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1.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112190, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636623

RESUMO

As an abundant and fast-growing biomass, bamboo can be used as construction materials owing to its desirable physical and mechanical properties, environmentally friendly features, and alternative to replace toxic and hazardous wastes in industrial processing. In this study, grid material made from bamboo (termed 'bamboo grid') was developed and compared to commercially used polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as packing material in cooling towers; PVC packing has drawbacks such as fouling, deposit buildup, low durability, and is harmful to environments. The cooling capacity, energy efficiency and environmental impact of bamboo grid packing were evaluated via life cycle assessment (LCA), particularly the cumulative energy demand (CED) and the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES). Although the thermal performance of the PVC packing was found higher than that of the bamboo grid packing, the bamboo grid packing showed improved resistance characteristic, recording a total saving of 529.2 tons of standard coal during a six-month field test in a real thermal power generation plant. LCA results revealed that the utilization of bamboo-grid packing to replace PVC packing in cooling towers reduced total CED from 3420 MJ to 561 MJ per functional unit, achieving 6 times reduction. A desirable reduction ranging from 1.5 to 10.5 times was also recorded for the BEES indices. This LCA comparison analysis confirmed the improvement of energy efficiency and reduction of environmental impact by using the bamboo grid to replace PVC as packing material in cooling towers. The major environmental impact (BEES) indices (e.g., the total Global warming potential, Acidification, Eutrophication and Smog) were reduced by 1.5-10.5 times via the use of bamboo grid. The results demonstrate that bamboo grid packing is a good alternative to replace existing grid packing materials such as concrete and PVC that are harmful to human health and environments.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Carvão Mineral , Meio Ambiente , Centrais Elétricas
2.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116565, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582636

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the major global poultry producers, and the organic waste generated by the chicken slaughterhouses can potentially be used as a biofertilizer in agriculture. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that continuous use of biofertilizer to the crops, substituting the use of mineral fertilizer promote C-offset for the soil and generate crop energy efficiency for the production system. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer use alone or in combination with mineral fertilizer on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, C-offset, crop energy efficiency and productivity, and alleviation of environmental pollution. The experiment was established in southern Brazil on a soil under 15 years of continuous no-till (NT). Experimental treatments were as follows: i) Control with no fertilizer application, ii) 100% use of industrial mineral fertilizer (Min-F); iii) 100% use of organic waste originated from poultry slaughterhouses and hereinafter designated biofertilizer (Bio-F), and iv) Mixed fertilizer equivalent to the use of 50% mineral fertilizer + 50% of biofertilizer (Mix-F). Effects of experimental treatments were assessed for the crop sequence based on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays) in the summer and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and black oat (Avena strigosaSchreb) in the winter composing two crops per year, as follow: bean/wheat-soybean/black oat-corn/wheat-soybean/black oat-corn/wheat-bean. The continuous use of Bio-F treatment significantly increased the index of crop energy efficiency. It was higher than that of control, and increased it by 25.4 Mg CO2eq ha-1 over that of Min-F treatment because of higher inputs of crop biomass-C into the system. Further, continuous use of Bio-F resulted in a significantly higher CO2eq stock and offset than those for Min-F treatment. A positive relationship between the C-offset and the crop energy efficiency (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.001) indicated that the increase of C-offset was associated with the increase of energy balance and the amount of SOC sequestered. The higher energy efficiency and C-offset by application of Bio-F indicated that the practice of crop bio fertilization with poultry slaughterhouse waste is a viable alternative for recycling and minimizing the environmental impacts.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais , Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Brasil , Carbono , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/análise , Aves Domésticas , Zea mays
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19473-19484, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394396

RESUMO

The continuous use of fossil fuels to meet the energy demands of the industrialized nations has led to environmental degradation. As such, there has been a call for research, exploration, and the usage of alternative energy which is believed to improve the depleting quality of the environment. This study investigates the relationship between energy efficiency, green energy investment, and energy innovation in a panel of nine highly industrialized countries, namely Canada, Japan, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, the USA, and the UK. Relying on the environmental Kuznets' hypothesis (EKC), we employ the quantile-on-quantile regression approach to the data obtained between 1980 and 2018. The empirical estimates validate the EKC hypothesis in most of these industrialized nations considered. The findings also reveal that the continuous use of non-renewable energy consumption escalates emissions, while the use of renewable energy reduces the level of emissions "in" the environment. Therefore, energy efficiency leads to an increase in emissions in the first 3 quantiles and reduces emissions in the remaining quantiles. Also, energy innovation leads to a high amount of emissions. Finally, the study calls for increased investments in renewable energy as well as energy efficiency to ensure continuous improvement in the quality of the environment.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Canadá , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Países Desenvolvidos , França , Alemanha , Itália , Japão , Energia Renovável , Espanha , Suíça
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466940

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has magnified the insufficient readiness of humans in dealing with such an unexpected occurrence. During the pandemic, sustainable development goals have been hindered severely. Various observations and lessons have been highlighted to emphasise local impacts on a single region or single sector, whilst the holistic and coupling impacts are rarely investigated. This study overviews the structural changes and spatial heterogeneities of changes in healthcare, energy and environment, and offers perspectives for the in-depth understanding of the COVID-19 impacts on the three sectors, in particular the cross-sections of them. Practical observations are summarised through the broad overview. A novel concept of the healthcare-energy-environment nexus under climate change constraints is proposed and discussed, to illustrate the relationships amongst the three sectors and further analyse the dynamics of the attention to healthcare, energy and environment in view of decision-makers. The society is still on the way to understanding the impacts of the whole episode of COVID-19 on healthcare, energy, environment and beyond. The raised nexus thinking could contribute to understanding the complicated COVID-19 impacts and guiding sustainable future planning.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370776

RESUMO

Under the background of excess capacity and energy saving in iron and steel enterprises, the hot rolling batch scheduling problem based on energy saving is a multi-objective and multi constraint optimization problem. In this paper, a hybrid multi-objective prize-collecting vehicle routing problem (Hybrid Price Collect Vehicle Routing Problem, HPCVRP) model is established to ensure minimum energy consumption, meet process rules, and maximize resource utilization. A two-phase Pareto search algorithm (2PPLS) is designed to solve this model. The improved MOEA/D with a penalty based boundary intersection distance (PBI) algorithm (MOEA/D-PBI) is introduced to decompose the HPCVRP in the first phase. In the second phase, the multi-objective ant colony system (MOACS) and Pareto local search (PLS) algorithm is used to generate approximate Pareto-optimal solutions. The final solution is then selected according to the actual demand and preference. In the simulation experiment, the 2PPLS is compared with five other algorithms, which shows the superiority of 2PPLS. Finally, the experiment was carried out on actual slab data from a steel plant in Shanghai. The results show that the model and algorithm can effectively reduce the energy consumption in the process of hot rolling batch scheduling.


Assuntos
Metalurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Algoritmos , China , Simulação por Computador , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aço
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0224959, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031384

RESUMO

Heat poses an urgent threat to public health in cities, as the urban heat island (UHI) effect can amplify exposures, contributing to high heat-related mortality and morbidity. Urban trees have the potential to mitigate heat by providing substantial cooling, as well as co-benefits such as reductions in energy consumption. The City of Boston has attempted to expand its urban canopy, yet maintenance costs and high tree mortality have hindered successful canopy expansion. Here, we present an interactive web application called Right Place, Right Tree-Boston that aims to support informed decision-making for planting new trees. To highlight priority regions for canopy expansion, we developed a Boston-specific Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) and present this alongside maps of summer daytime land surface temperatures. We also provide information about tree pests and diseases, suitability of species for various conditions, land ownership, maintenance tips, and alternatives to tree planting. This web application is designed to support decision-making at multiple spatial scales, to assist city officials as well as residents who are interested in expanding or maintaining Boston's urban forest.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Boston , Tomada de Decisões , Temperatura Alta , Reforma Urbana
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111508, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798921

RESUMO

This study reviews and categorises ports' technical and operational measures to reduce greenhouse gas emission and improve energy efficiency. Through a systematic review, both measures in the portside including land transport, and in the ship-port interface, were identified and structured into 7 main categories and 19 subcategories based on 214 studies. The measures' characteristics, abatement potential, best practices and key issues were clarified. The results show that there is insufficient research on ports in developing countries, as research is centred on developed countries' ports. Furthermore, it is unlikely that any single measure may lead to port decarbonisation owing to varying abatement potential, complexity, and cost. Therefore, assessments of feasibility and effectiveness to identify the best combination of measures are vital steps forward. In addition to the highlighted fertile research areas, the result of measures categorisation is considered a tool for policymakers and a basis for researchers to verify future agendas.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Navios , Efeito Estufa , Transportes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824551

RESUMO

The amount of building floor space (BFS) plays a key role in the energy and material demand prediction. Unfortunately, BFS estimation has faced the challenge of ineffective and inadequate approaches, and thus reliable data concerning China's BFS is unavailable. This study proposes a new estimation method for China's BFS and then estimates historical BFS by type in China from 1996 to 2014. The results show that total Chinese BFS grew from 28.1 billion m2 in 1996 to 61.3 billion m2 in 2014, increasing more than twice, with an annual growth rate of 4.4% from 1996 to 2014. During 1996-2014, urban residential BFS witnessed the highest annual increase rate (9.3%), while the growth rate for commercial and rural residential BFS was lower: 4.4% and 1.6%, respectively. By comparing with available statistics data, this study finds the model deviations are well below 5%, which indicates the reliability of the proposed method and robustness of the results. The proposed method not only can address the deficiencies of statistic yearbook and overcome the shortages of previous estimation approaches but also can derive more accurate and reliable data. This study lays a sound basis for the following study on building stock and building energy efficiency work.


Assuntos
Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , China , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Materiais de Construção , Humanos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750058

RESUMO

With the rising environmental concerns among consumers all over the world, sustainability has received considerable attention, and numerous enterprises are adopting various practices such as investing in energy-saving to improve sustainability in supply chains. However, many previous researches always assume that decision makers are perfectly rational and neglect the behavioral concerns of decision makers. This paper considers a two-stage sustainable supply chain with behavioral concerns in order to develop more realistic models, and mainly focuses on the energy-saving and pricing decisions in the decentralized system, as well as how to improve energy-saving level and profits. We develop decentralized decision-making models under two types of behavioral concerns: fairness concern and risk aversion, and derive the optimal strategy for each member with a Stackelberg game in which the manufacturer acts as the leader. The effect of the behavioral concerns on the optimal decisions and corresponding profits is discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis verified by numerical experiments shows that the fairness behavior always causes a negative effect on the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, while it could benefit the retailer in profits. The risk aversion behavior always benefits the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, whereas it could make the retailer suffer. Note that both the optimal energy-saving level and corresponding profit of the total supply chain under two types of behavioral concerns are lower than that in the centralized system, thereby we propose a revenue-cost-sharing contract to coordinate the supply chain, under which both the manufacturer and the retailer can achieve a win-win outcome and the energy-saving level can be improved. In addition, some managerial implications through our analytical and numerical results are summarized in this paper.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760117

RESUMO

Renewable electricity can fully decarbonise the European electricity supply, but large land requirements may cause land-use conflicts. Using a dynamic model that captures renewable fluctuations, I explore the relationship between land requirements and total system cost of different supply-side options in the future. Cost-minimal fully renewable electricity requires some 97,000 km2 (2% of total) land for solar and wind power installations, roughly the size of Portugal, and includes large shares of onshore wind. Replacing onshore wind with offshore wind, utility-scale PV, or rooftop PV reduces land requirements drastically with only small cost penalties. Moving wind power offshore is most cost-effective and reduces land requirements by 50% for a cost penalty of only 5%. Wind power can alternatively be replaced by photovoltaics, leading to a cost penalty of 10% for the same effect. My research shows that fully renewable electricity supply can be designed with very different physical appearances and impacts on landscapes and the population, but at similar cost.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Centrais Elétricas/economia , Energia Renovável/economia , Energia Solar/economia , Processos Estocásticos , Vento
12.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111053, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669255

RESUMO

Local energy transition processes are complex socio-technical transitions requiring careful study. The use of System Dynamics (SD) in modelling and analyzing local energy transitions is especially suitable given the characteristics of SD. Our aim is to systematically categorize the different ways SD is used and useful to scrutinize local energy transitions, and to see if we can discern any common themes that can be useful to researchers looking to scrutinize local energy transitions, using SD. The study is exploratory in nature, with peer-reviewed journal and conference articles analyzed using content analysis. The six categories on which the articles are analyzed are: the sector the article studies; the transition that is studied in the article; the modelling depth in the article; the objective of the article; the justification for using SD provided in the article and the levels of interaction with 'local'. Our findings show most of the local energy transitions have been studied using simulatable Stock and Flow Diagrams in SD methodology. The important sectors in the energy field are represented in terms of SD modelling of local energy transitions, including electricity, transport, district heating etc. Most of the local energy transitions scrutinized by SD in the articles have descriptive objectives, with some prescriptive, and just one evaluative objective. In terms of justification for using SD provided by the articles analyzed in this study, we found four major themes along which the justifications that were provided. They are dynamics, feedbacks, delays and complexity, systematic thinking, bridging disciplines and actor interactions and behaviour. The 'dynamics, feedbacks, delays and complexity' theme is the most cited justification for the use of SD in scrutinizing local energy transitions, followed by systematic thinking.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Análise de Sistemas , Calefação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575697

RESUMO

The European Union 2050 climate neutrality goal and the climate crisis require coordinated efforts to reduce energy consumption in all sectors, and mainly in buildings greatly affected by the increasing temperature, with relevant CO2 emissions due to inefficient end-use technologies. Moreover, the old building stock of most countries requires suited policies to support renovation programs aimed at improving energy performances and optimize energy uses. A toolbox was developed in the framework of the PrioritEE project to provide policy makers and technicians with a wide set of tools to support energy efficiency in Municipal Public Buildings. The toolbox, available for free, was tested in the partners' communities, proving its effectiveness. The paper illustrates its application to the Potenza Municipality case study in which the online calculator DSTool (the core instrument of the toolbox) was utilized to select and prioritize the energy efficiency interventions in public buildings implementable in a three-year action plan in terms of costs, energy savings, CO2 emissions' reduction and return on investments. The results highlight that improvements in the building envelopes (walls and roofs), heating and lighting and photovoltaic systems allow reducing CO2 emission approximately 644 t/year and saving about 2050 MWh/year with a total three-year investment of 1,728,823 EUR.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Calefação , Cidades , Clima , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Itália
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545711

RESUMO

Rapid economic growth has caused many environmental problems in China, resulting in international pressure on China to fight against climate change and to shift to a more environmentally friendly economy. Therefore, over the past decades, China has been working on transforming its economy to counter the concerns of different environmental hazards caused by the burning fossil fuels and rising oil imports to support the energy sector. This study explores the shift in the Chinese government's policies towards a low-carbon economy by adopting more environmentally friendly solar energy. A cost-benefit analysis of the solar water heater industry in China indicates that it not only brings economic benefits to society but also environmental benefits to the earth. Furthermore, this paper focuses on the use of solar energy as a kind of renewable energy, as solar energy is plentiful, which is beneficial from both an environmental and economic perspective.


Assuntos
Carbono , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Energia Solar , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Combustíveis Fósseis
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 34337-34347, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548746

RESUMO

This paper provides an assessment of energy density and energy efficiency and creates an important indicator of environmental performance. This article applied two mathematical models and econometric techniques to obtain detailed and specific results. The DEA and the non-normative account aggregation mean a collective aggregation to form a mathematical aggregation tool to create an environmental index for the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) based on available data from 2011 to 2016. The advantage of the proposed approach is to manage the irregularities of the data and follow the desired properties of the index number. The current paper is relevant for the broad scope of construction, the environmental index, and the evolution of the rankings of countries based on multiple indicators. Our results indicate that Brazil and Russia have the highest values of the Environmental Performance Index, which range between 67.44 and 60.70, respectively. India has a minimum value of 30.57 of the environmental index. The analysis shows that Brazil, Russia, and South Africa have the best scores and that these countries have the best results, while China and India also have the best results. This study can help form a valuable political tool for the development and development of the country's politics.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Brasil , China , Meio Ambiente , Índia , Política , Federação Russa , África do Sul
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429236

RESUMO

Eco-efficiency enhancement is an inherent requirement of green development and an important indicator of high-quality development in general. It aims to achieve the coordinated development of nature, the economy, and society. Therefore, eco-efficiency measurements should focus on not only total factor input, but also process analysis. Based on the "full world" model in ecological economic theory, this study constructed a theoretical framework for a composite economic-environmental-social system that reflects human welfare and sustainability. To this end, using network data envelopment analysis (DEA), this study established a staged eco-efficiency evaluation model that uses economic, environmental, and social factors to measure the overall and staged eco-efficiency of China's provinces from 2003 to 2016 and analyze its spatiotemporal characteristics. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was also used to analyze the influencing factors of eco-efficiency changes and the spatial differentiation in their effect intensity. The findings were as follows: (1) China's overall eco-efficiency is still at a low level. It varies significantly from region to region, and only three regions are at the frontier of production. The eastern region has the highest eco-efficiency, followed by the central region, and the gap between the central and western regions has gradually narrowed. In terms of staged efficiency, the level of eco-efficiency in the production stage is less than in the environmental governance stage, which is less than that in the social input stage. (2) In terms of the efficiency of each stage, the efficiency level of the production stage showed a downward trend throughout the entire process, and the decline in the central and western regions was more obvious. The social input stage and the environmental governance stage both showed upward trends. The social input stage showed a higher level, and the increase was relatively flat during the period of study. Efficiency continued to rise during the environmental governance stage from 2003 to 2010 and rose overall, but with some fluctuations from 2011 to 2016. (3) Geographically weighted regression showed that the effects of the influencing factors on eco-efficiency had obvious spatial heterogeneity. The factors affecting overall, production stage, and social input eco-efficiency were, in order of effect intensity from high to low, economic growth level, marketization level, and social input level. In terms of environmental governance, social input level had the greatest impact, followed by economic growth; marketization level did not show a significant impact.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , China , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Eficiência , Humanos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380729

RESUMO

A green manufacturing system is an important tool to realize green transformation of the manufacturing industry. The systematicness of green technology innovation as the key foundation of green manufacturing supports the entire huge green manufacturing system. In order to improve the effectiveness of multi-agent cooperation, it is necessary to analyze a series of green technology innovation achievements of manufacturing enterprises under multi-agent cooperation. First of all, inter-indicator correlation analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used to construct the evaluation index system of the green technology innovation performance of manufacturing enterprises under multi-agent cooperation. Then, a secondary combined evaluation model was constructed based on the evaluation conclusions. Finally, a theoretical framework was constructed to measure the performance of the green technology innovation of manufacturing enterprises under multi-agent cooperation. The results of this study are as follows: The evaluation index system of the green technology innovation performance of manufacturing enterprises under multi-agent cooperation is composed of the technology output, economic output, and social effect of green technology innovation. The key factors that influence the green technology innovation performance of manufacturing enterprises under multi-agent cooperation are the proportion of green technology transformation in traditional technology, the number of papers published jointly by multi-agent cooperation, the user acceptance of green technology products, and the degree of improvement of public environmental preference and consciousness. A fusion of technology of subjective and objective methods is an effective evaluation technique and can be applied to evaluate the performance of green technology innovation. The secondary combined evaluation combines the evaluation conclusions obtained by each single evaluation method in a certain form.


Assuntos
Invenções , Indústria Manufatureira , China , Comércio , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos
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