica preconizada foi a apicificação que ainda é bastante utilizada. Nesta técnica são realizadas trocas constantes de medicação intracanal. O dente continua fragilizado e existe o risco do paciente não concluir o tratamento já que tal técnica demanda várias sessões clínicas. Com os avanços da ciência, surge a revascularização pulpar, trazendo vários beneficíos, entre os quais estão a continuidade apical e o ganho de espessura das paredes, além do benefício de conclusão do tratamento em uma ou duas sessões. Entretanto é necessária sua proservação que leva em média dois anos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos odontopediatras e endodontistas do município de Ilhéus-Bahia, frente a casos de necrose pulpar de dentes com formação radicular incompleta. O método e forma de análise de dados foram de um estudo observacional, transversal, realizado em consultórios do município de Ilhéus-BA que foram selecionados por amostragem aleatória. Os dados foram coletados por meio de um questionário contendo 10 questões de múltipla escolha sobre revascularização pulpar, especialização do profissional e tempo de formação. 20 profissionais aceitaram participar da pesquisa. Desses, 10% não sabiam ou nunca tinham ouvido falar sobre a revascularização pulpar. Conclui-se que ainda existem especialistas no Município de Ilhéus-BA que apresentam conhecimento insuficiente sobre a terapia endodôntica regenerativa, sendo que os mesmos deveriam ter conhecimento desta técnica já que são os profissionais que prestam o atendimento ao paciente jovem com dentes necrosados, reforçando a necessidade de elaboração de estratégia de conscientização e educação de saúde para habilitação e atualização dos mesmos(AU)


Necrotic teeth with incomplete rizogenesis representa challenge for endodontists and pediatric dentists, since the root walls of these teeth are thinner, which makes them more susceptible to fractures. For many years the recommended technique was apexification, which is still widely used. In this technique, constant changes of intracanal medication are performed. The tooth remains fragile and there is a risk that the patient will not complete the treatment as this technique requires several clinical sessions. With advances in science, pulp revascularization appears, bringing several benefits, among which are the apical continuity and the gain in thickness of the walls, in addition to the benefit of completing the treatment in one or two sessions. However, its preservation is necessary, which takes on average two years. The objective of this research was to evaluate the level of knowledge of pediatric dentists and endodontists in the municipality of Ilhéus-Bahia, in the face of cases of pulp necrosis of teeth with incomplete root formation. The method and form of data analysis were from an observational, cross-sectional study, carried out in offices in the municipality of Ilheus-BA that were selected by random sampling. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions about pulp revascularization, professional specialization and training time. 20 professionals agreed to participate in the research. Of these, 10% did not know or had never heard of pulp revascularization. It is concluded that there are still specialists in the municipality of Ilhéus-BA who have insufficient knowledge about regenerative endodontic therapy, and they should have knowledge of this technique since they are the professionals who provide care to young patients with necrotic teeth, reinforcing the need to develop a health awareness and education strategy to enable and update them(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Necrose da Polpa Dentária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necrose da Polpa Dentária/terapia , Conhecimento , Odontólogos , Endodontistas , Endodontia Regenerativa
2.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 36-49, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077143

RESUMO

Hearing loss affects many people worldwide, and it hinders speech, language, and social development. Consanguineous marriage is the most prevalent social custom that leads to an increased prevalence of congenital anomalies. Premarital Counseling and Genetic Screening (PMSGC) educational program is urgently needed to empower deaf and hard hearing girls. This study aimed to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the empowerment model on deaf and hard hearing females' self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. A Quasi-experimental research design was conducted on 64 deaf and hard hearing female students. The data collection instrument comprised four parts: basic data and personal/family history, PMSGC quiz, Likert attitude scale, and general self-efficacy scale. Data were collected from September to December 2020. The empowerment educational intervention was conducted in four sequential phases; needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The intervention addressed the students' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. The results showed that 76.6% of the study participants had consanguineous marriage between their parents, 64.1% had a history of hereditary deafness in first-degree relatives. There were statistically significant differences between the total knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy before and after intervention (p <0.001). In detail, 76.6% of the participants had good knowledge after the intervention compared to only 12.5% before it. Besides, 81.3% of the study participants had a positive attitude toward PMSGC before the intervention compared to 95.3% after it. Self-efficacy was low (25.0%) or moderate (75%) before the intervention compared to moderate (45.3%) or high (42.2%) after the intervention. Educational intervention based on the empowerment model significantly increased the deaf and hard hearing population's self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. The use of the empowerment model in health education should be encouraged and taught to the medical and paramedical students.


Assuntos
Surdez , Aconselhamento Genético , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Exames Pré-Nupciais , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Empoderamento , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/genética , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 659797, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095063

RESUMO

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in China is essentially under control. Under global scrutiny, China has started reviving the social, cultural, and working lives of its inhabitants. However, localized outbreaks of COVID-19 are occurring, indicating that the country still needs to follow disease prevention and control measures. Previous studies have assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the general public in China regarding COVID-19 during the pandemic. However, little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Chinese residents regarding COVID-19 after periods of lockdown. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the KAP and other factors among the residents of Shaanxi Province during the post-lockdown period. Methods: A cross-sectional, network questionnaire survey was conducted in Shaanxi Province from October 1-30, 2020. A total of 1,175 urban residents were interviewed via Wen Juan Xing, an online questionnaire tool. A self-developed online KAP COVID-19 questionnaire was developed in this study. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: general information, knowledge, attitude, and practice. Descriptive statistics and binomial logistic regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results: The majority of the participants were knowledgeable about COVID-19. They had optimistic attitudes and behaved appropriately toward COVID-19. Education was an associated factor for the knowledge of residents and the knowledge of COVID-19 was high among people with high academic qualifications. Attitudes were more positive in residents who lived with elderly people, women, and children. The score of practice was higher in residents with positive attitudes and high academic qualifications. There was a positive correlation between age and practice. Conclusion: We found that the KAP of residents in Shaanxi was at a relatively high level during the post-lockdown period. Although the lockdown was lifted, the epidemic is not over. Thus, it is necessary to develop targeted health education programs for residents with different demographic characteristics in Shaanxi.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , População Urbana
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046904, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Though dissertation is mandatory for postgraduates (PG), it is unknown if adequate knowledge on plagiarism exists at that level. Thus, we intended to study the knowledge and attitude towards plagiarism among junior doctors in India. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study SETTING: PG medical residents and Junior faculty from various teaching institutions across south India. PARTICIPANTS: A total of N=786 doctors filled the questionnaires of which approximately 42.7% were from government medical colleges (GMCs) and the rest from private institutions. METHODS: Participants were given a pretested semistructured questionnaire which contained: (1) demographic details; (2) a quiz developed by Indiana University, USA to assess knowledge and (3) Attitudes towards Plagiarism Questionnaire (ATPQ). OUTCOME MEASURES: The Primary outcome measure was knowledge about plagiarism. The secondary outcome measure was ATPQ scores. RESULTS: A total of N=786 resident doctors and junior faculty from across 11 institutions participated in this study. Of this, 42.7% were from GMCs and 60.6% were women. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 4.43 (1.99) out of 10. The factors (adjusted OR; 95% CI; p value) that emerged as significant predictors of knowledge were number of years in profession (-0.181; -0.299 to -0.062; 0.003), no previous publication (0.298; 0.099 to 0.498; 0.003) and working in a GMC (0.400; 0.106 to 0.694; 0.008). The overall mean (SD) scores of the three attitude components were: Permissive attitudes-37.33 (5.33), critical attitudes -20.32 (4.82) and subjective norms-31.05 (4.58), all of which corresponded to the moderate category. CONCLUSION: Participants lacked adequate knowledge on how to avoid plagiarism suggesting a need for a revamp in medical education curriculum in India by incorporating research and publication ethics.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Plágio , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Indiana , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(1): 20-28, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077107

RESUMO

Over the past 30 years, the Moroccan government has made enormous strides towards improving maternal health care for Moroccan women, but outcomes for rural women remain much worse than those of their urban counterparts. This study aimed to understand the experiences of women giving birth in rural Morocco, and to identify the barriers they face when accessing facility-based maternity care. Fifty-five participants were recruited from villages in Morocco's rural south to participate in focus group discussions (FGDs), using appreciative inquiry as the guiding framework. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the focus group data. Women felt well-cared for and safe giving birth both at home and in the large, tertiary care hospitals, but not in the small, primary care hospitals. Women who gave birth at the primary care hospitals reported a shortage of some equipment and supplies and poor treatment at the hands of hospital staff. Locating and paying for transportation was identified as the biggest hurdle in accessing maternity care at any hospital. The findings of this study indicate the need for change within primary care health facilities.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Parto Domiciliar , Humanos , Saúde Materna , Tocologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , População Rural
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 590695, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095041

RESUMO

Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) is an often-overlooked chronic consequence of urogenital schistosomiasis (UGS) associated with Schistosoma haematobium eggs and associated pathologies in the genital system of afflicted men. Despite the first formal description of MGS in 1911 by Madden, its epidemiology, diagnostic testing and case management of today are not well-described. However, since several interactions between MGS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are known, there is renewed public health interest in MGS across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). To shed new light upon MGS in Malawi, a longitudinal cohort study was set up among fishermen along the southern shoreline of Lake Malawi in Mangochi District, Malawi, to document its prevalence and assess mens' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). After providing informed written consent, fishermen (n = 376) aged 18+ years (median age: 30 years, range: 18-70 years) were recruited and submitted urine and semen for point-of-care (POC) field and laboratory diagnostic parasitological tests. Individual questionnaires were administered to assess their KAP, with praziquantel (PZQ) treatment provided to all participants. Baseline prevalence of MGS (S. haematobium eggs in semen) was 10.4% (n = 114, median: 5.0 eggs per ml, range: 0.1-30.0) while for UGS (S. haematobium eggs in urine) was 17.1% (n = 210, median: 2.3 eggs per 10 ml, range: 0.1-186.0) and 3.8% were positive by POC circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA), indicative of a Schistosoma mansoni infection. Just under 10% of participants reported having experienced symptoms associated with MGS, namely genital or coital pain, or haemospermia. A total of 61.7% reported previous difficulties in accessing PZQ therapy, with 34.8% having received PZQ therapy before. There was a significant correlation between MGS infection and the frequency of fishing in a week (rho = -0.25, n = 100, p = 0.01). In conclusion, MGS is prevalent among local fishermen yet knowledge of the disease is poor. We therefore call for improved availability and accessibility to MGS diagnostics, PZQ treatment within ongoing control interventions. This will improve the lives and reproductive health of men, their partners and communities in this shoreline environment of Lake Malawi.


Assuntos
Lagos , Esquistossomose Urinária , Adulto , Genitália Masculina , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 660229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095064

RESUMO

Aim: Adolescence is a time of transition from childhood to adulthood, when young people go through a number of vital physical and psychological developments. It is surprising yet unfortunate that the number of teenage suicide deaths and teenage infections of gonorrhea have increased over the years, becoming serious public health concerns in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an education course on teenagers' understanding of adolescence and their attitudes toward life, sex, gender equality, and mental health. Material and Methods: Participants were comprised of Taiwanese students in Grades 5 to 9 who completed a Life-Sex-Emotions course, titled "Sailing through Adolescence." The effect of the course was measured using pre- and post-test scores on the Perception Index of Life-Sex-Emotions Education (PILSEE) instrument. Qualitative data included subjective responses to questions before and after the course. Data were collected between September 2017 and June 2020. Results: A total of 10,506 completed questionnaires were collected. The mean PILSEE pretest scores for each subscale ranged from 8.71 to 13.37 (SD = 1.499-1.99); posttest subscale scores ranged from 9.30 to 13.95 (SD range = 1.490-2.288). The mean overall pretest score was 86.86 (SD = 10.83); the mean posttest score was 92.62 (SD = 10.30). The paired t-test demonstrated that post-test scores were significantly higher than pretest scores (t = 55.46; p < 0.01). Qualitative feedback indicated that the course improved students' self-esteem, their understanding adolescence, and awareness of influences of the media. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an educational course about life, sex, and emotions during adolescence can be an effective intervention to help teenagers understand the impact of adolescence on attitudes toward life, sex, mental health, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Emoções , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Percepção , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(5): e20200642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the information demands of families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. METHOD: this is a qualitative study conducted through semi-structured and audio-recorded interviews with 55 family members, in the states of Paraná, Ceará, and Macapá, between September 2018 and September 2019. Thematic category analysis and Qualitative Data Analysis Software resources were used for data organization. RESULTS: it was identified that families need information regarding the characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (definition, cause, possibility of cure, prognosis and the probability of having another child with Autism Spectrum Disorder); child's routine and behavior; future rights and expectations. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: information demands are relevant to support professionals, health managers and other services in health care organization to support families of children with autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Família/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625779, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123985

RESUMO

Parents' education and knowledge regarding major topics of children's health, such as nutrition and vaccines, have a paramount role. However, breastfeeding rates in first year of life are lower than recommended, and vaccine hesitancy is progressively spreading. To reverse this harmful trend, healthcare professionals are challenged to promote correct health information. This study aimed to assess newly mothers' knowledge of breastfeeding and vaccinations, and education received on both topics during hospital stay. We performed a cross-sectional survey in the Postnatal Unit of our Center. Mothers of full-term babies with a birthweight >2,500 g were enrolled. Two different questionnaires, one about breastfeeding and one about vaccines, were proposed to the 140 enrolled mothers. Ninety-nine percent of mothers enrolled were aware of breastfeeding benefits, and 92% felt adequately supported by maternity staff. Less than 25% stated to have received sufficient information regarding breastfeeding. Only 20% of mothers received information about vaccines during hospital stay. Healthcare providers were identified as primary, secondary, and tertiary source of information on vaccines by 55, 15, and 30% of mothers, respectively. Healthcare professionals are crucial in informing and educating mothers on breastfeeding and vaccinations. Post-partum hospital stay could be the right time for this critical responsibility.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Vacinas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e25833, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087826

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The current status of the diagnosis and management of poststroke aphasia (PSA) in China is unknown.To analyze the physicians' strategy and knowledge about the management of PSA in clinical practice and the needs for standardization of diagnosis and treatment.This survey was conducted in March-August 2019 at 32 tertiary hospitals in 16 provinces/municipalities in China. The attending physicians from the Neurology and Neuro-rehabilitation/Rehabilitation Departments were included. The online questionnaire inquired about patient information, physicians' diagnosis and treatment behavior for PSA, and physicians' understanding of PSA.A total of 236 physicians completed the survey. Regarding PSA assessment, 99.2% of the physicians reported using medical history and physical examination, 93.2% reported using neuroimaging, and 76.3% reported using dedicated scales. Most physicians used a combination of drug and non-drug treatment. Neuro-regenerators/cerebral activators and anti-dementia drugs were the most common pharmacotherapies; butylphthalide, edaravone, and memantine were most frequently prescribed. Six months poststroke was rendered as a spontaneous language recovery period, and a ≥6-month treatment for PSA was suggested by many physicians. The lack of standardized treatment regimen/clinical guidelines and the limited number of approved drugs for PSA were the primary challenges encountered by physicians during practice. The majority of the physicians agreed with the necessity of guidelines or consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of PSA.The knowledge gaps exist among physicians in China regarding the assessment and management of PSA. The improved awareness of the available guidelines/consensus could improve the performance of the physicians.


Assuntos
Afasia/etiologia , Afasia/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/reabilitação , China , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Médicos/psicologia , Padrões de Prática Médica
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26060, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087848

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Global burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains high and has a profound impact on health and lives of children, adolescents and adults worldwide. For over a decade, the Brazilian Department of Chronic Condition Diseases and Sexually Transmitted Infections and the Ministry of Defense have been conducting the Conscripts Survey aiming to assess the STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge regarding STIs and risk factors among youth.A cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire containing 74 questions, 25 questions related to awareness and knowledge of STIs and their associated symptoms, routes of transmission, complications and risk factors.A total of 37,282 young men across Brazil were considered for the analysis. The majority resided in the Northeast and Southeast regions (38.9% and 30.0%, respectively), followed by the South (13.9%), North (9.7%), and Central-west (7.5%) regions. Of the conscripts, 97.2% have the knowledge they may be at risk if they do not use condoms during sex. Conscripts with a higher level of education have almost 2 times greater chance of having knowledge of having sex without a condom (OR 3.23 CI95% 2.82-3.70 P = .000) and sharing needles and syringes (OR 2.84 CI95% 2.62-3.07 P = .000) represents a risk. Those with higher education also have an almost 50% greater chance of having knowledge regarding STI transmission from mother to child (OR 1.54 CI95% 1.44-1.64 P = .000), and knowledge of no transmission by mosquito bite (OR 1.61 CI95%1.51-1.72 P = .000), by kissing (OR 1.45 CI95% 1.36-1.55 P = .000) or by using public toilets (OR 1.51 CI95% 1.41-1.61 P = .000). Television (71.8%) and internet (69.4%) are the preferred forms to obtain STIs information regardless of the level of education.Conscripts with higher level of education have greater knowledge regarding transmission of STIs. However, there are gaps regarding their knowledge about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the fact that other STIs can increase the chances of acquiring HIV.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Uso Comum de Agulhas e Seringas/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1041, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic overuse is the main modifiable driver of antibiotic resistance. Factors associated with overuse have been inconsistently reported and vary across populations. Given the burgeoning occurrence of infectious diseases around the world, there remains a great need to identify barriers and solutions to the control of infections. We examined whether knowledge about infections and antibiotic resistance is associated with antibiotic use in a northern European population sample. METHODS: The Health Survey Northern Ireland 2014/15 was completed by a cross-sectional sample of 4135 participants aged > 16 years. Participants were asked whether they had taken an antibiotic in the past 12 months; and six questions were asked concerning knowledge about infections and antibiotic resistance. Correct answers to the six knowledge questions defined a knowledge score (score range 0-6 correct answers). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of self-reported antibiotic use during the last 12 months in association with knowledge score (lowest score, 0/6, as referent), and response to each knowledge question. Covariates included sex, age group, smoking, alcohol drinking, deprivation index, self-rated health, and satisfaction with life. Results were outputted as Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). RESULTS: Antibiotic use in the past 12 months was reported by 39.0% (1614/4135); and 84.2% (3482/4135) scored < 6/6 correct on knowledge statements. Compared to the lowest knowledge score (0/6 correct), the highest knowledge score (6/6 correct) was associated with higher odds of antibiotic use (adjusted OR 2.03, 95% CI [1.46, 2.81], p < 0.001), with a P-value < 0.001 for trend with increasing knowledge score. Female sex, age, high deprivation, and poor general health, were independently associated with higher odds of antibiotic use. Stratified analyses showed sex and age group differences. CONCLUSION: Knowledge, and other modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors, were positively associated with antibiotic use in the past 12 months. While the causal direction of these associations could not be determined, given the high prevalence of lesser knowledge, as well as independent contributions of other factors including socioeconomic characteristics, health literacy campaigns to raise awareness of antibiotic resistance should take a multi-pronged approach.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044372, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of knowledge and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and the attitudes towards it and to identify the factors associated with its practice among primary care practitioners in Selangor, Malaysia. SETTING: This cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected health clinics in Selangor. Data were collected from primary care physicians using self-administered questionnaires on knowledge, practice and attitudes regarding EBM. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 225 respondents working in either government or private clinics. It excluded house officers and those working in public and private universities or who were retired from practice. RESULTS: A total of 32.9% had a high level of EBM knowledge, 12% had a positive attitude towards EBM and 0.4% had a good level of its practice. The factors significantly associated with EBM practice were ethnicity, attitude, length of work experience as a primary care practitioner and quick access to online reference applications on mobile phones. CONCLUSIONS: Although many physicians have suboptimal knowledge of EBM and low levels of practising it, majority of them have a neutral attitude towards EBM practice. Extensive experience as a primary care practitioner, quick access to online references on a mobile phone and good attitude towards EBM were associated with its practice.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Malásia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1064, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the health behavior of the target population is crucial for sustainable schistosomiasis control. The aim of this study was to assess schistosomiasis related levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices of communities in lowland areas of western Ethiopia, where schistosomiasis is endemic. METHODS: A community-based multilevel triangulation mixed-methods design was conducted in three schistosomiasis endemic villages in the Abbey and Didessa valleys of the Benishangul Gumuz Region of Western Ethiopia, where mass drug administration (MDA) was done 30 years back and again the last 5 years. A structured survey questionnaire, in-depth interviews, focused group discussions, and observation was conducted to assess levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices related to schistosomiasis in the communities. RESULTS: Among the survey participants, 13% reported having heard of schistosomiasis, locally called Pecka (meaning worm). The majority of this 13% believe that schistosomiasis is caused by the biting of the worm Pecka, while others say drinking dirty water is the cause of infection, or they didn't know what the cause is. A majority of respondents answered "I don't know" to most of the questions about established knowledge of schistosomiasis. Male participants and students were more aware of schistosomiasis than their counterparts, and awareness increased with the educational level. Only one participant perceived that schistosomiasis was a serious disease. There were negative attitudes and misconceptions about the drug used in the mass treatment and many complaints were raised related to the size of the tablet and its side effects. There was no local budget and specific plan to prevent and control the disease. Local health personnel had insufficient knowledge about schistosomiasis, and the diagnosis and treatment capacities of local health institutions were poor. CONCLUSION: In the current research area, schistosomiasis prevention and control recommendations should be redesigned to change the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the community and local health workers. It is also necessary to have the local budget and trained manpower in order to diagnose and treat schistosomiasis locally. There is a great need to have a safer Praziquantel pediatric formulation.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Praziquantel , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Br J Community Nurs ; 26(6): 278-282, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105372

RESUMO

Vaccination is an important public health intervention, but its effectiveness depends upon the uptake of vaccination reaching sufficient levels to yield 'herd' immunity. While the majority of the UK hold positive attitudes about vaccination, some people, including health professionals, decline vaccinations. This article reviews the evidence relating to vaccine hesitancy, its underlying factors and the sociodemographic variations. A second article will review the evidence relating to strategies to address vaccine hesitancy and promote vaccination acceptance.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinação em Massa/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has affected all regions and countries with varying impacts based on infection rates and the associated fatalities. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward the COVID-19 pandemic among Saudi Arabians. METHODS: The study utilized a cross-sectional research design. Web-based questionnaires' link was sent via emails and social media and sample was 5483 respondents. Purposive sampling ensured only those participants that met the inclusion criteria. Validity and reliability were checked. RESULTS: Most respondents, 67.9%, were aged between 18 and 35 years and highest level of education university. The findings based on the study objectives indicated a high level of knowledge about COVID-19, which indicated early detection can improve treatment by 4701 (85.7%), the disease can be treated at home 84.6%, the disease can be prevented and avoided when precautions are taken 96.8%. Moreover, 37.2% of the respondents still used herbal products to prevent and treat the disease, and 72.1% indicating immediate visit the physician when there are symptoms. CONCLUSION: Promoting public knowledge about COVID-19 by the Ministry of Health is paramount in defeating this disease. Providing more education and awareness for public to comply with WHO's recommendation is recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071889

RESUMO

To assess whether knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted changes in behaviors among the general Moroccan population, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 30 March and 20 April involving a total of 14,157 participants. The statistical analysis of the data included univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Our results suggest that less than ten days after the Moroccan government announced "Health state of Emergency" response to the COVID-19 outbreak, public knowledge, attitude and responses to the pandemic were relatively high. More than half the respondents (63.2%) reported that they complied with more than five of nine recommended safety measures, including avoiding going out (93.2%), and frequent handwashing with soap and water (78.2%). Factors associated with an increased likelihood to adopt safety measures included perceptions that COVID-19 was a human health risk, the pandemic will continue for a long time, availability of clear information, and a lack of medicine. The largest predictor of safety behavior change was age; participants older than 55 were more likely to adopt recommended safety behaviors. Although knowledge and perception among the general public was reasonable, more encouragement from government via health education programs is needed to maintain appropriate behaviors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072017

RESUMO

Pregnant women are susceptible to COVID-19 complications due to gestation-related physiological changes. We aimed to evaluate the level of maternal knowledge, perception, and practice during the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the Malaysian Movement Control Order (MCO) between April and June 2020. A self-administered electronic questionnaire that included the knowledge and practice domains was distributed. A newly designed set of questions was used to evaluate (1) women's perception of MCO and (2) maternal experience, which was subdivided into clinical care provision and maternal anxiety. The survey response rate was 93% with the final number for analysis of 415. The majority of women (95%) demonstrated an adequate level of knowledge on COVID-19, whilst 99% had a good practice. We found that tertiary education (p < 0.001), employment status (p = 0.03), higher household income (p < 0.001), and multiple sources of information (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of adequate maternal knowledge on COVID-19. Women with adequate knowledge also reported a more positive perception of MCO (p < 0.001) and better obstetric care experience (p = 0.037), as did those of Malay ethnicity. Younger (p < 0.001) and nulliparous (p = 0.01) women demonstrated greater anxiety levels. The majority of our women reported good practice and adequate knowledge, which contributed to a positive perception of MCO and better maternal obstetric experience. First-time mothers may benefit from extra support and reassurance during the pandemic to alleviate maternal anxiety.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Percepção , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252835, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097719

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Knowledge and attitude influence compliance and individuals' practices. The risk and protective factors associated with high compliance to these preventive measures are critical to enhancing pandemic preparedness. OBJECTIVE: This survey aims to assess differences in mental health, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of preventive measures for COVID-19 amongst healthcare professionals (HCP) and non-healthcare professionals. DESIGN: Multi-national cross-sectional study was carried out using electronic surveys between May-June 2020. SETTING: Multi-national survey was distributed across 36 countries through social media, word-of-mouth, and electronic mail. PARTICIPANTS: Participants ≥21 years working in healthcare and non-healthcare related professions. MAIN OUTCOME: Risk factors determining the difference in KAP towards personal hygiene and social distancing measures during COVID-19 amongst HCP and non-HCP. RESULTS: HCP were significantly more knowledgeable on personal hygiene (AdjOR 1.45, 95% CI -1.14 to 1.83) and social distancing (AdjOR 1.31, 95% CI -1.06 to 1.61) compared to non-HCP. They were more likely to have a positive attitude towards personal hygiene and 1.5 times more willing to participate in the contact tracing app. There was high compliance towards personal hygiene and social distancing measures amongst HCP. HCP with high compliance were 1.8 times more likely to flourish and more likely to have a high sense of emotional (AdjOR 1.94, 95% CI (1.44 to 2.61), social (AdjOR 2.07, 95% CI -1.55 to 2.78), and psychological (AdjOR 2.13, 95% CI (1.59-2.85) well-being. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: While healthcare professionals were more knowledgeable, had more positive attitudes, their higher sense of total well-being was seen to be more critical to enhance compliance. Therefore, focusing on the well-being of the general population would help to enhance their compliance towards the preventive measures for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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