Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 854
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0224959, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031384

RESUMO

Heat poses an urgent threat to public health in cities, as the urban heat island (UHI) effect can amplify exposures, contributing to high heat-related mortality and morbidity. Urban trees have the potential to mitigate heat by providing substantial cooling, as well as co-benefits such as reductions in energy consumption. The City of Boston has attempted to expand its urban canopy, yet maintenance costs and high tree mortality have hindered successful canopy expansion. Here, we present an interactive web application called Right Place, Right Tree-Boston that aims to support informed decision-making for planting new trees. To highlight priority regions for canopy expansion, we developed a Boston-specific Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) and present this alongside maps of summer daytime land surface temperatures. We also provide information about tree pests and diseases, suitability of species for various conditions, land ownership, maintenance tips, and alternatives to tree planting. This web application is designed to support decision-making at multiple spatial scales, to assist city officials as well as residents who are interested in expanding or maintaining Boston's urban forest.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Boston , Tomada de Decisões , Temperatura Alta , Reforma Urbana
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050646

RESUMO

The tri-functional purpose of Microbial Desalination Cell (MDC) has shown a great promise in our current scarcity of water, an increase in water pollution and the high cost of electricity production. As a biological system, the baseline force that drives its performance is the presence of exoelectrogens in the anode chamber. Their presence in the anodic chamber of MDC systems enables the treatment of water, desalination of seawater, and the production of electrical energy. This study reviews the characteristics of exoelectrogens, as a driving force in MDC and examines factors which influence their growth and the performance efficiency of MDC systems. It also addresses the efficiency of mixed cultures with certain predominant species as compared to pure cultures used in MDC systems. Furthermore, the study suggests the need to genetically modify certain predominant strains in mixed cultures to enhance their performance in COD removal, desalination and power output and the integration of MDC with other technologies for cost-effective processes.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica/microbiologia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Eletricidade , Eletrodos , Humanos , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 4571-4581, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993562

RESUMO

Nowadays, humanity is consuming unsustainably the planet's resources. In the scope of energy resource consumption, e.g., the intense use of fossil fuels has contributed to the acceleration of climate changes on the planet, and the overriding need to increase energy efficiency in all sectors is now widely recognized, aiming to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 69% in 2030. Largely due to climate changes, water has also become a critical resource on the planet and hydric stress risk will rise significantly in the coming decades. Accordingly, several countries will have to apply measures to increase water efficiency in all sectors, including at the building level. These measures, in addition to reducing water consumption, will contribute to the increase of energy efficiency and to the decrease of GHG emissions, especially of CO2. Therefore, the nexus water energy in buildings is relevant because the application of water efficiency measures can result in a significant contribution to improve buildings' energy efficiency and the urban water cycle (namely in abstraction, treatment, and pumping). For Mediterranean climate, there are few studies to assess the extent and impact of this nexus. This study presents the assessment of water-energy nexus performed in a university building located in a mainland Portugal central region. The main goals are to present the results of the water and energy efficiency measures implemented and to assess the consequent reduction of water, above 37%, and energy (30%) consumption, obtained because of the application of water-efficient devices and highly efficient light systems in the building. The water efficiency increase at the building level represents at the urban level an energy saving in the water supply system of 406 kWh/year, nearly 0.5% of the building energy consumption, with a consequent increase in the energy efficiency and in the reduction of GHG emissions. Complementarily, other energy-efficient measures were implemented to reduce the energy consumption. As the building under study has a small demand of domestic hot water with no hydro pressure pumps and has a small water-energy nexus, it was concluded that the significant reduction of the building energy consumption did not influence the indoor comfort.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Universidades , Água , Mudança Climática , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Portugal
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16887, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729404

RESUMO

The research provided scientific evidences for improved rice straw management. Rice cultivation with in-field burning of rice straw is the worst option with the lowest energy efficiency and highest air pollution emission. This article comprises a comparative assessment of energy efficiency and the environmental footprint of rice production using four different rice straw management scenarios, namely, straw retained, straw burned, partial straw removal, and complete straw removal. Paddy yield, grain quality, and energy balance were assessed for two seasons while greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) were measured weekly starting from land preparation through to the cropping and fallow period. Despite the added energy requirements in straw collection and transport, the use of collected rice straw for mushroom production can increase the net energy obtained from rice production systems by 10-15% compared to burning straw in the field. Partial and complete removal of rice straw reduces GHGE by 30% and 40% compared to complete straw retention, respectively.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Pegada de Carbono , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Meio Ambiente , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/normas , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
6.
J Vis Exp ; (152)2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633699

RESUMO

Developing photocatalytic H2 production devices is the one of the key steps for constructing a global H2-based renewable energy infrastructure. A number of photoactive assemblies have emerged where a photosensitizer and cobaloxime-based H2 production catalysts work in tandem to convert light energy into the H-H chemical bonds. However, the long-term instability of these assemblies and the need for hazardous proton sources have limited their usage. Here, in this work, we have integrated a stilbene-based organic dye into the periphery of a cobaloxime core via a distinct axial pyridine linkage. This strategy allowed us to develop a photosensitizer-catalyst hybrid structure with the same molecular framework. In this article, we have explained the detailed procedure of the synthesis of this hybrid molecule in addition to its comprehensive chemical characterization. The structural and optical studies have exhibited an intense electronic interaction between the cobaloxime core and the organic photosensitizer. The cobaloxime was active for H2 production even in the presence of water as the proton source. Here, we have developed a simple airtight system connected with an online H2 detector for the investigation of the photocatalytic activity by this hybrid complex. This photosensitizer-catalyst dyad present in the experimental setup continuously produced H2 once it was exposed in the natural sunlight. This photocatalytic H2 production by the hybrid complex was observed in aqueous/organic mixture media in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor under complete aerobic conditions. Thus, this photocatalysis measurement system along with the photosensitizer-catalyst dyad provide valuable insight for the development of next generation photocatalytic H2 production devices.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Hidrogênio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Água/química , Catálise , Prótons , Piridinas/química , Estilbenos/química , Luz Solar
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10345, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395893

RESUMO

Because meat is more resource intensive than vegetal protein sources, replacing it with efficient plant alternatives is potentially desirable, provided these alternatives prove nutritionally sound. We show that protein conserving plant alternatives to meat that rigorously satisfy key nutritional constraints while minimizing cropland, nitrogen fertilizer (Nr) and water use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions exist, and could improve public health. We develop a new methodology for identifying nutritional constraints whose satisfaction by plant eaters is challenging, disproportionately shaping the optimal diets, singling out energy, mass, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamins B3,12 and D, choline, zinc, and selenium. By replacing meat with the devised plant alternatives-dominated by soy, green pepper, squash, buckwheat, and asparagus-Americans can collectively eliminate pastureland use while saving 35-50% of their diet related needs for cropland, Nr, and GHG emission, but increase their diet related irrigation needs by 15%. While widely replacing meat with plants is logistically and culturally challenging, few competing options offer comparable multidimensional resource use reduction.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Dieta Vegetariana , Política Nutricional , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Humanos , Carne , Método de Monte Carlo , Estados Unidos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30286-30302, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432370

RESUMO

Pakistan has an abundant solar power potential which can be effectively utilized for the electricity generation. There are various sites across the country which have sufficient solar irradiation across the year, and thus, suitable for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) power projects. This study, therefore, aims to undertake research on the establishment of solar power project site selection in Pakistan. In this context, 14 promising cities of Pakistan are considered as alternatives and studied in terms of economic, environmental, social, location, climate, and orography criteria and further supplemented with 20 sub-criteria. Initially, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method has been used to prioritize each of the main criteria and sub-criteria. Later, fuzzy VlseKriterijuska Optimizacija I Komoromisno Resenje (F-VIKOR) method has been employed to prioritize the 14 alternatives. The present investigation reveals that Khuzdar (C2), Badin (C3), and Mastung (C7) are the most suitable cities for the installation of solar PV power projects in Pakistan. Finally, the outcome of the sensitivity analysis revealed that obtained results are reliable and robust for the installation of solar PV power projects in Pakistan. This study shall assist government, energy planners, and policymakers in making cities sustainable by establishing solar power projects in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Energia Solar/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cidades , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Pesquisa Empírica , Lógica Fuzzy , Paquistão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 945-957, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280175

RESUMO

Desalination is increasingly put forward as a sustainable local solution to water scarcity in combination with the exploitation of renewable energy sources. However, the complexity of the resource nexus entails the unavoidable existence of pros and cons across its various dimensions that can only be assessed at different scales of analysis. In turn, these pros and cons entail different winners and losers among the different social actors linked through the nexus. To address these challenges, a novel approach to resource nexus assessment is put forward, based on multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM) and recognizing the resource nexus as a wicked problem. The integrated representation identifies the existence of biophysical constraints determined by processes both under human control (in the technosphere) and beyond human control (in the biosphere). The approach is illustrated with a local case study of desalination in the Canary Islands, Spain. The material presented has been generated in the context of the project "Moving towards adaptive governance in complexity: Informing nexus security" (MAGIC) for use in participatory processes of co-production of knowledge claims about desalination, a prerequisite for informed policy deliberation.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Vento , Ilhas , Energia Renovável , Espanha , Purificação da Água/instrumentação
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20530-20537, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102231

RESUMO

In this experimental study, the feasibility of using the oil obtained from waste fishing net as a substitute for diesel fuel was investigated. Waste fishing net oil (WFNO) was obtained through pyrolysis process on a laboratory scale setup and used as a fuel in diesel engine. The properties of oil obtained from waste fishing net were examined and compared with conventional diesel fuel. Results indicated that the WFNO possesses excellent fuel properties. The calorific value of WFNO is 44,450 kJ/kg, which is higher than diesel by 1.48%. In order to study the possibility of using WFNO and its blends (WFNO 25%, WFNO 50%, WFNO 75% and WFNO 100%) with diesel as a fuel, an experimental investigation was carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine. Experimental results proved that WFNO works satisfactorily on a diesel engine without any engine modifications. Brake thermal efficiency was decreased and brake-specific fuel consumption was increased while using WFNO and its blends. Moreover, there was a slight increase in engine emissions like CO, UHC, NO with WFNO and its blends.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Pesqueiros , Óleos/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Gasolina/análise , Pirólise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14328-14338, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864038

RESUMO

Energy innovations are critical to combating global warming and climate change. In this context, we focus on the impact of energy research-development (R&D) expenditures, which are the input of energy innovations, on CO2 emissions. For this purpose, we investigate the effect of disaggregated energy R&D expenditures on CO2 emission in 19 high-income OECD countries over the period 2003-2015. The dynamic panel data method is followed for empirical analysis. The results of the study show that R&D expenditures for energy efficiency and fossil energy have an increasing effect on CO2 emissions. Contrary to expectations, there is no significant relationship between renewable energy R&D expenditures and CO2 emissions. Remarkably, there is strong evidence that the power and storage R&D expenditures have a reducing effect on CO2 emissions. In light of the empirical findings, policy implications and recommendations to potential readers and authorities are further discussed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Mudança Climática , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Energia Renovável/economia , Pesquisa/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Países Desenvolvidos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Produto Interno Bruto/tendências , Renda , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico
13.
Indoor Air ; 29(4): 686-697, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921480

RESUMO

We assessed 45 multifamily buildings (240 apartments) from Finland and 20 (96 apartments) from Lithuania, out of which 37 buildings in Finland and 15 buildings in Lithuania underwent energy retrofits. Building characteristics, retrofit activities, and energy consumption data were collected, and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) parameters, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), formaldehyde (CH2 O), selected volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were measured before and after the retrofits. After the retrofits, heating energy consumption decreased by an average of 24% and 49% in Finnish and Lithuanian buildings, respectively. After the retrofits of Finnish buildings, there was a significant increase in BTEX concentrations (estimated mean increase of 2.5 µg/m3 ), whereas significant reductions were seen in fungal (0.6-log reduction in cells/m2 /d) and bacterial (0.6-log reduction in gram-positive and 0.9-log reduction in gram-negative bacterial cells/m2 /d) concentrations. In Lithuanian buildings, radon concentrations were significantly increased (estimated mean increase of 13.8 Bq/m3 ) after the retrofits. Mechanical ventilation was associated with significantly lower CH2 O concentrations in Finnish buildings. The results and recommendations presented in this paper can inform building retrofit studies and other programs and policies aimed to improve indoor environment and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Ventilação , Microbiologia do Ar , Poeira/análise , Ambiente Controlado , Monitoramento Ambiental , Finlândia , Habitação , Humanos , Lituânia , Ventilação/métodos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0209469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653528

RESUMO

Many campaigns targeting pro-environmental behavior combine multiple approaches without properly understanding how these different approaches interact. Here we study the effect of such combinations. We apply construal level theory to classify different intervention approaches, which can either be at a high construal level (abstract and distant) or at a low construal level (concrete and proximal). In a field experiment we recruited 197 students living in one-person apartments in an all-inclusive student housing facility. We objectively measured their individual electricity and warm water use, and measured psychological variables through surveys. We expected that the (commonly considered superior) combination between a high and a low construal level approach would be least effective. Participants were randomly assigned to a 2(Construal Level: low vs. high) × 2(Social Distance: low vs. high) plus control condition mixed-model design targeting a reduction in warm water use. Our findings suggest that a congruent combination at a high construal level (i.e., the high construal level condition combined with the high social distance condition) has the largest effect on warm water use and that spillover to electricity use is most likely to occur when a high construal level is used (i.e., high social distance). Moreover, especially participants who valued nature and the environment less were most strongly influenced by the combination of two high construal level approaches. In sum, our study suggests that when designing interventions one should consider the construal level and when targeting pro-environmental behavior high construal levels appear most appropriate.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Humanos , Motivação , Países Baixos , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1150-1160, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677979

RESUMO

Fossil fuel depletion and the environmental concerns have been under discussion for energy production for many years and finding new and renewable energy sources became a must. Biomass is considered as a net zero CO2 energy source. Gasification of biomass for H2 and syngas production is an attractive process. The main target of this research is to improve the production of hydrogen and syngas from palm kernel shell (PKS) steam gasification through defining the optimal operating parameters' using a modern optimization algorithm. To predict the gaseous outputs, two PKS models were built using fuzzy logic based on the experimental data sets. A radial movement optimizer (RMO) was applied to determine the system's optimal operating parameters. During the optimization process, the decision variables were represented by four different operating parameters. These parameters include; temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio and coal bottom ash (CBA) with their operating ranges of (650-750 °C), (0.5-1 mm), (0.5-2) and wt% (0.02-0.10), respectively. The individual and interactive effects of different combinations were investigated on the production of H2 and syngas yield. The optimized results were compared with experimental data and results obtained from Response Surface Methodology (RSM) reported in literature. The obtained optimal values of the operating parameters through RMO were found 722 °C, 0.92 mm, 1.72 and 0.06 wt% for the temperature, particle size, CaO/biomass ratio and coal bottom ash, respectively. The results showed that syngas production was significantly improved as it reached 65.44 vol% which was better than that obtained in earlier studies.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/química , Biocombustíveis/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Lógica Fuzzy , Hidrogênio/análise , Pirólise , Gases/análise , Nozes/química
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e032561, 2019 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health and climate change are inexorably linked through the exacerbation of health risks and the contribution of the health sector to greenhouse gas emissions. Climate action in healthcare settings is critical to reduce risks and impacts of climate change through the smarter use of energy, minimising waste and enhancing disaster preparedness. Globally, hospital climate action is growing; however, the potential for further progress and impacts remains. The literature on this topic lacks synthesis, and this poses challenges for hospital leadership in tracking the impact of climate action. This scoping review will summarise the current knowledge about hospital climate action and existing tools to measure progress in this area. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will be conducted applying the six-stage protocol proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. The study includes literature of how hospitals have addressed climate change (mitigation and adaptation) since the Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997. All identified studies indexed in Medline, Scopus, Embase and CINAHL will be examined. The search strategy will also include Google Scholar to capture relevant grey literature. Quantitative and thematic analysis will be used to evaluate and categorise the study results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review is part of the climate-smart healthcare initiative which will provide a valuable synthesis to aid understanding of hospitals' climate actions, and tools used to measure its implementation. As such it will contribute to mobilising and accelerating the implementation of climate action in hospitals. The findings will be disseminated with all members of the International Health Promoting Hospital and Health Services (HPH) and the Global Green and Healthy Hospital network. Dissemination will occur through peer-reviewed publications; and with the HPH and GGHH members through its annual conference and newsletter.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Hospitais , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 1): 105-110, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195127

RESUMO

Moving resource management and allocation away from sectoral silos to a paradigm founded in integration and leveraging cross-sectoral and trans-disciplinary synergies will result in expanded opportunities for economic development and improved social well-being (Mohtar, 2017; Mohtar and Daher, 2017). Interventions to address complex resource challenges must identify opportunities while cognizant of holistic, system level trade-offs (Daher and Mohtar, 2015; Daher et al., 2018a, b, c). These interventions must be contextualized locally: Texas has spatially varied water scarcity, energy resource abundance, and rapid population growth; in the northeastern United States water quality, drainage, and extreme weather events pose far greater challenges. While the overall system-of-systems quantification of water, energy, food and other interconnected systems remains similar across hotspots, the solutions to the challenges posed within each hotspot are bound by local knowledge, physical resource constraints, and governance challenges. This paper introduces the experience of the Texas A&M University Water-Energy-Food Nexus Initiative (WEFNI) in creating a University wide, three-year investigatory experience in which an interdisciplinary group addressed the resource challenges facing the San Antonio region. This Science of the Total Environment (STOTEN) Special Issue documents, in 9 distinct, yet complementary, research articles, the multiple dimensions of this resource hotspot. This paper reflects on the process of creating interdisciplinary teams and presents an overview of the questions and research conducted under thematic foci: data and modeling, trade-off analysis, water for food, water for energy, and governance. Lessons learned from the interdisciplinary experience are presented; potentially transferrable to addressing other resource hotspots within the US, and globally.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Texas
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(4): 3243-3261, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560537

RESUMO

Energy is a foundation for a city to create economic wealth, satisfy people's desires, and achieve benefits. However, the increasing mismatch between energy supply and demand and the worsening of environmental pollution have highlighted the importance of improving urban energy performance, so the number of studies related to urban energy performance evaluation is increasing. Based on describing the authors, numbers, regional sources, and themes of these studies, this paper reviews and analyzes the conceptions, evaluation indicators, influencing factors, evaluation methods, and evaluation systems related to urban energy performance. Most countries have expressed concern about this topic. Researchers in China, Belgium, and the USA have had the most achievements and collaborations. The concept of urban energy performance further extends to a comprehensive performance. It is measured based on an input-output process. In addition to the original evaluation indicators, new desirable outputs and undesirable outputs are included. Industrial structure, energy price, population density, home car ownership, climate factors, Gini coefficient, health expenditure level, and unemployment rate are regarded as influencing factors. Therefore, a new framework of evaluation indicators and influencing factors is constructed. Stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) and data envelopment analysis (DEA) are commonly used to evaluate. With changes in conceptions, evaluation indicators, and influencing factors, the evaluation method should rather focus on measuring multiple input-output variables, determining the evaluation results and the impacts of factors at the same analysis stage, and highlighting policy orientations. As an important management tool, the evaluation system would continue to be studied and developed.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/normas , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Urbanização/tendências , Bélgica , China , Cidades , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Gen Appl Microbiol ; 65(2): 80-87, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464113

RESUMO

The yeast Lipomyces accumulates triacylglycerols (TAGs) as intracellular fat globules, and these TAGs can be used as source materials for biodiesel production. In this study, we aimed to use this yeast to produce lipids from renewable resources. Using plate culture and micrograph methods, strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were screened from 15,408 types of systems combining renewable resources, strains, and culture temperatures. The lipid-accumulation ability of the strains was estimated from the fat globule volume, which was calculated using a micrograph. The reliability of this method was examined, and strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability were identified for each renewable resource. Seventy-seven Lipomyces strains (7 deposit, 68 wild-type, 2 mutants) with a high lipid-accumulation ability were selected. A few strains possessed the ability to accumulate large amounts of TAGs from more than four different renewable resources. We found that strains with a high lipid-accumulation ability could efficiently convert consumed carbon sources into TAGs, which could be easily recovered from the fat globules of these strains through physical disruption.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis/microbiologia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipomyces/genética , Biocombustíveis/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura , Microbiologia Industrial , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipomyces/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518096

RESUMO

Information concerning carbon reduction efficiency is of great significance to supply chain operations. Considering the impact of information asymmetry on the performance of low-carbon supply chain, we therefore analyze a chain system with a single product designer and a single manufacturer. The manufacturer owns information on carbon reduction efficiency, whereas the product designer only knows that the carbon reduction efficiency of the manufacturer is either high or low. To induce the manufacturer to reveal his true private information of carbon-reduction efficiency to the product designer, we devise the pooling and separating equilibrium models to compare the impacts of these two models on supply chain performance, respectively. We find that the high-efficiency manufacturer gets his first-best choice at the equilibrium decision in the separating model, and obtains the information rent in the pooling model. The information rent increases in the efficiency difference between the two emission-reduction types. Additionally, we examine how the probability of the high (or low)-efficiency manufacturer being chosen impacts on both the profits of chain members and carbon-reduction levels. The research provides a reference for companies about how to cooperate with partner who possess private information of carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Pegada de Carbono/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/métodos , Revelação , Indústria Manufatureira/economia , China , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Eficiência Organizacional , Política Ambiental , Indústria Manufatureira/organização & administração , Modelos Econômicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...