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1.
Exp Suppl ; 111: 29-32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588526

RESUMO

In this brief chapter, clinically very important topics of family screening and genetic counseling are discussed that are also pivotal in endocrine genetics. Genetic screening makes possible to diagnose a genetic disease at an early stage or to exclude its presence. Family members have to be screened if a heritable disease is diagnosed. Personal consultation with the patient and the relatives is inevitable in every genetically determined disease. The main function of genetic counseling is the transfer of important pieces of information to the patient about the congenital or later-manifesting diseases. This process via the informed consent should give enough information to the patient and the relatives to make decisions about the disease. Genetic data should be considered as special data; therefore the protection of the personal data and the confidentiality obligation should be prevailed intensively. The chief goal of the genetic counseling is the prevention of the conception or the birth of a person who would suffer from a severe genetic disease and/or to present information of the chance for having an affected descendant. If the prevention is not feasible, the alternative aim is to prevent the development of the consequences or to moderate its severity. Genetic counseling has important ethical aspects such as prenatal genetic investigations; hereditary, but treatable, nonlethal diseases; and genetic diseases that manifest late, predominantly in the adulthood.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
3.
Rev Infirm ; 68(253): 41-43, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472785

RESUMO

As part of the 'Legislation, ethics, professional conduct' teaching unit, a group of student nurses analysed the initiative, taken by a nurse, to crush and conceal medicines without the patient's consent, in a context of cognitive disorders. This situation was the focus of a collaborative study involving students and different stakeholders from the training institute.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Estudantes de Enfermagem
4.
Orv Hetil ; 160(38): 1503-1509, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537092

RESUMO

Introduction: The compromise effect is a well-known phenomenon in the world of marketing, but it is rarely examined in medical settings. In dental setting, the patient often has to make treatment-related decisions with price as the only available and comprehensible information to help informed choice. Aim: We sought to determine if the compromise effect plays a role in dental treatment choices, and if yes, how the effect is modified by factors such as perceived quality, professional jargon in the explanations, or the importance of keeping one's own teeth intact. Method: 676 volunteers participated in this questionnaire-based study. The questionnaires were filled in anonymously. Altogether 8 versions of the same questionnaire were generated, in which the following information was given in varying combinations: the names of five different dental treatments from cheap to expensive, their possible prices, and additional information about the treatment. Statistical analysis: The significance of the relationship between the relative frequency of responses and the available additional information was determined by chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: The respondents did not approach dental treatment-related decisions on a heuristic basis by default, most probably because of their preconceptions and previous experiences in connection with dental treatments. Esthetics turned out to be of utmost importance and expectable lifespan was also information that significantly influenced the choices. Conclusion: Extra information can and does influence informed dental treatment choice on the patient side, provided it is offered in a clear, proper, and intelligible form, which points out the importance of professional communication. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(38): 1503-1509.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Assistência Odontológica/economia , Voluntários , Humanos , Hungria , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(5): 72-79, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549383

RESUMO

Child abuse is a sensitive research topic. Improving the health of the victims of abuse through research, rights protection, and preemption of harm are important and debatable ethical issues. The ethical considerations related to research into child abuse cover two dimensions: 1) using children as subjects and 2) concerns regarding the physical and mental health of children who are targeted by related research. This paper focuses on several common ethical issues in the field of child abuse research, starting from the formulation of the research problem, sampling, data collection, and results reporting. Ethical issues include obtaining informed consent, assuring the autonomy of maltreated children and adults with childhood abuse histories, ensuring a sense of control and safety during data collection, and establishing the role of researchers as mandated reporters. As a researcher, rigorous research design and methodology and self-preparation on the issue of childhood trauma and abuse are essential in order to reduce the risk of harm to victims. This paper is intended to provide suggestions for researchers and institutional review board committees to assess the ethics of conducting research on sensitive issues.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Ética em Pesquisa , Criança , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética
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