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1.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 010412, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489183

RESUMO

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) driven by antibiotic consumption is a growing global health threat. However, data on antimicrobial consumption patterns in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is sparse. Here, we investigate the patterns of antibiotic sales in humans and livestock in urban Nairobi, Kenya, and evaluate the level of awareness and common behaviours related to antibiotic use and AMR amongst human and veterinary pharmacists. Methods: A total of 40 human and 19 veterinary drug store pharmacists were interviewed in Nairobi in 2018 using a standard questionnaire. Data recorded included demographic variables, types of antibiotics sold, antibiotic customers, antibiotic prescribing practices and knowledge of antibiotic use and AMR. Results: Our study shows that at the retail level, there is a considerable overlap between antibiotic classes (10/15) sold for use in both human and veterinary medicine. Whilst in our study, clinical training significantly influenced knowledge on issues related to antibiotic use and AMR and respondents had a relatively adequate level of knowledge about AMR, several inappropriate prescribing practices were identified. For example, we found that most veterinary and human drug stores (100% and 52% respectively) sold antibiotics without a prescription and noted that customer preference was an important factor when prescribing antibiotics in half of the drug stores. Conclusion: Although more research is needed to understand the drivers of antibiotic consumption in both human and animal populations, these findings highlight the need for immediate strategies to improve prescribing practices across the pharmacists in Nairobi and by extension other low- and middle-income country settings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Quênia , Masculino , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 56-63, ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008419

RESUMO

Los adultos jóvenes constituyen gran parte de la población paraguaya y se considera que los conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental están muy relacionados al nivel de instrucción, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental de estudiantes de posgrado de la Carrera de Enfermería de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Católica de Asunción (CE FCSUCA), en el 2018. Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal con componente analítico en el que se incluyeron a todos los estudiantes de posgrado entre mayo y junio de 2018. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante un cuestionario sobre salud bucodental autoadministrado y de carácter anónimo. Los datos se asentaron en una planilla electrónica, y fueron analizados utilizando el Programa estadístico IBMSSPS 23.0. La muestra estuvo constituida por 166 estudiantes, en su mayoría del sexo femenino (75,3%), de entre 20 y 29 años (54,8%), cursando algún programa de especialización (57,8% y pertenecientes al área de la salud (94%). El 57,83% y el 55,42% de los estudiantes presentaron conocimientos y prácticas de salud bucodental de nivel regular, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación entre nivel de conocimiento y de práctica y entre el nivel de conocimiento y la edad. Se concluye que los niveles de conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental en los estudiantes de posgrado fueron deficientes por lo que se propone la implementación de estrategias educativas de concienciación en el área(AU)


Young adults constitute a large part of the Paraguayan population and considering that oral health knowledge and practices are closely related to the level of education, the objective of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge and practices on oral health of postgraduate students of the Nursing Career of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Catholic University of Asunción (CE FCSUCA), in 2018. The design was descriptive, cross-sectional with an analytical component in which all postgraduate students were included in May and June 2018. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire on oral health self-administered and anonymous. The data were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet and analyzed using the IBMSSPS 23.0 Statistical Program. The sample consisted of 166 students, mostly female (75.3%), between 20 and 29 years old (54.8%), studying some specialization program (57.8%) and belonging to the area of Health (94%). 57.83% and 55.42% of the students presented knowledge and practices of oral health at the regular level, respectively. An association was found between the level of knowledge and practice and between the level of knowledge. It is concluded that the levels of knowledge and practices on oral health in the postgraduate students were insufficient, so the implementation of educational awareness strategies in the area is proposed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Saúde Pública , Educação
3.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 151-158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378013

RESUMO

Dogs which spend their lives in rural areas are primarily "sentinels" of animal herds. The dogs' close contact with humans and other animals obligates their caregivers to systematic deworming. The goal is to eliminate potential contamination with parasites which is mostly caused by direct contact or food and water contaminated with dogs' excretions. The aim of this study was to assess internal parasitic invasions on dogs from rural areas which spend most of their lives on farms. In total, 69 samples of fresh stools were collected for the analysis, including 26 from females and 43 from males. Coprological analysis of stool samples was accompanied with a survey where pet owners gave information on the number of visits to the veterinarian in suspicion of their dogs being infected with the parasites, the number of deworming treatments in the previous year and the dogs' behavior towards strangers. Also, the age, sex and body weight of dogs were recorded. Statistical analysis of the obtained results was performed using Statistica 12.5 with a medical set by Statsoft. In total, 29 (46,03%) out of 69 fecal samples contained developmental forms of parasites. Research has shown that animals most vulnerable to invasion were in the 6­10 years old age group, mostly males. In addition, the invasion of Toxocara canis roundworms occurred most frequently, as it was found in 12 (41.37%) animals (6 females and 6 males). The analysis of the questionnaires showed that the dog owners' knowledge of the risk of infection and parasites is unsatisfactory. This corresponded with a small number of deworming treatments. It is significant that nearly half of the owners never dewormed their dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara canis , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384353

RESUMO

Introduction: Cervical cancer is a malignant proliferation of the cells of the uterine cervix and can be treated if diagnosed earlier. It is the second most common gynecological malignancy worldwide and the leading cause of cancer associated mortality among women in Africa and Cameroon. This study sort to determine the current state of knowledge of cervical cancer and its risk factors in the Buea Health District of the South West Region of Cameroon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community based survey. We recruited 433 eligible women, in four (4) Health Areas (Molyko, Bolifamba, Muea and Buea Town) of the Buea Health District and used validated and pre-tested questionnaires to collect data. Collected data were keyed into Epi info version 7.2 statistical software and exported to SPSS Version 25 for analysis. Level of significance was set at P-value < 0.05. Results: Fifty eight percent (58%) of the participants had good knowledge of cervical cancer. 58.99% (95%CI = 54.30-63.52) had good knowledge on the risk factors of cervical cancer. 40% knew at least one of the following risk factors; cigarette smoking, many sexual partners, family history of cervical cancer, being HIV/AIDS positive and giving birth 5 or more times. There was a significant association, OR = 7.5; 95%CI = 2.14-26.33; P = 0.001; X2 = 11.4 between having heard of cervical cancer and having "good" knowledge of cervical cancer among women in Buea. Conclusion: Most of the women had heard of cervical cancer but the knowledge of the risk factors of cervical cancer among women aged 18-68 years in the Buea Health District is low. We found no association between awareness and knowledge of risk factors among the women.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 103-111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out of pocket payment for health services in the midst of financial hardship is a major contributor to poor access to healthcare in Nigeria with the resultant poor health indices. Towards the goal of Universal Health Coverage, Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) was introduced in addition to the National Health Insurance Scheme but with minimal impact and utilization. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess health insurance-related knowledge and attitudes and to examine the uptake of CBHI. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. A multi-stage sampling method was used to select 419 respondents from the Ajeromi-Ifelodun community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and Epi-Info 7.1. RESULTS: Most of the respondents (80.2%) had not heard of Community-Based Health Insurance and only about 9% of respondents had good knowledge about it. However, most (62.5%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards health insurance generally. Only 4.5% of the respondents were enrolled in the CBHI scheme and had paid their premium up to date. There was a significant association between the respondents' knowledge and their uptake of the scheme (<0.001), and also between their attitudes and uptake (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that for CBHI to be successful, certain strategies must be implemented towards increasing awareness and knowledge about CBHI. This will in turn increase the uptake of the scheme, a necessary requirement for achieving the goal of Universal Health Coverage.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Participação da Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nigéria
6.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 165-171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is of significant public health concern due to the high morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. There is need for the general public, especially those in the rural communities, to have adequate knowledge of Lassa fever as well as engage in proper measures that will prevent the occurrence of future outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitude and preventive practices against Lassa fever of adult residents among a rural community in Edo State, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among adult residents of a rural community in Etsako Central LGA, Edo State. The participants were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using structured interviewer-administered questionnaires and data analysis was by IBM SPSS version 21.0. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-five respondents with a mean age of 34.6 ± 14.7 years participated in the study. Majority (89.0%) had heard of Lassa fever and of these, 82.9% and 85.3% had poor knowledge of Lassa fever and positive attitude towards preventive measures against Lassa fever, respectively. Over half (59.1%) had poor preventive practices against Lassa fever. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practice was found to be better among educated respondents. CONCLUSION: The study showed a gap in knowledge of Lassa fever and preventive practices against the disease among the respondents. Adequate measures such as enforcing policies against bush burning should be put in place by all stakeholders to ensure that this gap observed is bridged.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393348

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by different etiological agents with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics accounting for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Since 1996, the Brazilian Department of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV) in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense has been conducting periodic serosurveys of conscripts enlisted for the Brazilian army to assess STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge and risk factors pertaining to STIs. This article aims to present the hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen - HBsAg) and C (anti-HCV) seroprevalence estimates and risk factors as per the 8th edition of the Conscript Survey performed in 2016.This cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire and blood testing for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C.In total 38,247 conscripts were enrolled; after applying exclusion criteria, 37,282 conscripts were included. The estimated HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were 0.22% and 0.28%, respectively. Higher HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were observed in the North Region (0.49%) and in the Central-west Region (0.65%), respectively. Regarding hepatitis B vaccination, 23.5% (n = 8412) of the individuals reported being unvaccinated and 47.4% (n = 16,970) did not know if they had been vaccinated. Among the anti-HCV positive conscripts, 53% (n = 51, 0.56%, P = .049) reported that they had never had sexual intercourse. Regarding self-reported STI status, most of the positive anti-HCV (n = 100, 0.29%, P < .01) and positive HBsAg (n = 76, 0.22%, P = .205) conscripts reported not having a STI. From those who tested positive for HBsAg, 89% (n = 42, 0.28%, P = .005) reported not making consistent use of condoms with steady partners.Our data suggest a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian young men, and relatively low rates of self-reported HBV immunization. History of STIs, higher number of partners, inconsistent use of condoms, and lack of awareness of routes of transmission were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections. To achieve the World Health Organization's goal of viral hepatitis elimination, access to hepatitis information, testing, and surveillance need to be improved.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 53, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) administered to adolescents. METHODS: The study included 750 adolescents: 375 aged 12 years and 375 aged 15-19 years, attending public and private schools in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 2017. Reliability was measured based on internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was measured based on correlations between BREALD-30 and Functional Literacy Indicator scores. Divergent validity was measured by comparing BREALD-30 scores with sociodemographic variables. For predictive validity, the association between BREALD-30 scores and the presence of cavitated carious lesions was tested using a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical tests were performed with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: BREALD-30 showed good internal consistency for the 12 year olds and 15 to19 year olds (Cronbach's alpha = 0.871 and 0.834, respectively) and good test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.898 and 0.974; kappa = 0.804 and 0.808, respectively]. Moreover, item-total correlation was satisfactory for all items. BREALD-30 had convergent validity with the Functional Literacy Indicator for 12 year olds (rs = 0.558, p < 0.001) and for 15 to 19 year olds (rs = 0.652, p < 0.001). Participants with higher oral health literacy levels who attended private schools (p < 0.001), belonged to economic classes A and B2 (p < 0.001), and who had parents with higher education levels (p < 0.001) were included, indicating the divergent validity of the BREALD-30. Participants with lower BREALD-30 scores were more likely to have cavitated carious lesions [12 year olds: odds ratio (OR) = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.48-3.80; 15 to 19 year olds: OR = 1.96; 95%CI 1.24-3.11]. CONCLUSIONS: BREALD-30 shows satisfactory psychometric properties for use on Brazilian adolescents and can be applied as a fast, simple, and reliable measure of oral health literacy.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/instrumentação , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Bucal/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Setor Privado , Psicometria , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 54, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432911

RESUMO

Guidelines emphasize the importance of approaching substance use by adolescents, particularly in primary health care. However, there are problems with its incorporation. The objective of this study was to present the training stages on the theme for professionals in primary health care. Researchers conducted logistic structuring, content elaboration and evaluation of difficulties before and after training. Sixty percent of professionals involved in the care of adolescents in a medium-sized city participated in the study. More than half of them stated having difficulties in the approach, mainly theoretical limitations and short consultations. After the training, the professionals informed whether they felt more prepared, but practical difficulties remained.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Usuários de Drogas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Prevenção Primária/métodos
11.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 193-197, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465190

RESUMO

Objective: The study was to explore elder's feeding process mind construction in different stages of life. Study selection, source and data extraction: Through a qualitative study with a phenomenological focus and using semi-structured interviews and discussion groups, it has been deepened into the perception of the childhood, adulthood and current experience towards the feeding process. As data sources, 28 elders that accomplished with the selection criterions of the investigation participated in it. Their answers were coded through the program NVivo 10 and for the conclusions it was used the content analysis through research triangulation. Data synthesis: For childhood, the feeding process is understood as healthy, associated to the availability of natural products and limited access to manufactured products. Adulthood was not considered as important in their feeding attention, situation that is opposed in their current life cycle, because it is perceived the necessity of a healthy feeding, though related to their health care. Conclusions: It is presented the meaning construction in elder people related to their feeding in key stages of their life, like in the childhood, adulthood and current experience as elder. Childhood and elderly stages are perceived as positive for a healthy feeding process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Chile , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 7-13, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465679

RESUMO

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) affect all nations harshly, however, very little is known about the scope of FASD in Swaziland. Alcohol exposure in utero is one of the leading preventable causes of poor fetal birth outcomes. This study assessed the knowledge and practices of pregnant Swazi women, revealing that most participants had knowledge deficit on the effects of consuming alcohol on both the woman (63.3%, n = 19) and her fetus (83.3%, n = 25). The majority (83.0%, n = 25) of the participants reported that they did not drink alcohol, while 16.7% (n = 5) reported that they did consume alcohol. In health facilities, there is a need to intensify health education concerning the effects of alcohol consumption to both the fetus and the pregnant woman. A policy that enforces screening of pregnant women at risk for giving birth to infants with FASD is essential.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gestantes/psicologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Gravidez , Suazilândia
13.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 21-28, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465681

RESUMO

African-Americans have the highest rates of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes (T2DM-CKD) and of progression to end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to describe African-American's perceptions of T2DM-CKD: specifically, perceptions of cause, risk, severity, self-management of T2DM-CKD before and after diagnosis, and overall effect on their lives. Informed by the Common Sense Model of Illness, a cross-sectional qualitative study using purposive sampling was conducted. Findings were that participants did not take T2DM seriously until they had CKD and they also had misperceptions about the cause of T2DM. Participants believed that a family history of diabetes meant nothing could prevent a T2DM onset. In addition, participants viewed primary care providers as not explicitly informing them of their status/risks regarding CKD. The study results identified factors among African-Americans that contribute to the T2DM-CKD progression. This may enhance primary care providers' ability to educate African-Americans, which may lead to more accurate perceptions.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia
14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 174, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's health literacy is fundamental for navigating the health system and managing disease. This study aimed to compare the health literacy levels of patients with chronic retinal disease in Denmark. METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire study used the validated HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire to determine the health literacy of 225 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) or retinal vein occlusion (RVO), receiving intravitreal treatment at the retinal clinic, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark. Patients were consecutively included as participants for the study. All patients had the option of having the survey read aloud to them. RESULTS: Health literacy levels between the patient groups did not differ significantly, however, the proportion of patients with poor health literacy was high-65% of AMD patients, 73% of DME patients, and 63% of patients with RVO. CONCLUSIONS: Low health literacy of patients with retinal disease signify a need for more health literacy research in the field of retinal diseases, to secure that patients have the timely and appropriate knowledge and competencies to manage their condition.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Doenças Retinianas/psicologia , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
15.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(2): 169-177.e2, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375226

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A randomized controlled trial was undertaken to compare the efficacy of 3 methods of delivering information on short- and long-term recall of information in orthodontic patients and parents. METHODS: Participants who received an audiovisual presentation on orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 written information groups (leaflets, generic mind map, or participant's customized mind map). A questionnaire was used to assess short- and long-term retention of information (maximum score 30). RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients (94.6%) and 77 parents (86.5%) completed the study. The average knowledge scores at baseline for the patient groups were 17.71 95 CI 16.28-19.14), 16.58 (14.67-18.49), and 17.37 (15.92-18.81), respectively. The parents' knowledge scores for the 3 groups were 19.06 (17.51-20.62), 19.39 (17.44-21.35), and 18.76 (17.19-20.33), respectively. The short- and long-term knowledge scores improved over baseline in all 3 groups (P <0.0001). The parents achieved higher scores than the patients (P = 0.002) and their rate of forgetting information was less. The knowledge scores of the mind map groups were higher than that of the leaflet group for all cohorts (P = 0.025). No statistical difference was found between the type of mind map. The correlation between patient and parent knowledge scores was significant (P <0.0001) at all 3 time points. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of an audiovisual presentation supplemented with 1 of 3 written information methods is an effective way of delivering information. There was a significant improvement in the retention of information with the use of mind maps compared with leaflets. The generic mind map is equally as effective, more consistent in information delivered, and less labor intensive than the individual customized mind map and therefore would be our recommendation. Participation of parents is important because they comprehend and retain information better. In this study, 100% of parents shared information with their children, perhaps improving the patients' recall.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ortodontia Corretiva/psicologia , Ortodontia/educação , Pais/educação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Gravação em Vídeo , Redação
16.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(2): 162-163, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384385

RESUMO

Through the generosity of Charles R. Millikan, DMin, vice president for Spiritual Care and Values Integration, an annual award competition was established at Houston Methodist Hospital among the resident staff. To enter the writing competition, residents must submit a poem or essay of 1,000 words or less on the topic, "On Being a Doctor." A committee of seven was selected from Houston Methodist Hospital Education Institute to establish the judging criteria and select the winning entries. The following is the first-place winning entry for 2019; the second- and third-place entries will be published in the next two issues of this journal.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Escolha da Profissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obstetrícia , Médicas/psicologia , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
17.
S D Med ; 72(8): 349-353, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465639

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Safe sleep recommendations for infants have been evolving over the past three decades. It has been shown that physicians' recommendations strongly influence parents' choice of infant sleep position. However, the proportion of physicians and/or nurses giving infant sleep advice to parents is reportedly low. METHODS: A survey was conducted in South Dakota to evaluate pediatricians' and family practitioners' knowledge of safe sleep recommendations for infants. Survey questions assessed their beliefs regarding risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and their recommendations for safe sleep environments provided to parents/caregivers. RESULTS: Among the respondents, 98 percent felt that it is important to discuss SIDS with every parent and 80 percent of them indicated a need within their profession to have further information on the topic of SIDS. However, 31 percent of physicians with 16 years or more since training and 64.5 percent of those with less than 16 years since training did provide safe sleep advice to parents and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the knowledge of SIDS risk factors, gaps were seen in dissemination of information regarding all risk factors to parents. While sleep position, postnatal exposures and breast feeding were more likely to be addressed, other elements of a safe sleep environment such as bedding surface, bed sharing, pacifier use and room ventilation were less likely to be covered. These findings indicate the need for improved health care provider education/communication in South Dakota.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pediatras/psicologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Leitos , Humanos , Lactente , Pediatras/normas , Fatores de Risco , Sono , South Dakota , Decúbito Dorsal
18.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(3): 189-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441458

RESUMO

Objective: In most resource-poor settings, there is a paucity of data on self-medication and possible factors that influence this practice. The current study assesses self-medication among the people of Akuse, a rural setting in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out in Akuse from 4th January 2016 to 27th February 2016. Using a questionnaire, interviews were conducted to assess self-medication: class of drugs taken, sources of drugs, knowledge of potential adverse effects, among others. Results: Of the 363 participants enrolled, 361 completed questionnaires administered. Of the 361 respondents, 58.4% were female. A majority of the respondents were within the ages of 30 and 45 years. Respondents were mainly farmers (40.2%), and a majority (44.6%) had primary level as the highest education. One major reason for self-medication was influence from family and friends (32.7%). Antibiotics (32.1%) and analgesics (21.0%) were the most common self-medicated drugs, and these drugs were mostly obtained from licenced chemical sellers (32.5%). A little more than a third (39.9%) of the respondents said that their condition did not change after self-medication. A greater number of the respondents (81.7%) did not have knowledge of potential adverse reactions associated with self-medicated drugs. However, respondents with high educational level had the most knowledge of adverse drug reactions. Conclusion: The study found self-medication as a common practice among a number of residents of Akuse. Findings from this study provide data that could be used for targeted education and sensitisation of self-medication and its demerits in similar resource-poor rural settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Rural , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Automedicação/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 172, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303941

RESUMO

Introduction: Postpartum family planning is still little known and little practised by most couples in Cameroon. However, just after childbirth, many couples wish to postpone their second birth. This study aims to determine the level of competence and the education need of couples in immediate postpartum family planning in the Biyem-Assi health district, Cameroon. Methods: We performed a KAP survey (knowledge, attitudes and practices) in the Biyem-Assi health district. Data were collected using two questionnaires with 40 questions, written in french, one addressed to women in couples and during the post-partum period and the other addressed to men in couples and having at least one child. Collected data were entered in the software CSPro version 6.2 and then analyzed using the software SPSS version 20.0. Results: A total of 300 subjects with a sex ratio of 1 were surveyed. More than half (56.7%) had an approximate knowledge of family planning in the immediate postpartum period. Thirty six percent of the respondents believed that the immediate postpartum period was not an appropriate time to use a modern method of contraception. The interaction between contraceptives and breast milk (65.4%) and female infertility (26.3%) were the main reasons reported. Immediate postpartum contraception of 60.5% of couples living in the Biyem-Assi health district was inadequate. Therefore, the level of competence in the immediate postpartum family planning was insufficient (32.6%) and low (23.3%) in most of the respondents. Conclusion: Some prejudices and misconceptions about modern contraceptive methods persist in the Biyem-Assi health district population and these are an obstacle to contraceptive practice in general and during the immediate postpartum period in particular. Awareness and education efforts of couples to improve their competence in contraception during the immediate postpartum period are necessary.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Camarões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Educação Sexual/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303958

RESUMO

Introduction: Dog-mediated human rabies remains a major public health threat in Ghana. Dog population structure surveys are pre-requisites for appropriate planning for rabies vaccination; however, this information is unavailable in Ghana. This study describes dog population structure in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: A household cross sectional survey was conducted from January through April 2016 in Ayeduase and Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus using a structured questionnaire. Results: A total of 1319 households were surveyed out of which 35.1% (463/1319) kept dogs. We recorded 816 dogs from 463 households, giving dog to household ratio of 1.8:1. Respondents acquired 71% (579/816) of dogs through purchase. Of 2065 persons in Ayeduase, 406 owned dogs, resulting in man to dog ratio of 5.1:1. Male dogs represented 62.9% (513/816) while those aged a year and above recorded 70%. Most of the dogs were not restricted (80.3%) and 49.9% were allowed to enter neighbors' households. Dog rabies vaccination coverage was 28.1% and 64.9% in Ayeduase and KNUST campus respectively. Respondents (87.8%) from Ayeduase knew dog bite was the main means of rabies transmission, however, about 65% believed in traditional ways of treatment such as concoction, herbs and consumption of offending dogs' organs. Conclusion: The high dog to household-human ratio, increased roaming dog population and low vaccination coverage is of concern to rabies. Respondents' knowledge on their dogs is an indication of accessibility for vaccination. Obtained results can be useful for rabies vaccination planning in Kumasi and other comparable settings in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Gana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
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