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2.
Cuad. bioét ; 30(100): 277-287, sept.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185241

RESUMO

La Deontología es el conjunto de deberes y obligaciones en que se concreta el obrar correcto en una profesión determinada. Los Códigos deontológicos (CD), además de respetar el marco legal en que se insertan, deben ir más allá de las leyes en tanto son un reflejo del compromiso ético propio de cada profesión; compro-miso con unos principios deontológicos, que contribuye, además, a configurar su identidad. Con este trabajo se pretende aportar, a partir de la bibliografía y de la normativa legal y deontológica vigente, una propuesta que sirva de guía para la elaboración de un Código Deontológico para el Biólogo (CDB), inexistente, a fecha de hoy, en España, tomando como base la revisión de los Códigos deontológicos de otras profesiones afines a la Biología. Con ese fin, se ha procedido a realizar una revisión sistemática y comparativa de los códigos deontológicos de otras profesiones sanitarias, de las pautas éticas emanadas de sociedades científicas (sobre todo, del área anglosajona) y de la normativa aplicable a esas profesiones. El resultado se materializa en una propuesta de los apartados más importantes que, a nuestro juicio, debe contener dicho Código


Deontology is the set of duties and obligations in which the correct act is specified in the exercise of a profession. The Deontological Codes (CD), in addition to respecting the legal framework in which they are inserted, must go beyond the laws insofar as they are a reflection of the ethical commitment of each profession; commitment to deontological principles, which also helps to shape your identity. The aim of this project is to provide, based on the bibliography and current legal and deontological regulations, a proposal to serve as a guide for the accomplishment of Ethic Codes for Biologists (CDB), which currently does not exist in Spain, taking as a basis the revision of the ethics codes of other professions related to Biology. Under this purpose, a systematic and comparative review has been carried out of other health professions ethics codes, of the ethical guidelines emanating from scientific societies (above all, from the Anglo-Saxon area) and of the regulations applicable to those professions. The result is the proposal of the most impor-tant sections that we believe this Code should contain


Assuntos
Humanos , Biologia/ética , Teoria Ética , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/ética , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha , Ocupações em Saúde/ética , Ocupações em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
3.
J Leg Med ; 39(3): 229-233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626576

RESUMO

Lapses in professionalism are a common cause of disciplinary action against physicians by U.S. medical boards. However, the exact definition of "professionalism" is unclear, making it likely that a physician will not train or practice under the same framing of professionalism and so may fail to develop certain skills. The goal of this study was to identify and compare the professionalism framings of medical boards. The medical board web pages for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and four territories were examined in June 2017 for use of the word "professionalism" or "professional" in their application, rules, or laws, which was then coded as a best fit to one of six core framings of professionalism. Of the 55 states and territories, integrity was the most common professionalism framing (40.0%), followed by excellence (23.6%), behavior (12.7%), mixed (9.1%), unclear (9.1%), and absent (5.5%). Although integrity was the most common framing, diversity exists among medical boards, which could lead to board misunderstandings of incidents labeled as professionalism violations and ineffective remediation of offenses. In order to best communicate the nature of the offense and thus best facilitate remediation, the incident should be called by its true name rather than the all-encompassing term "professionalism."


Assuntos
Papel do Médico , Médicos/normas , Prática Profissional/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Conselho Diretor/legislação & jurisprudência , Conselho Diretor/normas , Humanos , Má Conduta Profissional , Profissionalismo/tendências , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Estados Unidos
4.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 14-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540649

RESUMO

The recognition of vascular surgery as an independent surgical specialty is inevitable, but the pathway to full autonomy remains uncertain. Vascular surgery emerged from general surgery in the mid-1950s with the advent of synthetic grafts and microvascular techniques. By the early 1980s, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved fellowships were established in most large academic medical centers. The American Board of Surgery recognized this additional specialty training by awarding vascular graduates a Certificate of Special Qualifications distinguishing them from general surgeons. The emergence of endovascular surgery radically changed the face of vascular surgery from a general surgery subspecialty to a unique surgical specialty with a growing array of minimally invasive tools. With the establishment of a primary Certificate in Vascular Surgery and the subsequent development of integrated residencies, vascular surgery moved ever closer to recognition as an independent surgical specialty. Despite the remarkable progress that has been observed over the past 50 years, there is a desire in the vascular community for formal recognition of the unique body of knowledge and surgical skills that serve as the foundation of contemporary vascular care.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Autonomia Profissional , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/história , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/história , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/tendências , Cirurgiões/história , Cirurgiões/normas , Cirurgiões/tendências , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/tendências
5.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 5-10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540658

RESUMO

The American Board of Surgery (ABS) has more than 80 years of both direct and indirect involvement in US surgical education, with its primary role being certification of graduates of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved surgical training programs. The ABS's impact on education has been at multiple levels, including the development of the content and administration of qualifying and certifying examinations; original education research based on the Board's unique data sets; and surgical training and education-related initiatives in partnership with multiple regulatory bodies and surgical societies. Within these efforts, by incremental steps, the specialty of vascular surgery attained recognition as a primary specialty of the ABS, and the Vascular Surgery Board of the ABS was established 20 years ago, in 1998. The 2 decades that followed have witnessed significant transformations in the evaluation and treatment of vascular disease, the paradigms for training vascular and endovascular surgeons, and the Vascular Surgery Board has partnered with stakeholder organizations to continually ensure quality education for the evolving vascular surgical workforce. Looking forward, while surgical education remains outside of its primary mission, the ABS and Vascular Surgery Board will continue as key stakeholders and leaders in the complex network of professional societies and training institutions that will guide the evolution of vascular surgery training.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/história , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/história , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Cirurgiões/história , Cirurgiões/normas , Estados Unidos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/história , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas
7.
J Grad Med Educ ; 11(4 Suppl): 104-109, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428266

RESUMO

Background: Research during residency is associated with better clinical performance, improved critical thinking, and increased interest in an academic career. Objective: We examined the rate, characteristics, and factors associated with research publications by residents in Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB) programs. Methods: We included residents enrolled in 18 OMSB residency programs between 2011 and 2016. Resident characteristics were obtained from the OMSB Training Affairs Department. In April 2018, MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases were searched independently by 2 authors for resident publications in peer-reviewed journals using standardized criteria. Results: Over the study period, 552 residents trained in OMSB programs; 64% (351 of 552) were female, and the mean age at matriculation was 29.4 ± 2.2 years. Most residents (71%, 393 of 552) were in the early stages of specialty training (R ≤ 3) and 49% (268 of 552) completed a designated research block as part of their training. Between 2011 and 2016, 43 residents published 42 research articles (range, 1-5 resident authors per article), for an overall publication rate of 8%. Residents were the first authors in 20 (48%) publications. Male residents (odds ratio [OR] = 2.07; P = .025, 95% CI 1.1-3.91) and residents who completed a research block (OR = 2.57; P = .017, 95% CI 1.19-5.57) were significantly more likely to publish. Conclusions: Research training during residency can result in tangible research output. Future studies should explore barriers to publication for resident research and identify interventions to promote formal scholarly activity during residency.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Internato e Residência , Publicações/tendências , Adulto , Bibliometria , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Omã , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional
8.
J Grad Med Educ ; 11(4 Suppl): 134-140, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428270

RESUMO

Background: As part of the globalization of medical education, residency programs in Oman have adopted competency-based standards by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education International (ACGME-I). Correctly perceiving the emotions of others and managing one's own emotions are essential to high-quality patient care. Objective: We tested the reliability and construct validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), and assessed trait Emotional Intelligence (EI) in Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB) residents in multiple specialties. We explored for correlations with trainees' sociodemographic background data. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study between February and August 2017. Participants were OMSB residents. We administered the TEIQue-SF and collected sociodemographic data from participants. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify independent predictors of trait EI. Results: The present cohort scored high in the trait EI subscale of Well-being, followed by Sociability, Self-control, and Emotionality. Among sociodemographic factors, female gender and high income were significant predictors of TEIQue-SF's Well-being subscale and high income and living in a rented home were significant predictors of the Sociability subscale. Conclusions: This is the first study conducted among medical residents in Oman regarding trait EI and its correlates. Our findings of overall high EI and several socioeconomic predictors echo the literature on the assessment of EI in trainees. The findings add to the evidence of cross-cultural applicability of instruments to measure trait EI, and use assessments of EI in resident selection and education.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional , Internato e Residência , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Omã , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420714

RESUMO

In Germany there is a threat of a shortage of junior general practitioners (GPs). One third of currently employed GPs are 60 years and older. Every year, 1700 GPs leave the profession, while only about 1350 new GP-specialist approvals are issued. The Advisory Council on the Assessment of Developments in the Health Care Sector estimates that there will be around 20,000 unmet replacement needs by 2025. By 2017, 2600 GP seats were already vacant.Based on the results of the KarMed study, this paper examines the questions as to how many residents intend to become general practitioners after graduation and how they develop during postgraduate training. Furthermore, the consequences of the increasing proportion of female physicians in primary care in terms of the possible volume of work will be investigated. Finally, measures that could reduce a possible personnel shortage are discussed.The attractiveness of general practice has increased considerably during residency over the last six years of observation. The preference for GP work is linked to parenthood. More female doctors strive for part-time work and an employment contract instead of a private practice. On this basis, it can be estimated that the volume of work performed by these female GPs will be half that of the traditional (male) working model in private practice.The forecasted numbers of new recruits are unlikely to be sufficient to cover the demand for GP care in Germany. Possible effective measures would be, for example, the introduction of a gatekeeper system, creation of multi-professional centers, a quota system for access to postgraduate training of specialists, a reformed national planning of GP supply in the country, and a shortening and flexibilization of postgraduate training for general practice.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Medicina Geral/tendências , Clínicos Gerais/provisão & distribução , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Internato e Residência , Certificação , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Prática Privada , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Carga de Trabalho
10.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 10(3): 22-27, jul. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1049717

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever o processo e os valores implicados na deliberação moral dos profissionais de competência gerencial e fiscais, considerando suas atribuições e os problemas éticos encontrados. Metodologia: estudo descritivo e exploratório, abordagem qualitativa, realizado durante o período de novembro 2013 a novembro de 2014, cujas informações foram coletadas por meio de questionário. Participaram da pesquisa 28 profissionais de competência gerencial e 113 profissionais de competência fiscalizatória dos departamentos de fiscalização do exercício profissional de enfermagem brasileira. Os dados foram organizados e analisados segundo a técnica de análise textual discursiva. Resultados: o itinerário proposto pelos participantes revela certa maturidade e conhecimento, constatado através das etapas eleitas. Conclusão: o estudo apontou que os trâmites do processo são fortemente vinculados a aspectos burocráticos e organizacionais. Convém ressaltar que os valores implicados no processo estão relacionados às dimensões ética, legal, subjetiva e profissional. (AU)


Objective: describe the process and values involved in the moral deliberation of professionals with managerial and fiscal competencies, considering their responsibilities and ethical problems encountered. Methodology: Descriptive and exploratory study, qualitative approach, conducted from November 2013 to November 2014 and whose information was collected through questionnaire. There was a participation of 28 management professionals and 113 supervisory professionals from the professional inspection departments of the Brazilian nursing. Data were organized and analyzed according to the technique of discursive and textual analysis. Results: the itinerary proposed by the participants revealed certain maturity and knowledge, which was verified through the elected steps. Conclusion: the study pointed out that the process formalities are strongly linked to bureaucratic and organizational aspects. It is worth mentioning that the values involved in the process are related to ethical, legal, subjective and professional dimensions. (AU)


Objetivo: describir el proceso y los valores implicados en la deliberación moral de los profesionales de competencia gerencial y fiscal, considerando sus atribuciones y los problemas éticos encontrados. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo y exploratorio, enfoque cualitativo, realizado durante el período de Noviembre del 2013 hasta Noviembre del 2014 y cuyas informaciones fueron obtenidas por medio de cuestionario. Participaron de la investigación 28 profesionales de competencia gerencial y 113 profesionales de competencia fiscalizadora de los departamentos de fiscalización del ejercicio profesional de la enfermería brasileña. Los datos fueron organizados y analizados según la técnica del análisis textual discursivo. Resultados: el itinerario propuesto por los participantes revela cierta madurez y conocimiento, lo que fue constatado a través de las etapas elegidas. Conclusión: el estudio determinó que los trámites del proceso están fuertemente vinculados a los aspectos burocráticos y organizacionales. Vale resaltar que los valores implicados en el proceso están relacionados con las dimensiones éticas, legales, subjetivas y profesionales. (AU)


Assuntos
Regulação e Fiscalização em Saúde , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Enfermagem , Deliberações , Ética em Enfermagem
11.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(3): 485-489, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Since the American Board of Radiology (ABR) instituted its new board certification pathway, our residency program has had more residents fail the core examination than was typical with the prior pathway. We performed a single-center retrospective study to evaluate predictors of ABR core examination failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Data regarding U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) steps 1 and 2, ACR diagnostic radiology in-training examinations, the number of image interpretations, academic degree (doctor of medicine or doctor of osteopathy), status as an American or foreign medical graduate, and Alpha Omega Alpha national medical honor society status were gathered and evaluated through logistic regression and generalized additive logistic regression. Data were gathered for all residents who took the ABR core examination from 2013 to 2017. RESULTS. Six of 30 residents (20%) failed the ABR core examination on the first attempt. The ACR in-training examination scores for 1st- and 3rd-year residents were significantly related to ABR core examination failure (p = 0.027 and p = 0.035, respectively), with significant nonlinearity (p = 0.037 and p = 0.033, respectively). The suggested baseline percentile score was the 30th percentile for 1st-year residents and the 20th percentile for 3rd-year residents. USMLE step 1 and 2 scores were significantly related to ABR core examination failure (p = 0.041 and p = 0.043, respectively), without significant nonlinearity (p = 0.35 and p = 0.09, respectively). However, residents with scores of less than 220 on USMLE steps 1 and 2 seemed to be at risk. CONCLUSION. Low scores on USMLE steps 1 and 2 and 1st- and 3rd-year ACR in-training examinations were associated with ABR core examination failure. If validated more broadly, these cutoffs may serve as predictors of ABR core examination failure and may facilitate identification and remediation of at-risk residents.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Radiologia/educação , Certificação , Previsões , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Estados Unidos
12.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 155(6): 765-766, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153496

RESUMO

The American Board of Orthodontics has updated its clinical examination process to remove barriers to the case-based examination, strengthen the specialty, and further distinguish board-certified orthodontists from other dental practitioners providing orthodontic care. The ABO adopted a scenario-based clinical examination and discontinued case requirements. The first new exam was administered in February 2019. It consisted of 6 scenarios with 4-7 questions for each scenario. The scenarios represent a variety of problems and patients, and the questions relate to data gathering and diagnosis, treatment objectives and planning, treatment implementation and management, and critical analysis and outcomes assessment. Feedback from the February 2019 exam was positive, and 4 more have been scheduled. For more information about the ABO certification process, go to AmericanBoardOrtho.com.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Ortodontia/educação , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Certificação , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 155(6): 886-890, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emerging workflows in orthodontics enable automated analysis of digital models and production of physical study models from digital files for the evaluation of treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare the automated assessment of digital orthodontic models and the hand grading of 3D-printed models with the use of the American Board of Orthodontics cast-radiograph evaluation (ABO CRE) system. METHODS: Plaster models from 15 cases were scanned with the use of a desktop model scanner to create digital models from which physical models were produced with the use of a stereolithography-based 3D printer. All digital models from each case were graded with the use of an automated software tool (SureSmile), and 3D-printed models were scored by hand with the use of the ABO CRE grading system. All hand-graded models were scored a second time at least 2 weeks later. RESULTS: SureSmile gave statistically significantly higher scores to alignment and rotations (P < 0.001), overjet (P < 0.001), occlusal contacts (P < 0.001), and total score (P < 0.001). Hand grading scored higher in buccolingual inclination (P < 0.001). No significant differences were found in marginal ridges, occlusal relationships, and interproximal contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Scores assessed in an automated manner by SureSmile are generally significantly greater than those assessed by hand grading.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador/normas , Modelos Dentários , Impressão Tridimensional , Software , Humanos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional
15.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 46(2): 269-280, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056129

RESUMO

In 2016, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the National Patient Safety Foundation issued a joint call encouraging each ABMS member board to integrate patient safety principles and activities into their initial and continuous certification processes. This article describes how the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology integrates various aspects of patient safety principles into its initial and continuous certification processes. The authors first describe how they assess patient safety within their initial certification processes. They then describe each component of their maintenance of certification program, and how they intentionally embed patient safety principles within each component.


Assuntos
Certificação/métodos , Segurança do Paciente , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Ginecologia , Humanos , Obstetrícia , Administração da Prática Médica , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Estados Unidos
16.
WMJ ; 118(1): 35-38, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine if there is a difference in medical knowledge between pediatric residents attending continuity clinic at a community-based center versus those attending an academic center, as measured by the American Board of Pediatrics In-Training Exam (in-training exam) and the American Board of Pediatrics Certification Exam (certification exam). METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of in-training and certification exam scores of pediatric residents enrolled at the Medical College of Wisconsin and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin was performed. Test scores of the group of residents participating in a community-based continuity clinic were compared to those residents attending an academic center continuity clinic. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in mean test scores for each of the 3 years of residency training on the in-training exam or board certifying exam after graduation. In-training exam scores significantly predicted certification exam scores, and there were significant increases in the in-training exam scores throughout residency, irrespective of clinic location. CONCLUSION: This study shows no difference between residents participating in a communitybased continuity clinic and those participating in an academic center continuity clinic in objective outcomes as measured by scores on the American Board of Pediatrics In-Training Exam and the American Board of Pediatrics Certifying Exam.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Internato e Residência , Pediatria/educação , Certificação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Estudos Retrospectivos , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Estados Unidos , Wisconsin
17.
Anesthesiology ; 130(6): 1093-1094, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090623
20.
Am Surg ; 85(3): 245-251, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947768

RESUMO

The creation of Boards fundamentally altered the American medical landscape and transformed the process of educating physicians. The American Board of Surgery, founded in 1937, epitomized this role. It established expectations, implemented an inspection system to enforce those standards, and ultimately collaborated with other professional organizations to create the Residency Review Committee that endures today. Using surgery as an example, we show how the appeal of board certification imbued Boards with the power and authority to reshape graduate medical education in their image in post-World War II America.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Internato e Residência/história , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/história , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Cirurgia Geral/educação , História do Século XX , Humanos , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Estados Unidos , II Guerra Mundial
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