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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750058

RESUMO

With the rising environmental concerns among consumers all over the world, sustainability has received considerable attention, and numerous enterprises are adopting various practices such as investing in energy-saving to improve sustainability in supply chains. However, many previous researches always assume that decision makers are perfectly rational and neglect the behavioral concerns of decision makers. This paper considers a two-stage sustainable supply chain with behavioral concerns in order to develop more realistic models, and mainly focuses on the energy-saving and pricing decisions in the decentralized system, as well as how to improve energy-saving level and profits. We develop decentralized decision-making models under two types of behavioral concerns: fairness concern and risk aversion, and derive the optimal strategy for each member with a Stackelberg game in which the manufacturer acts as the leader. The effect of the behavioral concerns on the optimal decisions and corresponding profits is discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis verified by numerical experiments shows that the fairness behavior always causes a negative effect on the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, while it could benefit the retailer in profits. The risk aversion behavior always benefits the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, whereas it could make the retailer suffer. Note that both the optimal energy-saving level and corresponding profit of the total supply chain under two types of behavioral concerns are lower than that in the centralized system, thereby we propose a revenue-cost-sharing contract to coordinate the supply chain, under which both the manufacturer and the retailer can achieve a win-win outcome and the energy-saving level can be improved. In addition, some managerial implications through our analytical and numerical results are summarized in this paper.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760117

RESUMO

Renewable electricity can fully decarbonise the European electricity supply, but large land requirements may cause land-use conflicts. Using a dynamic model that captures renewable fluctuations, I explore the relationship between land requirements and total system cost of different supply-side options in the future. Cost-minimal fully renewable electricity requires some 97,000 km2 (2% of total) land for solar and wind power installations, roughly the size of Portugal, and includes large shares of onshore wind. Replacing onshore wind with offshore wind, utility-scale PV, or rooftop PV reduces land requirements drastically with only small cost penalties. Moving wind power offshore is most cost-effective and reduces land requirements by 50% for a cost penalty of only 5%. Wind power can alternatively be replaced by photovoltaics, leading to a cost penalty of 10% for the same effect. My research shows that fully renewable electricity supply can be designed with very different physical appearances and impacts on landscapes and the population, but at similar cost.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Energia Renovável , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Europa (Continente) , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Centrais Elétricas/economia , Energia Renovável/economia , Energia Solar/economia , Processos Estocásticos , Vento
5.
Radiology ; 295(3): 593-605, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208096

RESUMO

Background Awareness of energy efficiency has been rising in the industrial and residential sectors but only recently in the health care sector. Purpose To measure the energy consumption of modern CT and MRI scanners in a university hospital radiology department and to estimate energy- and cost-saving potential during clinical operation. Materials and Methods Three CT scanners, four MRI scanners, and cooling systems were equipped with kilowatt-hour energy measurement sensors (2-Hz sampling rate). Energy measurements, the scanners' log files, and the radiology information system from the entire year 2015 were analyzed and segmented into scan modes, as follows: net scan (actual imaging), active (room time), idle, and system-on and system-off states (no standby mode was available). Per-examination and peak energy consumption were calculated. Results The aggregated energy consumption imaging 40 276 patients amounted to 614 825 kWh, dedicated cooling systems to 492 624 kWh, representing 44.5% of the combined consumption of 1 107 450 kWh (at a cost of U.S. $199 341). This is equivalent to the usage in a town of 852 people and constituted 4.0% of the total yearly energy consumption at the authors' hospital. Mean consumption per CT examination over 1 year was 1.2 kWh, with a mean energy cost (±standard deviation) of $0.22 ± 0.13. The total energy consumption of one CT scanner for 1 year was 26 226 kWh ($4721 in energy cost). The net consumption per CT examination over 1 year was 3580 kWh, which is comparable to the usage of a two-person household in Switzerland; however, idle state consumption was fourfold that of net consumption (14 289 kWh). Mean MRI consumption over 1 year was 19.9 kWh per examination, with a mean energy cost of $3.57 ± 0.96. The mean consumption for a year in the system-on state was 82 174 kWh per MRI examination and 134 037 kWh for total consumption, for an energy cost of $24 127. Conclusion CT and MRI energy consumption is substantial. Considerable energy- and cost-saving potential is present during nonproductive idle and system-off modes, and this realization could decrease total cost of ownership while increasing energy efficiency. © RSNA, 2020.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Redução de Custos/economia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Radiologia/economia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/economia , Alemanha , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Suíça
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(7): 7105-7119, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883080

RESUMO

China launched the One Belt & One Road (OBOR) initiative to minimize the energy resource shortage. The China's nearby countries are rich in energy resources especially Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Asian countries which make them ideal locations to cooperate with China in terms of energy resources, as 42.8% of world energy consumption belongs to OBOR countries. The present study elaborates the spatial distribution pattern of energy consumption disparities and its impact on environment. To do this, an entropy approach is utilized to compute the energy consumption inequalities in OBOR and its regions. The spatial and Pareto analysis show that MENA, East, and Southeast Asian economies have the highest degree of energy consumption inequalities, while European and Central Asian economies show the lowest energy consumption inequalities in OBOR region. The long-run estimates indicate that energy consumption inequalities enhance the CO2 emission in OBOR and its region except South and Southeast Asia. Financial development also has a significantly positive impact on CO2 emission in all models for OBOR and its regions except East Asia. Based on findings, the spatial distribution analysis is applicable to maintain balance in regional energy consumption inequality within OBOR and its regions.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Entropia , África do Norte , Ásia , Ásia Sudeste , China , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Extremo Oriente , Oriente Médio
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817204

RESUMO

Civilization prospers when the ecology prospers, and civilization decays when the ecology decays. As an effective indicator of sustainable development of economy and resource environment, environmental performance can comprehensively reflect the actual level of coordinated development of the economy and environment system. This paper exemplifies China's Optics Valley to evaluate its environmental performances and research the influencing factors of new fixed assets investment projects, for which a new fixed assets investment project environmental performance assessment system was constructed. The measurement model for the system was constructed using a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA) with undesirable output to evaluate the environmental performances of the new fixed assets investment projects in China's Optical Valley from 2011 to 2016. The multi-regression model with eight environmental performance hypotheses was established to determine the key influencing factors and to propose targeted countermeasures to enhance low-carbon innovation and promote low-carbon economic development. The results indicated that implementing new fixed assets investment project energy conservation assessments and reviews in high-tech areas could assist companies and the government in achieving better management.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Investimentos em Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Tecnologia , Pegada de Carbono , China , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Tecnologia/economia , Tecnologia/organização & administração
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29978-29990, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414388

RESUMO

The developing world in general is facing so many crucial problems including global warming in recent years. Global warming has multiple consequences on each segment of the society and therefore, its root causes are important to identify. The present study examines the impact of per capita income, trade openness, urbanization, and energy consumption on CO2 emissions. Countries located in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) are considered in the study. The selection of the SAARC region is motivated by the diverse nature of its members and further lack of available empirical literature on the same relationship. Annual data from 1980 to 2016 are analyzed using appropriate panel data techniques. The results revealed the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the SAARC region. Further, the introduction of cubic function into the model indicated that the shape of the EKC is N shaped. Besides, trade openness has negative while urbanization and energy consumption have impacted CO2 emissions positively. Moreover, the causality exercise explored a bidirectional causality between urbanization, energy consumption, per capita income, and CO2 emissions. Similarly, energy consumption, per capita GDP, and urbanization are also bidirectionally related. Further, a unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, urbanization, and energy consumption to trade openness is detected. Lastly, a unidirectional causality is witnessed from per capita income to energy consumption.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Comércio/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Renda , Urbanização/tendências , Ásia , Comércio/tendências , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30286-30302, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432370

RESUMO

Pakistan has an abundant solar power potential which can be effectively utilized for the electricity generation. There are various sites across the country which have sufficient solar irradiation across the year, and thus, suitable for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) power projects. This study, therefore, aims to undertake research on the establishment of solar power project site selection in Pakistan. In this context, 14 promising cities of Pakistan are considered as alternatives and studied in terms of economic, environmental, social, location, climate, and orography criteria and further supplemented with 20 sub-criteria. Initially, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method has been used to prioritize each of the main criteria and sub-criteria. Later, fuzzy VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje (F-VIKOR) method has been employed to prioritize the 14 alternatives. The present investigation reveals that Khuzdar (C2), Badin (C3), and Mastung (C7) are the most suitable cities for the installation of solar PV power projects in Pakistan. Finally, the outcome of the sensitivity analysis revealed that obtained results are reliable and robust for the installation of solar PV power projects in Pakistan. This study shall assist government, energy planners, and policymakers in making cities sustainable by establishing solar power projects in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Energia Solar/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cidades , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Pesquisa Empírica , Lógica Fuzzy , Paquistão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30069-30075, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418145

RESUMO

Energy is a crucial part of any economy and holds a central position in enhancing social development in the world. Energy consumption and the economy in Brazil have both increased in the past decade. In this paper, time series statistics from 1980 to 2017 will be used to analyze the relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption to will examine how energy use in the country affects economic growth using causality models. This is established through testing for stationarity using Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test for trend stationarity. A cointegration relationship is found between the two variables.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18814-18824, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065981

RESUMO

Using the extended STIRPAT model, this research examines the influence of various factors on China carbon emission from 1971 to 2014, including total nuclear and alternative energy, total fossil energy, GDP per capita, total population, total urban population, merchandise trade of GDP, and services value added of GDP. Ridge regression was employed to perform the study. The research results show the positivity and significance of all factors on carbon emission. The estimated elastic coefficients reveal the most important factor influencing carbon emission is GDP per capita. Total fossil energy, total urban population, and nuclear energy of total energy use are also prominent influencing factors, while other factors such as value-added services of GDP and merchandise trade of GDP have less significant impacts on carbon emission in China. These findings of the research will be of great significance for China to control its carbon emission in the future and to mitigate global warming to some extent.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Combustíveis Fósseis/análise , Modelos Teóricos , China , Produto Interno Bruto , Energia Nuclear/economia , Energia Renovável/economia , Urbanização
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19481-19489, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077046

RESUMO

This study applied the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model to identify and discuss the main drivers of Pakistan's CO2 emissions over the period 1990-2016. The study examined the effects of five factors based on Pakistan's three main economic sectors while considering the 11 types of fuels consumed in that country. The results showed that the energy structure effect is the greatest driving force of CO2 emissions in this country, followed by scale effect and economic structure effect. Energy intensity is the main contributor to reducing Pakistan's carbon emissions throughout the study period. A comparative review at the sectoral level shows that the industrial sector for which coal is the main source of energy supply is the one that contributes the most to CO2 emissions in Pakistan. Alongside this sector is the tertiary sector, where the transport sub-sector imposes rules of conduct based on a growing Pakistani population. Meanwhile, deforestation would be the main cause of CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector in Pakistan, as energy consumption in this sector remains very low. Improving energy efficiency through the intensification of clean energy is urgently needed if Pakistan's environmental goals are to be achieved.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Agricultura/economia , Carvão Mineral/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Indústrias/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Paquistão
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19305-19319, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073837

RESUMO

The nexus among real income, energy consumption, financial development, and carbon emission has broadly conferred area in energy and environmental literature. However, there is no study in the literature which investigates the moderating role of financial development between real income, energy consumption, and CO2 emission in Pakistan. This study reveals the role of financial development as a moderator in the conventional environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). To achieve the objectives of this study, two approaches are employed, (i) with main effects and (ii) with interaction variables, using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach in the case of Pakistan covering the period 1970 to 2016. Findings of the empirical analysis confirm the EKC hypothesis in the first case (without interaction effect) and our second estimations (with interaction effect) show that financial development significantly moderates the association of real output with CO2 emission (both for the long run and short run). The negative effect of financial development on carbon emission reveals to efficacious energy management with effective environmental performance. More precisely, the results of second estimations reveal that all three interaction variables are statistically significant but the EKC curve is no more. Thus, the current study proposes that the moderating effect of the financial sectors may be the possible reason which has been ignored by prior researchers and they found mix results regarding the existence of EKC in Pakistan. In addition, the Granger causality test confirms the feedback effect between real income and carbon emission and one-way causality from all the three interaction variables and financial development to CO2 emission. Lastly, this study posits some important policy inferences in the perspective of new economic policy formation in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Renda , Paquistão
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14328-14338, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864038

RESUMO

Energy innovations are critical to combating global warming and climate change. In this context, we focus on the impact of energy research-development (R&D) expenditures, which are the input of energy innovations, on CO2 emissions. For this purpose, we investigate the effect of disaggregated energy R&D expenditures on CO2 emission in 19 high-income OECD countries over the period 2003-2015. The dynamic panel data method is followed for empirical analysis. The results of the study show that R&D expenditures for energy efficiency and fossil energy have an increasing effect on CO2 emissions. Contrary to expectations, there is no significant relationship between renewable energy R&D expenditures and CO2 emissions. Remarkably, there is strong evidence that the power and storage R&D expenditures have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions. In light of the empirical findings, policy implications and recommendations to potential readers and authorities are further discussed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Energia Renovável/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Países Desenvolvidos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Produto Interno Bruto/tendências , Renda , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211925, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731008

RESUMO

Government funding accounts for a large proportion of conservation and environmental improvements, and is often the result of citizen votes on state ballot measures. A key concern surrounding public investments in the environment is whether that funding serves lower-income communities, which are often the communities of greatest need. We applied three statistical methods to analyze the spatial distribution of conservation funding derived from California's Proposition 84, which distributed nearly $4 billion across California between 2006 and 2015. First, we used hurdle models to ask if income, population density, urban coverage, or pollution could explain receipt of grants or magnitude of funding. Second, we compared the income levels of funded and unfunded communities for each chapter of the proposition. Finally, we examine two sections of the proposition that were intended to fund parks around the state and compare the attributes of funded and unfunded communities. Proposition 84 offers lessons for environmental legislation and future research. While there were general tendencies for more funding to flow to poor areas and areas with pollution problems, the language in Proposition 84 as a whole was vague with respect to the funding of disadvantaged areas, and as a result the targeting of these areas overall was at best modest. However, when enabling legislation (AB 31) defined specific "metrics of disadvantage" that had to be met by communities to receive funds from some sections of Proposition 84, the funds did flow much more selectively to poorer communities. This suggests that future ballot measures should be very explicit in their language if they want to promote equity in conservation investments, and that future research should investigate the extent to which technical workshops and outreach could further increase the number of funded grant proposals from low-income communities.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Política , Densidade Demográfica , Áreas de Pobreza , California , Humanos
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(5): 5210-5220, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604366

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the long-run and causal effects of energy consumption, economic growth, urbanization, and trade openness on CO2 emissions in Turkey using newly developed econometric techniques. To our best knowledge, there has been no study examining the relationship between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade openness, urbanization, and economic growth in Turkey. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap in the literature. In this study, we use time series data covering the years between 1960 and 2015. To capture long-run effects, we used ARDL, FMOLS, and DOLS estimators, while wavelet coherence technique is used to explore causal effects among the variables. Our results reveal that (i) there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between CO2 emissions and energy consumption, economic growth, urbanization, and trade openness; (ii) in the long-run, CO2 emission in Turkey is significantly triggered by energy consumption, economic growth, and urbanization; and (iii) the results of the wavelet coherence-based causality test provide supportive evidence to the long-run estimations of this study.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Comércio/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Modelos Teóricos , Turquia , Urbanização
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 2): 2483-2489, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293003

RESUMO

Climate change has become a global phenomenon due to its threat to sustainable development. However, economic development plays a complementary role in both climate change and sustainability. Thus, the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is critical to climate change policy formulation and development strategies. Accordingly, this study examined the validity of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis by investigating the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, financial development, and ecological footprint for the period from 1977 to 2013 in 11 newly industrialized countries. For this purpose, the study employed both augmented mean group (AMG) estimator and heterogeneous panel causality method which are suitable for dependent and heterogeneous panels. The results of the estimator show that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and ecological footprint. According to the causality test results, it is concluded that there is bi-directional causality between economic growth and ecological footprint.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Modelos Econômicos
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