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1.
J Psychosom Res ; 140: 110299, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with perceived COVID-19 risk among people living in the US. METHODS: A cross-sectional representative sample of 485 US residents was collected in mid-April 2020. Participants were asked about (a) perceptions of COVID-19 risk, (b) demographic factors known to be associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and (c) the impact of COVID-19 on different life domains. We used a three-step hierarchical linear regression model to assess the differential contribution of the factors listed above on perceived COVID-19 risk. RESULTS: The final model accounted for 16% of variability in perceived risk, F(18,458) = 4.8, p < .001. Participants who were White reported twice as much perceived risk as participants of color (B = -2.1, 95% CI[-3.4,-0.8]. Higher perceived risk was observed among those who reported a negative impact of the pandemic on their sleep (B = 1.5, 95% CI[0.8,2.1]) or work (B = 0.7, 95%CI[0.1,1.3]). The number of cases per capita in their state of residence, age, or proximity to someone with a COVID-19 diagnosis were not found to meaningfully predict perceived risk. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived risk was not found to be associated with known demographic risk factors, except that the effect of race/ethnicity was in the opposite direction of existing evidence. Perception of COVID-19 risk was associated with the perceived personal impact of the pandemic.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Public Health Rep ; 136(1): 107-116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulting from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 began to affect the United States in early 2020. This study aimed to assess the US public's initial understanding about the disease and virus to inform public health communication efforts. METHODS: We conducted a survey of US households from February 28 through March 2, 2020, using a probability-based web-panel survey of 1021 US residents. To assess knowledge about COVID-19, we asked respondents a series of 16 true/false questions. We conducted descriptive statistics and linear regression analyses to examine differences in knowledge scores based on demographic and background characteristics. RESULTS: Knowledge about COVID-19 and the virus was relatively low overall at the beginning of the outbreak, with average scores of 62% on a 16-item knowledge index (ie, answers for 6 of the 16 questions were incorrect or unknown). Knowledge was especially low among people who had low education and income levels, were unemployed, were Hispanic, were non-Hispanic Black, were aged 18-24 and 35-49, indicated having "other" health insurance, and had limited exposure to information about the pandemic. Non-Hispanic Black respondents were less knowledgeable about COVID-19 and the virus at every education level compared with non-Hispanic White respondents at higher education levels. Non-Hispanic Black respondents with

Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105312, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of stroke in Nigeria is unknown, but stroke literacy, defined here as awareness of stroke warning symptoms and risk factors may be poor in high-risk communities. Although there is growing recognition of the use of music as a conduit to promote health literacy, African music is often overlooked as a source of health information. We sought to understand community-level perspectives on using African music to promote acute stroke literacy. METHODS: A purposive sample of education, health and music professionals, high school and university students were recruited to participate in the qualitative study. Study participants completed a brainstorming exercise that elicited their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to the use of music to promote acute stroke literacy in Nigeria. Content analysis was used to identify key themes emerging from the brainstorming exercise. RESULTS: A total of 44 individuals, comprising of 25 students with a mean age of 15.9 ± 1.6 years (52% females) and 19 professionals with a mean age of 39 ± 7.7 years (57.9% males) participated in the brainstorming exercise. Facilitators to the use of music to promote acute stroke literacy in Nigeria include the cultural relevance of music, the ubiquity of music, and government involvement. Key barriers include religious beliefs that discourage the use of "secular" music, cost-related barriers, and limited government support. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study provide guidance aimed at improving acute stroke literacy in Nigeria, particularly the importance of government involvement in the development and implementation of stroke literacy interventions guided by African music. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the cultural elements of African music and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and/or barriers may influence stroke literacy.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Música , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Características Culturais , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1602, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tailored and culturally appropriate latent tuberculosis (TB) infection screening and treatment programs, including interventions against TB stigma, are needed to reduce TB incidence in low TB incidence countries. However, we lack insights in stigma related to latent TB infection (LTBI) among target groups, such as asylum seekers and refugees. We therefore studied knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and stigma associated with LTBI among Eritrean asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands. METHODS: We used convenience sampling to interview adult Eritrean asylum seekers and refugees: 26 semi-structured group interviews following TB and LTBI related health education and LTBI screening, and 31 semi-structured individual interviews with Eritreans during or after completion of LTBI treatment (November 2016-May 2018). We used a thematic analysis to identify, analyse and report patterns in the data. RESULTS: Despite TB/LTBI education, misconceptions embedded in cultural beliefs about TB transmission and prevention persisted. Fear of getting infected with TB was the cause of reported enacted (isolation and gossip) and anticipated (concealment of treatment and self-isolation) stigma by participants on LTBI treatment. CONCLUSION: The inability to differentiate LTBI from TB disease and consequent fear of getting infected by persons with LTBI led to enacted and anticipated stigma comparable to stigma related to TB disease among Eritreans. Additional to continuous culturally sensitive education activities, TB prevention programs should implement evidence-based interventions reducing stigma at all phases in the LTBI screening and treatment cascade.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Tuberculose Latente/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Eritreia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240555, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125389

RESUMO

Traditional knowledge on the use of animal products to maintain human health is important since time immemorial. Although a few studies reported food and medicinal values of different animals, a comprehensive ethno-medicinal study of vertebrates in Nepal is still lacking. Thus, present study is aimed at documenting the ethno-medicinal knowledge related to vertebrate fauna among different ethnic communities in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape, central Nepal. Data was collected by using semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed by using Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity level (FL). Results showed a total of 58 (53 wild and 5 domestic) species of vertebrate animals. They were used to treat 62 types human ailments. Four animals were also used for veterinary diseases and agriculture benefits. The most widely used species was Felis chaus (UV = 0.25) with 3 use-reports by 10 informants. Cardiovascular and dental problems had the highest ICF value (0.974) with cardiovascular problems having 351 use-reports for 10 animal species and dental problems having 77 use-reports for 3 animal species. The least ICF was found in ophthalmological problems (ICF = 0.833, use reports = 7 for 2 species). We concluded that the different animals were an important part of traditional medicine for the local people living in the Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape. However, the majority of animals and most likely to be threatened due to their uses. The present documented ethnozoological knowledge can be used in conservation and management of vertebrates so that they could be protected for future generations.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vertebrados , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: School-aged children become a highly vulnerable group for malaria, yet they are less likely to use malaria prevention interventions. Previous studies exploring perception on cause of malaria mainly focused on pregnant mothers or parents of children under age five years. Exploring parent's perception on cause of malaria and their experiences on the prevention of malaria and associated challenges among school-aged children is important to develop a malaria prevention education package for school-aged children to reduce malaria and malaria related morbidities among school-aged children. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study is conducted in Kutcha district by recruiting 19 parents of school-aged children for semi-structured interviews, 6 key informants and 6 focus group discussion which consists of parents, health development army and health extension workers. A semi-structured interview guide is used to guide the interview process. The collected data is analyzed thematically with a focus on the three major areas of concern: perceived cause of malaria, experience of malaria prevention and challenges of bed net use for prevention of malaria. RESULTS: Five causes of malaria were identified, namely hunger, mosquito bite, exposure to hot sunshine, poor sanitation and hygiene and eating some sweet foods and unripe maize. Participants perceived that eating sweet foods and unripe maize lead to enlargement of the spleen that ends in malaria while poor hygiene and sanitation leads to either development of the ova of mosquito and the landing of the housefly to contaminate food for consumption. The experiences of malaria prevention were largely influenced by their perceived cause of malaria. The malaria prevention measures undertaken by parents were vectors control measures, homemade herbal remedies and restricting children from eating sweet foods. The challenges of malaria prevention by using bed nets were related to a negative attitude, sleeping behaviors of children; use of bed nets for unintended purposes, shortage of bed nets and delays in the distribution of bed nets. CONCLUSION: There were misconceptions about the cause of malaria and associated experiences of malaria prevention. Control of malaria among school-aged children need health education targeting the challenges and correcting identified misconceptions by parents in Kutcha district and in other similar settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/etiologia , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Pais/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056951

RESUMO

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121143

RESUMO

This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among South Asians in Hong Kong and examined the factors that affect KAP towards COVID-19 in this population. This cross-sectional descriptive study recruited participants with assistance from South Asian community centres and organisations. A total of 352 participants completed questionnaires to assess their level of KAP towards COVID-19. The mean knowledge score was 5.38/10, indicating a relatively low knowledge level. The participants expressed certain misconceptions regarding the prevention of COVID-19 infection. They perceived a mild risk related to the disease, had positive attitudes regarding its prevention and often implemented recommended disease-preventive measures, such as maintaining social distance (88.1%) and wearing masks in public (94.3%). Participants who were male, had a secondary school education or lower and who perceived a lower risk of being infected and lower self-efficacy were less likely to implement preventive measures. Culturally and linguistically appropriate health education could be developed to increase the knowledge of South Asians, especially those with lower education levels, about COVID-19 and to encourage them to implement the necessary preventive measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 12(4): 1270-1285, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conspiracy theories about the origins of COVID-19 are widespread and have even been propagated by highly ranked state officials and politicians in the US. Health authorities have cautioned that such theories, although not questioning the existence of the pandemic, may increase the spread of the virus by reducing people's efforts to socially distance. METHODS: We test this proposition empirically using longitudinal survey data collected at five timepoints during the early outbreak of the virus in the US (N = 403). RESULTS: Multivariate growth curve analyses showed that, although conspiracy beliefs decreased and social distancing increased over time, people holding more conspiracy beliefs at the beginning of the pandemic showed the lowest increase in social distancing. Moreover, cross-lagged analyses demonstrated that people who reported more conspiracy beliefs at any wave tended to report less social distancing at the following wave. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that COVID-19 conspiracy theories pose a significant threat to public health as they may reduce adherence to social distancing measures.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/etnologia
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3371-3377.e1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has demonstrated significantly worse outcomes for minority (black and Hispanic) individuals. Understanding the reasons for COVID-19-related disparities among patients with asthma has important public health implications. OBJECTIVE: To determine factors contributing to health disparities in those with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An anonymous survey was sent through social media to adult patients with asthma, and a separate survey was sent to physicians who provide asthma care. The patient survey addressed demographic information including socioeconomic status, asthma control, and attitudes/health behaviors during COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 1171 patients (10.1% minority individuals) and 225 physicians completed the survey. Minority patients were more likely to have been affected by COVID-19 (eg, became unemployed, lived in a community with high COVID-19 cases). They had worse asthma control (increased emergency visits for asthma, lower Asthma Control Test score), were more likely to live in urban areas, and had a lower household income. Initial differences in attitudes and health behaviors disappeared after controlling for baseline demographic features. Institutional racism was demonstrated by findings that minority individuals were less likely to have a primary care physician, had more trouble affording asthma medications due to COVID-19, and were more likely to have lost health insurance because of COVID-19, and that 25% of physicians found it more challenging to care for black individuals with asthma during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in socioeconomic status and the effects of institutional racism, but not health behaviors, sources of information, or attitudes, are playing a role in disparities seen for patients with asthma during COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Racismo , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/etnologia , Pandemias , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumologistas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Community Psychol ; 48(8): 2608-2624, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845013

RESUMO

Resilience is a broad concept that encompasses individual and social resources to thrive from difficult circumstances. The resilience that occurs as a collective effort or country-wide phenomenon is referred to as national resilience (NR), which connotes the ability of a nation to deal with crises while keeping its social fabric intact. Like the rest of the world, the Philippines has been greatly impacted by the coronavirus pandemic and we argue that a stable and robust NR is needed to bounce back from the challenges and adversities of the crisis. This pioneering study on NR in Filipino adults was conducted to achieve two aims (1) assess the psychometric properties of the Filipino adapted National Resilience Scale (NRS-Filipino) and (2) determine demographic and psychological variables that influence NR. Data from 401 participants yielded an exploratory factor analysis with a good model fit for a four-factor solution that is similar to the original National Resilience Assessment Scale. NRS-Filipino also demonstrated acceptable reliability and convergent validity. Among the variables purported to be associated with NR, community resilience, and political attitude came out as strong predictors.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Psicometria/normas , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785108

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses substantial threats to Latinx farmworkers and other immigrants in food production and processing. Classified as essential, such workers cannot shelter at home. Therefore, knowledge and preventive behaviors are important to reduce COVID-19 spread in the community. (2) Methods: Respondents for 67 families with at least one farmworker (FWF) and 38 comparable families with no farmworkers (nonFWF) in North Carolina completed a telephone survey in May 2020. The survey queried knowledge of COVID-19, perceptions of its severity, self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors. Detailed data were collected to document household members' social interaction and use of face coverings. (3) Results: Knowledge of COVID-19 and prevention methods was high in both groups, as was its perceived severity. NonFWF had higher self-efficacy for preventing infection. Both groups claimed to practice preventive behaviors, though FWF emphasized social avoidance and nonFWF emphasized personal hygiene. Detailed social interactions showed high rates of inter-personal contact at home, at work, and in the community with more mask use in nonFWF than FWF. (4) Conclusions: Despite high levels of knowledge and perceived severity for COVID-19, these immigrant families were engaged in frequent interpersonal contact that could expose community members and themselves to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
13.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 16: 299-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764950

RESUMO

Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors of adherence to the hypertension control therapeutic and lifestyle recommendations in a sample of Iranian patients based on the constructs of Pender's health promotion model. Patients and Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed on the 380 hypertensive patients who were referred to the health centers, the emergency and internal diseases departments of the Bagheralolom Hospital, and the cardiologists' offices in the city of Ahar, North West of Iran. Data were collected using a researcher designed questionnaire based on the Pender's health promotion model. The Pearson correlation test, multivariate linear regression, and independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Mean age of the recruited patients was 52.94 (SD=12.8). Perceived benefits, perceived barriers, situational influences, and interpersonal influences (adjusted R2= 0.525) explained 52.5% of the observed variation in adherence to hypertension control recommendations. Conclusion: Successful hypertension control in patients with chronic morbidity need to be based on sound data about major determinants of the relevant health/illness behaviors. The study findings revealed that the Pender's health promotion model could be applicable as a theoretical framework to identify major determinants of adherence to hypertension control recommendations. Future cross-cultural validation of the study findings in more representative and larger sample sizes could add to the legitimacy of the evidence surrounding self-care practices in hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Hipertensão/terapia , Adesão à Medicação , Modelos Teóricos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 18,000 Syrian refugees have resettled to the United States. Half of these refugees are children, whose age and refugee status jeopardize their abilities to attain quality healthcare. Information on Syrian refugees' health in the U.S. is limited. This qualitative study sought to explore Syrian refugee parents' beliefs, perspectives, and practices regarding their children's health through in-depth interviews. METHODS: Eighteen Syrian refugee parents residing in Cincinnati, Ohio were interviewed in Arabic by bilingual researchers using semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Three members of the research team independently coded each interview using an inductive thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Analysis identified four salient themes: stressors preclude health seeking behaviors, parents perceive health barriers, parents are dissatisfied with the healthcare system, and parents use resilience behaviors to overcome barriers. Stressors included poor housing and neighborhoods, reliving traumatic experiences, depression and anxiety, and social isolation. Dissatisfaction included emergency room wait times, lack of testing and prescriptions. Health barriers included missed appointments and inadequate transportation, translation services, health literacy and care coordination. Parents reported resilience through faith, by seeking knowledge, use of natural remedies, and utilizing community resources. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study provides information on the beliefs, practices, and behaviors of Syrian refugee parents related to health care utilization of pediatric refugees in the United States. Psychosocial and environmental stressors as well as perceived systemic health barriers, hinder health seeking behaviors in Syrian refugee parents. Culturally relevant care targeting perceived barriers and incorporating resilience behaviors may improve parental satisfaction and parental health seeking behaviors. Further study is needed to implement and evaluate interventions that target identified barriers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20815, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high rate of cesarean section is an important factor affecting breastfeeding in China. To improve the nation's current situation of breastfeeding, promoting breastfeeding in women undergoing cesarean section is essential. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of health belief model-based interventions on breastfeeding knowledge, breastfeeding behaviors, and breastfeeding satisfaction of Chinese cesarean women. METHODS: A total of 346 cesarean section women were enrolled in the randomized controlled trial conducted at a center in Chengdu, China, between July 1, 2018 and August 31, 2018. While the control group (n = 173) received conventional breastfeeding guidance only, the intervention group (n = 173) received additional interventions based on the health belief model. Questionnaires were distributed to assess breastfeeding knowledge, breastfeeding behavior, and breastfeeding satisfaction at discharge, 42 days postpartum, and 4 months postpartum, respectively. RESULTS: At discharge from hospital, the breastfeeding knowledge score of the intervention group was higher than that of the control group (Z = -11.753, P < .001). The exclusive breastfeeding rates in the intervention group at the time of discharge, 42 days postpartum, and 4 months postpartum were 67.3%, 60.7%, and 52.9%, respectively, while those of the control group were 41.2%, 41.6%, and 40.4%, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (χ = 23.353, P < .001; χ = 11.853, P < .001; χ = 4.805, P = .03). The breastfeeding satisfaction of the intervention group was also higher than the control group at the time of discharge, 42 days postpartum and 4 months postpartum (t = 4.955, P < .001; t = 3.051, P = .002; Z = -3.801, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The health belief model-based interventions can effectively increase breastfeeding knowledge for Chinese cesarean women and improve their breastfeeding behaviors and breastfeeding satisfaction within 4 months after delivery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900026006 .


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , China/etnologia , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Satisfação do Paciente/etnologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 345, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating knowledge in patients with coronary artery disease requires a specific measure. The aim of the present study was to translate and evaluate the CADE-Q in patients with coronary artery disease in Iran. METHODS: Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. Then a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate psychometric properties of the questionnaire. A sample of patients with coronary artery disease attending to cardiac departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to medical universities in Tehran, Iran completed the 19-item CADE-Q from April to December 2017. Structural validity of CADE-Q was assessed using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Reliability was examined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Stability was evaluated by estimation intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: In all 500 patients participated in the study. The mean age of patients was 53.63. (SD = 14.36) years, and 57% were male. The results obtained from the exploratory factor analysis showed a four factor solution (lifestyle habits and exercise, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment, signals & symptoms and medicine) that jointly explained 48.9% of the total variance observed. However, the second-order confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor solution while convergent and divergent validity were not confirmed. Finally, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.84 ranging from 0.50 to 0.82 was obtained for the scale and its subscales. In addition, the ICC value of 0.88 showed satisfactory stability for the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire was found to be a multidimensional instrument. The results confirmed the factor structure of the questionnaire with a second-order analysis. Since the convergent and divergent validity of the scale were not confirmed, further assessment is essential to establish fitness of the questionnaire in Iran.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 141, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male spouses and partners play an important role in determining a woman's willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening. However, the attitudes and behaviors by which they influence a woman's decision to undergo Pap testing remain poorly understood. METHODS: A series of semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted in Spanish with 19 recent Latino immigrants in Houston, Texas. The interview format was designed to establish each individual's pattern of engagement with the United States healthcare system, assess baseline knowledge of cervical cancer screening and evaluate attitudes and patterns of communication with their female partners regarding health care. Interview questions were constructed using principles of the Theory of Reasoned Action. All interviews were conducted in Spanish. After translation, responses were coded and scored with the goal of identifying themes and key observations. RESULTS: Most subjects reported few, if any, interactions with the healthcare system since their arrival in the United States. Although most participants reported being aware that women should be seen by their doctors regularly, fewer than half could clearly indicate the purpose of a Pap test or could state with certainty the last time their female partner had undergone screening. Multiple subjects expressed a general distrust of the health care system and concern for its costs. Approximately half of subjects reported that they accompanied their female partner to the health care provider's office and none of the participants reported that they were present in examination rooms at the time their partner underwent screening. Multiple participants endorsed that there may be some concerns within their community regarding women receiving frequent gynecologic care and distrust of the healthcare system. Almost all interviewed subjects stated that while they would allow their female partners to see male physicians, they also expressed the opinion that other men might be uncomfortable with this and that women would likely be more comfortable with female physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to enhance knowledge of HPV and cancer screening and improve trust in the health care system among male spouses or partners should be explored with the goal of promoting cervical cancer screening among immigrant Latinx populations.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Teste de Papanicolaou , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Texas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Esfregaço Vaginal/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess how people perceive the risks of coronavirus infection, whether people take preventive measures, and which pre-outbreak factors contribute to the perceived risks and measures taken, such as pre-outbreak respiratory problems, heart problems, diabetes, anxiety and depression symptoms, loneliness, age, gender, marital and employment status and education level. METHODS: Data were collected in the longitudinal LISS panel, based on a random sample of the Dutch population. The coronavirus survey started on March 2, and the data collection ended on March 17 2020. Data were linked with surveys on health and social integration conducted at the end of 2019 (Nstudy sample = 3,540). RESULTS: About 15% perceived the risk of infection as high, and 11% the risk becoming ill when infected. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed the following. Older age-groups perceived the risk for coronavirus infection as lower (all adjusted Odd Ratio's [aOR] ≤ .070). In total, 43.8% had taken preventive measures, especially females (aOR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.26-1.70). Those with lower education levels less often used preventive measures (aOR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.45-0.67). Those with pre-outbreak respiratory problems (aOR = 2.75, 95% CI = 2.11-3.57), heart problems (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.34-2.92) and diabetes (aOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 2.02-4.82) perceived the risk becoming ill when infected as higher than others. However, respondents with pre-outbreak respiratory problems and diabetes did not more often take preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerable patients more often recognize that they are at risk becoming ill when infected by the coronavirus, but many do not take preventive measures. Interventions to stimulate the use of preventive measures should pay additional attention to physically vulnerable patients, males and those with lower education levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e20001, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing health disparities based on race and ethnicity in the United States are contributing to disparities in morbidity and mortality during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey of American adults to assess similarities and differences by race and ethnicity with respect to COVID-19 symptoms, estimates of the extent of the pandemic, knowledge of control measures, and stigma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in COVID-19 symptoms, knowledge, and beliefs by race and ethnicity among adults in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from March 27, 2020 through April 1, 2020. Participants were recruited on social media platforms and completed the survey on a secure web-based survey platform. We used chi-square tests to compare characteristics related to COVID-19 by race and ethnicity. Statistical tests were corrected using the Holm Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 1435 participants completed the survey; 52 (3.6%) were Asian, 158 (11.0%) were non-Hispanic Black, 548 (38.2%) were Hispanic, 587 (40.9%) were non-Hispanic White, and 90 (6.3%) identified as other or multiple races. Only one symptom (sore throat) was found to be different based on race and ethnicity (P=.003); this symptom was less frequently reported by Asian (3/52, 5.8%), non-Hispanic Black (9/158, 5.7%), and other/multiple race (8/90, 8.9%) participants compared to those who were Hispanic (99/548, 18.1%) or non-Hispanic White (95/587, 16.2%). Non-Hispanic White and Asian participants were more likely to estimate that the number of current cases was at least 100,000 (P=.004) and were more likely to answer all 14 COVID-19 knowledge scale questions correctly (Asian participants, 13/52, 25.0%; non-Hispanic White participants, 180/587, 30.7%) compared to Hispanic (108/548, 19.7%) and non-Hispanic Black (25/158, 15.8%) participants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed differences with respect to knowledge of appropriate methods to prevent infection by the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Deficits in knowledge of proper control methods may further exacerbate existing race/ethnicity disparities. Additional research is needed to identify trusted sources of information in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black communities and create effective messaging to disseminate correct COVID-19 prevention and treatment information.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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