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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 162-168, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915353

RESUMO

Hypertension and diabetes co-exist frequently. Therefore, salt intake behavior, a risk factor of hypertension, in diabetic patients plays an important role in determining their cardiovascular outcome. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and behaviors of health risks associated with a salt intake in adults with type 2 diabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the type 2 diabetic in-patients of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from October to December 2016. Data were collected from 131 respondents through interview using WHO STEPS module of salt with adaptation to local context like on amount of added salt while taking meal. Information on blood pressure, body mass index and relevant co-morbidities were also collected. About half of the respondents were women (56.5%). Mean age of the respondents was 54.3±14.4 years. More than six in 10 of them (62.6%) took added salt while taking meal; and 40.5% took processed foods with high salt. The mean amount of added salt intake among the users was 4.4±1.6gm per day having no significant difference between men and women. Though 47.3% of the respondents believed that lowering salt in meal is very important and 77.9% of them believed that excess salt or salty sauce can cause health problems. Salt intake behavior is poor in patients with type 2 diabetes even having regular contacts with doctors and other health professionals. Appropriate measures can be taken to increase awareness, change their attitude and behavior regarding salt consumption.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
2.
N C Med J ; 81(1): 14-22, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic that began in 2015 presented a risk for ZIKV infection among persons who traveled to ZIKV-affected countries. Latinas in North Carolina and their sexual partners may be exposed to ZIKV when traveling to these regions.METHODS We administered a cross-sectional survey, measuring ZIKV risk and knowledge, to a convenience sample of 262 reproductive-age Latinas attending a Federally Qualified Health Center in rural North Carolina. We described ZIKV risk and knowledge in the sample, and compared responses between those who were pregnant or recently pregnant, and those who were not pregnant. We further identified factors associated with 1) awareness of ZIKV and 2) high knowledge of ZIKV sequelae and prevention among those who were aware of ZIKV, using log-binomial regression.RESULTS Two-thirds of participants had ever heard of ZIKV, which was positively associated with educational attainment. Most participants aware of ZIKV had moderate/high knowledge of ZIKV transmission (92.5%) and symptoms (73.2%), but knowledge of preventing sexual and congenital transmission was limited. Travel was infrequent among pregnant or recently pregnant participants (5.4%) and their partners (7.1%). Despite low risk for ZIKV infection, participants were willing to practice ZIKV prevention.LIMITATIONS Our study is limited by a lack of generalizability to Latinas in other regions of the country, self-reporting bias, and lack of survey validation as an indicator of English language proficiency.CONCLUSIONS Providers should identify patients likely to become pregnant and travel to high-risk areas, inquire about partner travel history, and offer culturally appropriate ZIKV risk counseling.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Infecção por Zika virus/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , North Carolina , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Rural
3.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P22-P28], Dic 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047048

RESUMO

Objetivo: Determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas sobre buenas prácticas de manufactura de manipuladores de alimentos de tres distritos de Paraguay durante el año 2017. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal. El tipo de muestreo fue probabilístico en manipuladores de alimentos de tres distritos (Coronel Oviedo, Caaguazú y J. Eulogio Estigarribia) del departamento de Caaguazú, Paraguay durante el año 2017. Resultados: Participaron de la investigación 264 manipuladores de alimentos. El 100% tuvo conocimiento malo, respecto a los ítems que en mayor porcentaje de respuestas correctas tuvieron fueron: concepto de manipuladores de alimentos con el 51,52 % (136), el 80% de actitud positiva ante las siguientes afirmaciones: que el cumplimiento de las normas de higiene y manipulación de alimentos es su prioridad con el 95,79% (252), respecto el nivel de práctica que predominó fue el malo con el 79,92% (211) Conclusión: El nivel de conocimiento global fue malo, las actitudes fueron en su mayoría positivas y las prácticas en su mayoría malas, es por ello que es necesario implementar programas de capacitación continua basadas en temas relacionados a la manipulación e higiene de alimentos, con el fin de concientizar y fomentar hábitos de higiene. Palabras clave: Manipulación de Alimentos; Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud; Alimentos.


Objective: To determine the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on good manufacturing practices of food handlers in three districts of Caaguazú, Paraguay during the year 2017. Material and Methods: Observational, descriptive cross-sectional study. The type of sampling was probabilistic sampling in food handlers of three districts (Coronel Oviedo, Caaguazú and J. Eulogio Estigarribia) of a department of Caaguazú, Paraguay during the year 2017. Results: 264 food handlers participated in the investigation. 100% had bad knowledge, regarding the items that had the highest percentage of correct answers were: concept of food handlers with 51.52% (136), 80% positive attitude towards the following statements: that compliance of hygiene standards and food handling is his priority with 95.79% (252), compared to the level of practice that predominated was the bad with 79.92% (211). Conclusion: The level of global knowledge was bad, the attitudes were mostly positive and the practices mostly bad, that is why it is necessary to implement ongoing training programs based on issues related to food handling and hygiene, with the to raise awareness, promote hygiene habits. Keywords: Food Handling; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Health; Foods.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Alimentos de Rua , Paraguai/etnologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(40): 873, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851655

RESUMO

National Latinx AIDS Awareness Day, October 15, is observed each year to focus on the continuing and disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. In 2017, 26% of newly diagnosed HIV infections occurred in Hispanics/Latinos (1). Seventy-five percent of these newly diagnosed HIV infections in Hispanics/ Latinos were in men who have sex with men (MSM), and an additional 3% were in MSM who inject drugs (1).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1110-1114, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683396

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the level of the core knowledge and related factors of cancer prevention and treatment among residents in the upper gastrointestinal cancer screening areas of Sichuan Province in 2018. Methods: From April to May 2018, a total of 1 386 residents from Chaotian District of Guangyuan, Enyang District of Bazhong, Nanjiang County of Bazhong, Cangxi County of Guangyuan, Shehong County of Suining, Yilong County of Nanchong, Xichong County of Nanchong and Xuanhan County of Dazhou were recruited in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect basic demographic characteristics and the knowledge of cancer prevention and treatment. The level of the core knowledge of cancer prevention and treatment of different population was analyzed. A multivariate linear regression model was performed to analyze the related factors. Results: In total, 80.9% (1 120) of all subjects was 25-64 years old and 48.0% (665) were male. The total number of questions answered by the subjects was 18 018, of which 12 147 were known, and the overall awareness rate among the respondents was 67.42%. The female respondents, respondentsaged 65 years old and over, with junior college education or above, and worked in government institutions had a good performance of the core knowledge (P<0.05), about 70.11% (6 571/9 373), 69.23% (387/559), 76.05% (6 327/8 320), and 77.09% (5 602/7 267) respectively. The results of multivariate linear regression showed that the older the age [ß=0.871 (95%CI: 0.623-1.119)], the higher the educational level [ß=0.741 (95%CI: 0.540-0.943)], the more questions respondents could know; compared with the workers in government organization and institution, workers in enterprise [ß=-2.913 (95%CI:-3.499--2.327)], farming workers [ß=-0.635 (95%CI:-1.175--0.095)] and other occupation people [ß=-1.126 (95%CI:-1.663--0.589)] could know fewer questions. Conclusion: In 2018, the level of the core knowledge of cancer prevention and treatment among residents in upper gastrointestinal cancer screening areas of Sichuan Province was relatively high. Age, education level and occupation were relevant factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1875-1880, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656470

RESUMO

Background: Contraceptive use helps in preventing unplanned pregnancy and reducing maternal death among married women. Objective: To investigate the attitude of married women towards contraceptive use in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The study also examined whether the variables of age and educational attainment would influence attitude of married women towards contraceptive use in Ilorin metropolis. Methods: Descriptive survey design and analytical methods were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to draw a total of 200 respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Mean and rank order was used to answer the research question while Analysis of Variance was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. Results: The attitude of married women towards contraceptive use in Ilorin metropolis was negative. There was no significant difference in the attitude of married women towards contraceptive use based on age and educational attainment. Conclusion: Most married women in Ilorin metropolis have negative attitude towards contraceptive use. We recommended that counselling services be provided to women on how to deal with side effects associated with various modern contraceptive methods.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Casamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepcionais , Características Culturais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Nigéria , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1679-1685, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Social environmental influences on pregnancy-related practices and outcomes have been studied, yet few studies explore these influences qualitatively from the perspectives of women's personal social networks and the larger social networks that exist within their communities. This study sought to understand and describe the social environment related to pregnancy and planning for pregnancy in Harare, Zimbabwe from the perspectives of women's social networks, and its influence on pregnancy-related decisions and practices. METHODS: Semi-structured, in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted in both Shona and English with 24 key community stakeholders (6 healthcare workers, 6 school teachers, 6 family members of females aged 14-24 years, and 6 community leaders) who lived or worked in 2 low-income, high-density communities in Harare. Data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 10 software. RESULTS: The social environment related to pregnancy and planning for pregnancy described by participants was deeply rooted in culture and cultural practices and centered on four themes: (1) pregnancy importance to the role of a woman in the community and the fulfillment of marriage, (2) pregnancy silence to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes and adolescent and out of wedlock pregnancies, (3) patriarchal pregnancy culture, and (4) community support during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Maternal health efforts in Zimbabwe should acknowledge cultural influences on pregnancy and address pregnancy silence to improve reproductive health communication, empower women to be partners in the pregnancy decision-making process, and include women's social networks.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Meio Social , Rede Social , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(37): 801-806, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536484

RESUMO

In 2017, preliminary data show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 67% of new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, that MSM who inject drugs accounted for an additional 3%, and that African American/black (black) and Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) MSM were disproportionately affected (1). During 2010-2015, racial/ethnic disparities in HIV incidence increased among MSM; in 2015, rates among black and Hispanic MSM were 10.5 and 4.9 times as high, respectively, as the rate among white MSM (compared with 9.2 and 3.8 times as high, respectively, in 2010) (2). Increased use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which reduces the risk for sexual acquisition of HIV infection by approximately 99% when taken daily as prescribed,* would help to reduce these disparities and support the Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America initiative† (3). Although PrEP use has increased among all MSM since 2014 (4), racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use could increase existing disparities in HIV incidence among MSM (5). To understand racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness, discussion with a health care provider, and use (steps in the HIV PrEP continuum of care) (6), CDC analyzed 2017 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data. Black and Hispanic MSM were significantly less likely than were white MSM to be aware of PrEP, to have discussed PrEP with a health care provider, or to have used PrEP within the past year. Among those who had discussed PrEP with a health care provider within the past year, 68% of white MSM, 62% of Hispanic MSM, and 55% of black MSM, reported PrEP use. Prevention efforts need to increase PrEP use among all MSM and target eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use.§.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16894, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490374

RESUMO

Hypertension is a common global health problem including China. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and awareness of hypertension, and evaluate risk factors associated with hypertension among multi-ethnic population in northwest China using a random sampling cross-sectional data.A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2014 and 2015 as part of a nationwide survey using stratified four-stage random sampling in Xinjiang. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg and/or taking anti-hypertensive medication. In addition, the prevalence of hypertension (SBP ≥ 130 or DBP ≥ 80 mm Hg) was also estimated according to the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) High Blood Pressure Guideline. Awareness of hypertension was based on self-report. An optimized risk score model was used to assess the risk and determine the predictive power of risk factors on hypertension.Totally 6722 subjects aged ≥18 years were enrolled and prevalence of hypertension was 24.3%, while the prevalence of hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline was approximately twice as high as that based on 2010 Chinese guideline (37.6%). Among individuals with hypertension, 55.5% were aware of their condition. Six potential factors were estimated to be associated with increased risk of hypertension including age, ethnicity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), waistline circumference, and comorbidity. In the analyses of calculated risk score, BMI ≥ 28.0 corresponded to the highest risk score of 23 points. The area under the receiver operation curve for the multivariable prediction model was 0.803 (95%CI: 0.789-0.813).There is a considerable prevalence of hypertension among Xinjiang adults, northwest China; awareness of hypertension is low. Excess weight loss may be a vital strategy for controlling hypertension, particularly if accompanied with other preventive measures in this region.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 88-93, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indigenous Australian women experience worse gynaecological cancer outcomes than non-Indigenous women. While traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) is increasingly used by cancer patients alongside conventional treatments, little is known about T&CM use by Indigenous women. This study aimed to explore the beliefs, attitudes and experiences related to T&CM use and disclosure among Indigenous women undergoing gynaecological cancer investigations. METHODS: A mixed-methods design explored T&CM use among Indigenous women who presented for gynaecological cancer investigation at an urban Queensland hospital (September 2016 and January 2018). RESULTS: Fourteen women participated. The reported use (86%) and perceived value of T&CM was high among the participants, however, women reported major challenges in communicating with healthcare providers about T&CM, commonly associated with trust and rapport. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need for strategies to facilitate culturally-appropriate doctor-patient communication around T&CM to foster trust and transparency in gynaecological cancer care for Indigenous women.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Medicina Tradicional , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Austrália , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/etnologia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/terapia , Humanos
11.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 21-28, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465681

RESUMO

African-Americans have the highest rates of chronic kidney disease due to type 2 diabetes (T2DM-CKD) and of progression to end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this study was to describe African-American's perceptions of T2DM-CKD: specifically, perceptions of cause, risk, severity, self-management of T2DM-CKD before and after diagnosis, and overall effect on their lives. Informed by the Common Sense Model of Illness, a cross-sectional qualitative study using purposive sampling was conducted. Findings were that participants did not take T2DM seriously until they had CKD and they also had misperceptions about the cause of T2DM. Participants believed that a family history of diabetes meant nothing could prevent a T2DM onset. In addition, participants viewed primary care providers as not explicitly informing them of their status/risks regarding CKD. The study results identified factors among African-Americans that contribute to the T2DM-CKD progression. This may enhance primary care providers' ability to educate African-Americans, which may lead to more accurate perceptions.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/psicologia
12.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 42: 63-68, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446265

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine associations of health belief and health literacy with Pap smear practice among Asian immigrant women in South Korea. METHODS: This study used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design. A survey was conducted among 196 migrant women who were married to South Korean men, using a questionnaire translated into English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Korean. Trained research assistants read the questionnaire and the participants gave their answers. RESULTS: The most common birthplace of the immigrant women was Vietnam (43.0%), followed by China (12.2%) and the Philippines (5.6%). Of the participants, 76.5% answered that they had never had a Pap smear test. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age and functional health literacy were associated with Pap smear practice among Asian immigrant women. With a one-year increase in participants' age, Pap smear practice increased 1.15 times (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23). Furthermore, with a one point increase in functional health literacy, Pap smear practice increased 1.18 times (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.37). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that more information about Pap smear tests should be provided to young immigrant women. Health providers should be made aware that Pap smear practice among young immigrant women might be infrequent and should actively recommend that they receive the tests. To improve Pap smear practice among immigrant women, it is also crucial for educational strategies to include functional health literacy. Nurses could play an important role in explaining and recommending the Pap smear test through communication with immigrant women.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Alfabetização em Saúde , Teste de Papanicolaou , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Filipinas/etnologia , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Vietnã/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(27): 597-603, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298662

RESUMO

In February 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services proposed a strategic initiative to end the human immunodeficiency (HIV) epidemic in the United States by reducing new HIV infections by 90% during 2020-2030* (1). Phase 1 of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative focuses on Washington, DC; San Juan, Puerto Rico; and 48 counties where the majority of new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2016 and 2017 were concentrated and on seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas relative to other states.† One of the four pillars in the initiative is protecting persons at risk for HIV infection using proven, comprehensive prevention approaches and treatments, such as HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is the use of antiretroviral medications that have proven effective at preventing infection among persons at risk for acquiring HIV. In 2014, CDC released clinical PrEP guidelines to health care providers (2) and intensified efforts to raise awareness and increase the use of PrEP among persons at risk for infection, including gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), a group that accounted for an estimated 68% of new HIV infections in 2016 (3). Data from CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) were collected in 20 U.S. urban areas in 2014 and 2017, covering 26 of the geographic areas included in Phase I of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative, and were compared to assess changes in PrEP awareness and use among MSM. From 2014 to 2017, PrEP awareness increased by 50% overall, with >80% of MSM in 17 of the 20 urban areas reporting PrEP awareness in 2017. Among MSM with likely indications for PrEP (e.g., sexual risk behaviors or recent bacterial sexually transmitted infection [STI]), use of PrEP increased by approximately 500% from 6% to 35%, with significant increases observed in all urban areas and in almost all demographic subgroups. Despite this progress, PrEP use among MSM, especially among black and Hispanic MSM, remains low. Continued efforts to improve coverage are needed to reach the goal of 90% reduction in HIV incidence by 2030. In addition to developing new ways of connecting black and Hispanic MSM to health care providers through demonstration projects, CDC has developed resources and tools such as the Prescribe HIV Prevention program to enable health care providers to integrate PrEP into their clinical care.§ By routinely testing their patients for HIV, assessing HIV-negative patients for risk behaviors, and prescribing PrEP as needed, health care providers can play a critical role in this effort.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Control ; 26(1): 1073274819863777, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331185

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women all over the world, also in Vietnam. In recent years, the incidence of breast cancer has been increasing in Vietnam, and most cases are diagnosed at late stages, making treatment more difficult. More and better early detection could help more women to survive. The aim of this study was to identify the current knowledge, attitude and practice about early detection of breast cancer as well as potential predictors of breast cancer screening among women aged 20 to 49 year in a mountainous commune in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in a largely ethnic Muong population. Women aged 20 to 49 years were selected by systematic random sampling to participate in a cross sectional study in October 2017. They were interviewed with a closed questionnaire about their knowledge of breast cancer, its risk factors, and warning signs. A checklist for performance of breast self-examination was also applied. Three hundred six women agreed to participate in the study. More than half had a low level of knowledge, and were weak in attitude and practice about breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, breast ultrasound, and mamography. Among women who had practiced at least 1 screening method, 17.0% mentioned clinical breast examination, and only 13.8% reported practicing breast self-examination. Factors associated with practice included knowledge about breast cancer early detection (BCED), ethnicity, income, the BCED information approach, and the BCED screening programs approach. The finding of a very low proportion of women in the mountainous setting with good awareness and practice on early detection of breast cancer is important evidence to inform the BCED intervention program developers about where and how to target which information, especially to reach more ethnic minority women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sleep Health ; 5(4): 418-425, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are more prevalent among African Americans (AAs) and may be a modifiable risk factor for cardiometabolic disorders. However, research is limited about sleep-related attitudes, beliefs, and practices among AAs. Our objective was to evaluate these practices and beliefs surrounding sleep among urban-dwelling AAs. DESIGN: Qualitative study comprised of five 90-minute focus groups using a semistructured interview guide. SETTING: Five churches located on the west side of Chicago. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N = 43) ages 25-75 years. MEASUREMENTS: Transcripts were voice recorded, transcribed, and then coded for content analysis using NVivo 12 Pro to capture themes in the discussions. RESULTS: Most participants (86%) reported sleeping less than the recommended 7 or more hours. The discrepancy between actual and desired sleep duration was nearly 3 hours per night. Participants reported that sleep is essential for mental and physical health. Napping and consuming caffeine were frequently reported techniques for coping with lack of sleep. Noise, physical discomfort, and stress were reported as barriers to sleep, and participants reported using TV and other electronics to cope with racing thoughts or worry. Many participants were diagnosed with or knew someone with obstructive sleep apnea, but few participants had been diagnosed with insomnia or were aware of nonpharmacologic insomnia treatments. CONCLUSION: A cycle of stress/disruptive environment, stress, rumination at night, and coping by use of electronics and daytime napping may perpetuate sleep disparities in this community. Results suggest that sleep-related interventions should include stress reduction and environmental improvements in addition to the typical sleep hygiene-related behavioral recommendations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Sono , População Urbana , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Chicago , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(7): 885-890, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293250

RESUMO

Background: Dental implants and orthodontic mini implants or temporary anchorage devices (TAD) have been used for tooth replacement and as adjuncts to orthodontic treatment in anchorage control and retraction of segments of teeth respectively. They are manufactured from various materials with titanium being the currently used material. The patients in our environment have diverse cultural acceptances and constraints with some prohibiting the use of certain materials in their oral cavity. Aim: The aim of this study therefore was to determine the existence of cultural constraints in the use of dental or orthodontic min-implants and compare them in the management of patients. Materials and Methods: Four groups of dental patients were selected to determine if cultural constraints exist. Groups 1 and 2 were patients with either anterior or posterior missing teeth requiring replacement with dental implants (implant group) or partial dentures (denture group), respectively. Group 3 were orthodontic patients requiring TAD (orthodontic group) and group 4 were patients with other dental problems and served as the control (normal group). Associations between frequencies, gender, educational, and cultural differences were evaluated with the Chi-square test. Significant values of P < 0.05 were applied where applicable. Results: A total number of 192 participants were recruited for the study. Group 1 had the highest number of culturally constrained participants (n = 21, 10.9%). A significantly higher number from the group was seen (n = 11, 52.4%) among the African Traditional worshippers (ATR). Although a total number of 58 (30.2%) patients replaced their missing teeth, 37 (19.3%) utilized partial dentures in group 2 with no cultural constraints. Orthodontic implants were not rejected (n = 0, 0%) by all the four groups. Group 4 demonstrated a low level of constraints (n = 7, 4.2%). Of the four religious groups identified, ATR demonstrated the highest level of constraints with Christians and Muslims showing fewer constraints to the use of implants (n = 7, 33.3%) and (n = 2, 9.5%), respectively. Participants with the highest educational levels and social classes were more culturally constrained in the use of dental implants. Conclusion: Cultural constraints exist in the use of dental implants in our environment among African Traditional religion worshippers. There was, however, no cultural constraint to the use of orthodontic implants by any of the religious groups.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Características Culturais , Implantes Dentários/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Titânio , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 31, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Historically, indigo-yielding plant species were important cash crops from Central Asia to the southern United States and Central America. Indigo-dyed textiles were widely traded along the legendary Silk Road that linked China to Europe. Today, due to the labor-intensive nature of indigo extraction at the household level, lifestyle changes and the widespread availability of commercially produced indigo paste, traditional indigo extraction methods have declined in villages. Yet Li textile weavers on Hainan Island are internationally recognized as producers of indigo-dyed textile using warp ikat techniques. In contrast, Hainan Miao weavers produce indigo-dyed textiles using batik (wax resist) techniques. The aim of this study was to document the indigenous knowledge on indigo-yielding plant species used by both Hainan Miao and Li people on Hainan Island, China. METHOD: Ethnic uses were documented during three field surveys, through a questionnaire survey of 193 respondents, comprising 144 Hainan Miao and 49 Li traditional dyers. Mention index (QI), Availability index (AI), and Preference ranking (PR) of each indigo-yielding plant species were calculated to screen out plant resources with potential development value. RESULTS: Five indigo-yielding plant species (from four plant families and four genera) were historically used by Hainan Miao and Li dyers. However, just four species are still in use. Strobilanthes cusia was the main indigo source for Hainan Miao dyers. Li dyers also commonly use Indigofera species (I. tinctoria and I. suffruticosa) for indigo extraction. Wrightia laevis is less commonly used as a contemporary indigo source. Indigo extraction by steeping in water to which lime is added to increase the pH is sharing by the five indigo-yielding plant species. Strobilanthes cusia had the highest QI, AI and PR values in Hainan Miao villages. Indigofera tinctoria had the highest QI and AI values, but Indigofera suffruticosa was preferred by Li dyers. CONCLUSION: In the process of modernization and urbanization, some Hainan Miao and Li dyers retain the traditional indigo extraction methods. We found that Strobilanthes cusia and Indigofera tinctoria have the most potential for sustainable indigo production in the future. Furthermore, this study documents the details of extraction method from Wrightia laevis for the first time and the use of Ricinus communis seeds in that process. As one of the last places globally where Wrightia laevis is still used for indigo production, the may also be a nice market among textile collectors and museums that keeps the tradition of Wrightia laevis production and use for indigo extraction alive.


Assuntos
Acanthaceae , Apocynaceae , Corantes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Indigofera , Polygonaceae , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 32, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnobotanical studies on folk medicinal plants used by Mongol herdsmen have been conducted in some areas of Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, China. However, ethnobotanical findings are preliminary and not comprehensive. Mongolian medicinal botanical knowledge has been gradually decreasing. One of the most important reasons is that Mongolian traditional medicine has become an alternative medicine in pasturing areas of China. Collection and analysis of Mongolian folk medicinal botanical knowledge have become extremely important. METHODS: From 2008 to 2014, the authors have been to Bairin Right Banner seven times, and from 2016 to 2018, have been to Bairin Left Banner five times. Fieldwork was carried out in 18 villages, and 136 local Mongol herdsmen were interviewed. The methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires were used in field survey. Ethnobotanical interview and voucher specimen collections were organized in two ways: local plant specimens were collected beforehand and then interviews were organized; local Mongol herdsmen were invited to the field and were interviewed while collecting voucher specimens. Mongolian was used as the working language, and findings were recorded in Mongolian. Scientific names of plants were confirmed through collection and identification of voucher specimens. RESULTS: Among the collected medicinal wild plants, 40 species are used by local Mongol herdsmen. Twenty-six species of folk medicinal plants have been recorded in the literature in the field of Traditional Mongolian Medicine (TMM), and 38 species have been recorded in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The parts that have medicinal value include roots, whole plant, aerial parts, leaves, fruit, seeds, branches, bulb skin, and stem. For medicinal efficacy, among the collected medicinal plants, 8 species should be fresh. Thirteen species must be dried, and another 16 species can be fresh or dried. After a simple process of sorting and washing, local people soak, pulverize, and mash the medicinal plants. Nineteen species were externally used medicine, and 17 species were internally used medicine (taken orally). Generally, only one or two functions of folk medicine and indications associated with it were provided by local Mongol herdsmen. However, the functions of TMM and TCM and their indications show diversity and have systematic characteristics. More functions of TMM and TCM and their indications have been recorded. In the paper, we also discuss the correspondence between one or two functions of folk medicine with one or two functions of TMM and TCM. CONCLUSION: Not many medicinal wild plant species are used by Mongol herdsmen in the Bairin Area. Fourteen species have not been recorded in the literature of TMM, and 2 species have not been recorded in the literature of TCM. Folk knowledge can provide a certain reference value for searching for new medicinal wild plant species. On the whole, fresh plants are commonly used by Mongol herdsmen in the Bairin Area; boiling is the most common preparation method. Most of the crude materials can be used alone. The externally used medicinal parts are more common than those taken orally. A folk medicinal bath may be regarded as a compound drug mixed with two to five species of plant materials. The local Mongol herdsmen fully understand the function of folk medicines and their indications.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicina Tradicional da Mongólia , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , China , Humanos
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2506-2516, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND GOAL: Stroke is a serious health condition that disproportionally affects African-Americans relative to non-Hispanic whites. In the absence of clearly defined reasons for racial disparities in stroke recovery and subsequent stroke outcomes, a critical first step in mitigating poor stroke outcomes is to explore potential barriers and facilitators of poststroke recovery in African-American adults with stroke. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore poststroke recovery across the care continuum from the perspective of African-American adults with stroke, caregivers of African-American adults with stroke, and health care professionals with expertise in stroke care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This qualitative descriptive study included in-depth key informant interviews with health care providers (n = 10) and focus groups with persons with stroke (n = 20 persons) and their family members or caregivers (n = 19 persons). Data were analyzed using thematic analysis according to the Social Ecological Model, using both inductive and deductive approaches. FINDINGS: Persons with stroke and their caregivers identified social support, resources, and knowledge as the most salient factors associated with stroke recovery. Perceived barriers to recovery included: (1) physical and cognitive deficits, mood; (2) medication issues; (3) lack of support and resources; (4) stigma, culture, and faith. Health care providers identified knowledge/information, care coordination, and resources in the community as key to facilitating stroke recovery outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Key findings from this study can be incorporated into interventions designed to improve poststroke recovery outcomes and potentially reduce the current racial-ethnic disparity gap.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cuidadores/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/parasitologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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