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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 451-464, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002941

RESUMO

Psychodynamic theory is founded on the idea that much, if not most, of human behavior is influenced by forces and experiences that lie outside of conscious awareness. It posits that despite what we may or may not recognize about our lived experience, an essential connection exists between unconscious processes and everyday psychological functioning. By extension, psychodynamic theory presumes that unconscious conflicts are pathognomonic of anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms more generally. At the same time, the term "psychodynamic" refers not only to that which occurs within one's mind but also what happens between people and within families, groups, and systems. A comprehensive psychodynamic treatment of anxiety attempts to take into account these multiple domains of experience and functioning (including biological and genetic considerations) and applies a specific therapeutic approach to working with patients based in part on clinical techniques first developed by Sigmund Freud 100 years ago.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Conscientização , Humanos
2.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(2): 97-103, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019458

RESUMO

Fitness to Drive from a Neuropsychological Point of View Abstract. Driving a car is an important issue for many people concerning participation in social and professional life. On the other hand, there is the need of society for a high level of security in road traffic. Neuropsychological deficits as a result of different neurological diseases can affect the fitness to drive for a certain time or permanently. In this article, we first provide a brief description of the legal framework. In the following section we summarize aspects of the driving behavior of different neurological patient groups and give an overview of procedures of neuropsychological examination and evaluation of fitness to drive. Apart from the psychometric methods there will also be a focus on the meaning of compensation and awareness. Finally, various treatment options are presented.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Definição da Elegibilidade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Conscientização , Exercício , Humanos , Psicometria
3.
J Dent Educ ; 84(1): 5-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977099

RESUMO

Prolonged and static postures among dental workforce personnel may lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental educators' postures and accuracy of ergonomic self-assessment. This study used a randomized control design. The Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI) was used for all ergonomic evaluations over a four-week period at one U.S. dental school. At week 1, all 30 participating dental educators were photographed and completed an M-DOPAI without viewing the photographs. In weeks 2 and 3, the educators in the control group (N=15) completed an M-DOPAI without any additional photographs. The educators in the training group (N=15) had additional photographs taken and used the photographs to complete an ergonomic self-assessment with the principal investigator. From week 1 to week 4, the ergonomics training utilizing photography resulted in improvements in the dental educators' ergonomic scores but not the accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. All participants strongly agreed it was important for both dental students and dentists to understand proper ergonomics, properly apply proper ergonomics, and have accurate ergonomic self-assessment skills in clinical practice. Although these dental educators valued ergonomic principles, they lacked training in applying these principles with dental students. Without additional training in ergonomics and self-assessment, the development of these skills in dental students will be affected.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Conscientização , Ergonomia , Humanos , Postura , Autoavaliação , Estudantes de Odontologia
4.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 90-96, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815303

RESUMO

AIM: The present study was conducted with an aim to assess the awareness about existence of dental stem cells among dental professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total sample size of 100 dental professionals in the age group of 22-32 years, comprising of 28 interns, 46 postgraduate students, and 26 senior residents from various specialties was selected. A self-administered, hand-delivered, 10-point questionnaire was used to assess the awareness, knowledge, and attitude of dental professionals towards dental stem cells. Results were documented and statistically analyzed using chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 72% dental professionals were aware about dental stem cells with dental curriculum books being the main source of information. Note that 81% of positive respondents were aware about the different types and a total of 28% were aware about the procedure to procure dental stem cells. Only 33.3% of positive respondents were aware about existence of dental stem cell banks in India. CONCLUSION: A high level of awareness about dental stem cells and its applications was noted during the course of this study. A significant association of age and type of practice with awareness of dental stem cells and knowledge regarding their use in developing nondental tissues was observed. A positive attitude towards recommending dental stem cell banking was seen.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Células-Tronco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e250, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826748

RESUMO

Hoerl & McCormack's theory defines temporal behavior from an awareness of time, but lacks one critical element: the impact of "psychological presence" in the "moment now." Central to experience of temporal non-stationarity: "Nowness" links future with past in the context of time flow. Does this differ between species? Evidence suggests not: Different temporal experiences between species requires greater critical evaluation.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Cognição
6.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719891691, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarctions (MIs) are the leading cause of death in the United States (US). Differences in MI mortality rates exist between rural and urban areas in the US. Early recognition of MI symptoms can lead to receiving prompt lifesaving treatment. In this study, we identified the influence of living in a rural area, rurality, on disparities in MI symptom awareness across the US. METHODS: We examined 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillances System survey data using logistic regressions to model the impact of rurality on MI symptom awareness while controlling for sociodemographic and MI clinical factors. From the results of these models, we created a type of marginal probability, known as average adjusted predictions (AAPs) and the difference in AAPs, called average marginal effects (AMEs), to determine patterns of awareness for each MI symptom between rural, suburban, and urban areas. RESULTS: We found that there were similar odds and probabilities of being aware of all five MI symptoms between rural, suburban, and urban areas, although rural residents consistently had a slightly higher odds and probability of being aware of all five MI symptoms compared with suburban and urban residents. Rural, suburban, and urban residents had the highest probability of being aware of chest pain/discomfort (95.5-96.1%) and the lowest probability of being aware of jaw/back/neck pain (68.6-72.0%). After adjustment, more than 25% of rural, suburban, and urban residents were found to be unaware that jaw/back/neck pain and feeling weak/light-headed/faint were symptoms of MI. AMEs were greatest for all areas for jaw/back/neck pain (-3.5% to -3.2%) and smallest for chest pain/discomfort (-0.6% to -0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The study's results highlight the need to increase awareness of the MI symptoms of jaw/back/neck pain and feeling weak/light-headed/faint to shorten hospital delay and time to treatment, especially for rural areas where cardiovascular disease mortality is high.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Tontura/epidemiologia , Dor Facial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Suburbana , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1417, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DREAMS Partnership is an ambitious effort to deliver combinations of biomedical, behavioural and structural interventions to reduce HIV incidence among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). To inform multi-sectoral programming at scale, across diverse settings in Kenya and South Africa, we identified who the programme is reaching, with which interventions and in what combinations. METHODS: Randomly-selected cohorts of 606 AGYW aged 10-14 years and 1081 aged 15-22 years in Nairobi and 2184 AGYW aged 13-22 years in uMkhanyakude, KwaZulu-Natal, were enrolled in 2017, after ~ 1 year of DREAMS implementation. In Gem, western Kenya, population-wide cross-sectional survey data were collected during roll-out in 2016 (n = 1365 AGYW 15-22 years). We summarised awareness and invitation to participate in DREAMS, uptake of interventions categorised by the DREAMS core package, and uptake of a subset of 'primary' interventions. We stratified by age-group and setting, and compared across AGYW characteristics. RESULTS: Awareness of DREAMS was higher among younger women (Nairobi: 89%v78%, aged 15-17v18-22 years; uMkhanyakude: 56%v31%, aged 13-17v18-22; and Gem: 28%v25%, aged 15-17v18-22, respectively). HIV testing was the most accessed intervention in Nairobi and Gem (77% and 85%, respectively), and school-based HIV prevention in uMkhanyakude (60%). Among those invited, participation in social asset building was > 50%; > 60% accessed ≥2 core package categories, but few accessed all primary interventions intended for their age-group. Parenting programmes and community mobilisation, including those intended for male partners, were accessed infrequently. In Nairobi and uMkhanyakude, AGYW were more likely to be invited to participate and accessed more categories if they were: aged < 18 years, in school and experienced socio-economic vulnerabilities. Those who had had sex, or a pregnancy, were less likely to be invited to participate but accessed more categories. CONCLUSIONS: In representative population-based samples, awareness and uptake of DREAMS were high after 1 year of implementation. Evidence of 'layering' (receiving multiple interventions from the DREAMS core package), particularly among more socio-economically vulnerable AGYW, indicate that intervention packages can be implemented at scale, for intended recipients, in real-world contexts. Challenges remain for higher coverage and greater 'layering', including among older, out-of-school AGYW, and community-based programmes for families and men.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Quênia , Masculino , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1509-1515, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719272

RESUMO

Background: Blood is the most donated tissue in medical practice and a veritable tool in many life-saving situations if used appropriately and judiciously. Despite the increased demand for blood, the supply of safe blood has been inadequate. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the perception and attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation among medical students in Abakaliki. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out at Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, between October 2017 and March 2018. Stratified and simple random sampling technique was used to recruit participants from among medical students using pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: A total of 158 medical students who participated in the study were made up of 90 (57%) males and 68 (43%) females. The most prevalent age group was 20-25 years. Most of the participants, 151 (95.6%), were single. The proportion of the participants who had good knowledge about voluntary blood donation was 72.8%, while the attitudes of the respondents were positive to most aspects of blood donation considered. However, participants were found to have poor practice of voluntary blood donation as only 56 of 158 (35.4%) had ever donated blood. Conclusion: The majority of the participants have good knowledge and positive attitude toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation. However, their practice of voluntary blood donation was poor. Sustained awareness creation and enlightenment is relevant to influence the masses to have better knowledge and positive attitudes toward voluntary non-remunerated blood donation with improved blood donation practices.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Altruísmo , Conscientização , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Percepção , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voluntários
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 522-524, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the strategy of schistosomiasis elimination and its effects in Jinhu County, Jiangsu Province. METHODS: The data of schistosomiasis control in Jinhu County at different stages from 1970 to 2017 were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: From 1970 to 2017, there were three stages of schistosomiasis control, including transmission control, transmission interruption, and monitoring and elimination stages in Jinhu County. The main measures included Oncomelania hupensis snail control, infectious source control, and health education. A total of area of 290 691.78 hm2 was detected in Jinhu County, and the area with snails was 3 420.98 hm2. There were 8 729.37 hm2 area with snails was controlled. Since 2014, no O. hupensis snails were found. A total of 525 377 person-times were examined for schistosomiasis, with 2 815 schistosomiasis patients identified, and 2 844 person-times were treated by chemotherapy. In addition, 977 cases received the expand chemotherapy. Since 1990, no local schistosome-infected persons were found. In 2017, the awareness rate of schistosomiasis control knowledge and the correct rate of health behavior were increased by 54.59% and 14.23% respectively compared with those in 1992. CONCLUSIONS: The comprehensive schistosomiasis control measures implemented in Jinhu County at different periods have achieved remarkable outputs and accelerated the schistosomiasis elimination process. However, the precise control measures should be implemented in the future to consolidate the prevention and control achievements.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Esquistossomose , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Conscientização , China , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Schistosoma/fisiologia , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/fisiologia
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 693, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, itself a cardiovascular condition, is a significant risk factor for other cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is recognized as a major public health challenge in Ghana. Beginning in 2014, a collaborative team launched the community-based hypertension improvement program (ComHIP) in one health district in Ghana. The ComHIP project, a public-private partnership, tests a community-based model that engages the private sector and utilizes information and communication technology (ICT) to control hypertension. This paper, focuses on the various challenges associated with managing hypertension in Ghana, as reported by ComHIP stakeholders. METHODS: A total of 55 informants - comprising patients, health care professionals, licensed chemical sellers (LCS), national and sub-national policymakers - were purposively selected for interview and focus group discussions (FGDs). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Where applicable, transcriptions were translated directly from local language to English. The data were then analysed using two-step thematic analysis. The protocol was approved by the two ethics review committees based in Ghana and the third, based in the United Kingdom. All participants were interviewed after giving informed consent. RESULTS: Our data have implications for the on-going implementation of ComHIP, especially the importance of policy maker buy-in, and the benefits, as well as drawbacks, of the program to different stakeholders. While our data show that the ComHIP initiative is acceptable to patients and healthcare providers - increasing providers' knowledge on hypertension and patients' awareness of same- there were implementation challenges identified by both patients and providers. Policy level challenges relate to task-sharing bottlenecks, which precluded nurses from prescribing or dispensing antihypertensives, and LCS from stocking same. Medication adherence and the phenomenon of medical pluralism in Ghana were identified challenges. The perspectives from the national level stakeholders enable elucidation of whole of health system challenges to ComHIP and similarly designed programmes. CONCLUSIONS: This paper sheds important light on the patient/individual, and system level challenges to hypertension and related non-communicable disease prevention and treatment in Ghana. The data show that although the ComHIP initiative is acceptable to patients and healthcare providers, policy level task-sharing bottlenecks preclude optimal implementation of ComHIP.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pessoal Administrativo , Adulto , Conscientização , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Programas Governamentais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Médica , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública , Setor Público , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 896, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advent of effective direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), has prompted an assessment of the French Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening strategy, which historically targeted high-risk groups. One of the options put forward is the implementation of combined (i.e., simultaneous) HCV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV screening for all adults at least once during their lifetime ("universal combined screening"). However, recent national survey-based data are lacking to guide decision-making regarding which new strategy to implement. Accordingly, we aimed to provide updated data for both chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and B (CHB) prevalence and for HCV and HBV screening history, using data from the BaroTest and 2016 Health Barometer (2016-HB) studies, respectively. METHODS: 2016-HB was a national cross-sectional phone based health survey conducted in 2016 among 20,032 randomly selected individuals from the general population in mainland France. BaroTest was a virological sub-study nested in 2016-HB. Data collected for BaroTest were based on home blood self-sampling on dried blood spots (DBS). RESULTS: From 6945 analyzed DBS, chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and B (CHB) prevalence was estimated at 0.30% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.13-0.70) and 0.30% (95% CI: 0.13-0.70), respectively. The proportion of individuals aware of their status was estimated at 80.6% (95% CI: 44.2-95.6) for CHC and 17.5% (95% CI: 4.9-46.4) for CHB. Universal combined screening would involve testing between 32.6 and 85.3% of 15-75 year olds according to whether we consider only individuals not previously tested for any of the three viruses, or also those already tested for one or two of the viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are essential to guide decision-making regarding which new HCV screening recommendation to implement in France. They also highlight that efforts are still needed to achieve the WHO's targets for eliminating these diseases. Home blood self-sampling may prove to be a useful tool for screening and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine nutrient intakes of tuberculosis (TB) patients and to identify their associated factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 adult TB patients were surveyed in two impoverished counties in China. Nutrient intakes were evaluated through two consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013. The potential socio-demographic and behavioral factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic model to identify strong influential factors. RESULTS: We found that mean daily energy intake was 1655.0 kcal (SD: 619.3 kcal) and 1360.3 kcal (SD: 552.1 kcal) for male and female patients, respectively. The mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than that has been recommended by DRI (i.e., 2250 and 1800 kcal for males and females, respectively), with 87.4% of the male patients and 59.9% of female patients failed to consume adequate energy. The protein intakes were 44.6 g (SD: 18.2 g) and 35.9 g (SD: 12.3 g) for male and female patients, respectively, which were lower than the recommended values by DRI (i.e., 65 and 55 g for males and females, respectively). Most male (90.8%) and female (58.4%) TB patients had insufficient daily protein intake. Further analyses suggested that mean daily intakes of many micronutrients, were insufficient, while for most of patients, intakes of vitamin E and sodium were sufficient. We identified that unemployment was a risk factor for low energy intake (p < 0.05) and out-home-eating was a protective factor for low protein intake (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In impoverished areas in China, intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients in TB patients were inadequate compared with DRIs, especially for unemployed patients and patients eating at home. These findings suggested that public health actions are needed to promote education on TB patients about significance of nutritional support, and, further interventions in TB patients' nutritional intakes are also required.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Recomendações Nutricionais , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(9): 1139-1144, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594161

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in adult residents in Jiangsu province and provide evidence for the prevention and control of hypertension. Methods: A population-based cardiovascular disease screening project was conducted during 2015-2018 in Jiangsu, a total of 95 348 community-dwelling adults aged 35-75 years from 6 project areas were included in the study. The prevalence rate of hypertension and rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in the adults with different characteristics were analyzed. Multilevel model was applied to identify the influencing factors. Results: Among 95 348 adults surveyed, 54 407 were hypertensive, the standardized prevalence rate was 48.1%. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in males than in females (62.1% vs. 54.0%, P<0.05). Among the hypertension patients, the rates of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were 56.6%, 45.3% and 12.0% (standardized rates: 52.2%, 41.0% and 11.2%), respectively, and all the rates were positively associated with age (all P<0.05). Multilevel model analysis showed that those who were males, at older age, lived in rural area, suffered from diabetes, had frequent alcohol drinking and those who were overweight/obese had higher risk for hypertension (all P<0.05). Among people with hypertension, those who had younger age, lower education level, lower household income level and those who had frequent alcohol drinking had lower awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension (all P<0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence rate of hypertension was high, but related awareness, treatment and control rates were low in adult residents in Jiangsu province. Comprehensive measures should be taken to improve awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in whole population, especially in young adults, and those with low education or income levels.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 85, 2019 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that prolonged uninterrupted sitting can be detrimental to health. Much sedentary behaviour research is reliant on self-reports of sitting time, and sitting-reduction interventions often focus on reducing motivation to sit. These approaches assume that people are consciously aware of their sitting time. Drawing on Action Identification Theory, this paper argues that people rarely identify the act of sitting as 'sitting' per se, and instead view it as an incidental component of more meaningful and purposeful typically-seated activities. METHODS: Studies 1 and 2 explored whether people mentioned sitting in written descriptions of actions. Studies 3-5 compared preferences for labelling a typically desk-based activity as 'sitting' versus alternative action identities. Studies 6 and 7 used card-sort tasks to indirectly assess the prioritisation of 'sitting' relative to other action descriptions when identifying similar actions. RESULTS: Participants rarely spontaneously mentioned sitting when describing actions (Studies 1-2), and when assigning action labels to a seated activity, tended to offer descriptions based on higher-order goals and consequences of action, rather than sitting or other procedural elements (Studies 3-5). Participants primarily identified similarities in actions based not on sitting, but on activities performed while seated (e.g. reading; Studies 6-7). CONCLUSION: 'Sitting' is a less accessible cognitive representation of seated activities than are representations based on the purpose and implications of seated action. Findings suggest that self-report measures should focus on time spent in seated activities, rather than attempting to measure sitting time via direct recall. From an intervention perspective, findings speak to the importance of targeting behaviours that entail sitting, and of raising awareness of sitting as a potential precursor to attempting to reduce sitting time.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 133: 105281, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590094

RESUMO

The present study aims to identify, study, and develop typologies based on cases of elderly pedestrian collisions with vehicles where the pedestrians subjectively ascribe the collision at least in part to their own self-regulation failures. Semistructured interview surveys were conducted with 18 elderly people who had experienced a crash with a vehicle as a pedestrian aged 65 years or older. Personal construct theory is adopted as the theoretical underpinning, and it is assumed that pedestrians have their own subjective ways of making sense of the crashes they are involved in. It was found that 11 of the 18 participants ascribed the crashes at least in part to their own self-regulation failures. Cognitive maps of the 11 participants had a common structure, and the associated 11 incidents were classified with respect to the following dimensions: (a) self-regulation type, (b) self-regulation motivation, (c) cause of self-regulation failure, and (d) characteristics of the collisions that occurred after the self-regulation failure. Based on these findings, practical implications are found, and corresponding interventions that may reduce elderly pedestrian-vehicle crashes of this type are discussed. Specifically, this study demonstrates the necessity of education or other intervention that goes beyond informing elderly pedestrians of what is right and wrong in traffic environments. Another critical result-the need to motivate elderly pedestrians to respect and adhere to their own highly personal self-regulation, even if it is not against the social norms-is also presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Pedestres/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conscientização , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3195, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618388

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the association between environmental risk factors and awareness of colorectal cancer in people at familial risk. METHOD: cross-sectional correlational study, with a sample consisted of people who met at least one of the Revised Bethesda criteria, and 80 participants were included in this study. A sociodemographic data record, the AUDIT Test for alcohol use, the Fagerström Test for tobacco smoking, the Estimation and Frequency of Food Intake scale, and the Cancer Awareness Measure questionnaire to assess the colorectal cancer awareness were used. Body mass index was calculated, and descriptive statistics and the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient were used to estimate the association. RESULTS: female sex predominated, with an average age of 37.8 years, almost half of the participants were overweight, 45% showed symptoms of alcohol dependence, half of the sample showed an association between hereditary factors and the development of colorectal cancer, and less than half of them were aware of cancer prevention programs. CONCLUSION: there is little information on the main environmental risk factors, signs and symptoms of colorectal cancer, and no significant association was found between these and colorectal cancer awareness.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Induzidos por Álcool/complicações , Conscientização , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 865, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is an important health concern in Iraq, but limited research has examined the quality of tuberculosis care and the survival of the patients. This study aimed to assess the 12-month survival of tuberculosis patients and evaluate the effect of the associated risk factors on patients' survival. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 728 patients with tuberculosis who were registered and treated at the Chest and Respiratory Disease Center in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, from January 2012 to December 2017. Demographic data, the site of the disease, and treatment outcomes were retrieved from patients' records. Data analysis included the use of the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test to calculate the estimates of the survival and assess the differences in the survival among the patients. The Cox regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The mean period of the follow-up of the patients was 7.6 months. Of 728 patients with tuberculosis, 50 (6.9%) had died. The 12-month survival rate of our study was 93.1%. A statistically significant difference was detected in the survival curves of different age groups (P < 0.001) and the site of the disease (P = 0.012). In multivariate analysis, lower survival rates were only observed among patients aged ≥65 years (hazard ratio = 9.36, 95% CI 2.14-40.95) and patients with extrapulmonary disease (hazard ratio = 2.61, 95% CI 1.30-5.27). CONCLUSION: The 12-month survival rate of tuberculosis patients managed at the Chest and Respiratory Disease Center in Erbil was similar to the international rates. The high rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and the low survival rate necessitate further studies and action with a possible revision to the tuberculosis management strategy.


Assuntos
Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conscientização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540348

RESUMO

Myanmar is currently facing the burden of non-communicable diseases due to changes in lifestyle and dietary patterns linked to socio-economic development. However, evidence is scarce about changes in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) over time. We aimed to investigate changes in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of DM from 2004 to 2014, among adults aged 25-74 years, in the Yangon region. Two cross-sectional household-based studies, according to World Health Organization STEPwise approach to surveillance (WHO STEPS) methodology, were conducted in 2004 (n = 4448) and 2014 (n = 1372). The overall age-standardized prevalence of DM was 8.3% (95% CI 6.5-10.6) in 2004 and 10.2% (7.6-13.6) in 2014 (p = 0.296). The DM prevalence increased between the study years among elderly participants only, from 14.6% (11.7-18.1) to 31.9% (21.1-45.0) (p = 0.009). Awareness of having DM increased from 44.3% (39.2, 49.6) to 69.4% (62.9-75.2) (p < 0.001). Among participants who were aware of having DM, the proportion under treatment increased from 55.1% (46.8-63.1) to 68.6% (61.5-74.8) (p = 0.015). There was no change in proportion with controlled DM. Adjusted for age, sex and education, mean fasting plasma glucose levels in 2014 were 0.56 mmol/L (0.26-0.84) higher than in 2004. Preventive measures to halt future increases in DM prevalence and to increase the detection of undiagnosed DM cases are needed.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Diabetes Mellitus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(12): 4821-4833, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542846

RESUMO

This study examined the experiences of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) genetic testing among parents of children with ASD. A nationwide sample of 552 parents of children with ASD completed an online survey. Nearly one-quarter (22.5%) of the parents reported that their affected children had undergone ASD genetic testing. The testing utilization was associated with awareness of ASD genetic testing and whether information was received from healthcare providers. Among parents whose children with ASD were tested, 37.6% had negative experiences, which mainly due to lack of perceived testing benefits to their affected children and unpleasant testing experiences with healthcare providers. To provide better healthcare services, it is critical to ensure parents understand the purposes, benefits, and results of ASD genetic testing.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Conscientização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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