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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 673: 207-217, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986680

RESUMO

India has the highest national freshwater demand globally and 91% of India's freshwater is used in the agriculture sector. Cereals account for over 50% of the dietary water footprint in India and represent a potential opportunity for reducing water use in Indian agriculture. This study combines governmental production and irrigation statistics with crop distribution maps to examine trends in annual water use for cereal production in India between 2005 and 2014. A new online water assessment tool, Cool Farm Tool Water (CFTW), was used to calculate water use and derive seasonal state-level blue and green water footprints for rice, wheat, sorghum, millet and maize. The analysis indicates that India achieved 26.4% increased total cereal production between 2005 and 2014 without additional water or land use. Cereal water footprints have declined due to higher yields for most crops and slightly lower rates of evapotranspiration. There has also been a shift in the area under production away from the Kharif (monsoon) towards the Rabi (dry) season in which total water footprints for all cereals except rice are substantially lower (-33.4% to -45.0% compared to Kharif), but show a significantly higher dependency on ground and surface water. The value of this study is two-fold. First, it provides a full assessment of production trends for the five major cereals in India for each year from 2005 to 2014 and links it to water use. Secondly, it uses updated seasonal water footprints, which demonstrate the potential for changes in cereal production practices to contribute to improved efficiency of water use in India. Future pressures on scarce water resources may encourage transition to cereals with lower irrigation dependency, in particular maize, but also sorghum and millet. In addition, increased emphasis on improving millet and sorghum yields would be of benefit to secure cereal production and reduce its overall water footprint.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilizantes , Índia , Milhetes , Oryza , Sorghum , Triticum , Zea mays
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 79(1): 3-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816857

RESUMO

The wastewater industry is currently facing dramatic changes, shifting away from energy-intensive wastewater treatment towards low-energy, sustainable technologies capable of achieving energy positive operation and resource recovery. The latter will shift the focus of the wastewater industry to how one could manage and extract resources from the wastewater, as opposed to the conventional paradigm of treatment. Debatable questions arise: can the more complex models be calibrated, or will additional unknowns be introduced? After almost 30 years using well-known International Water Association (IWA) models, should the community move to other components, processes, or model structures like 'black box' models, computational fluid dynamics techniques, etc.? Can new data sources - e.g. on-line sensor data, chemical and molecular analyses, new analytical techniques, off-gas analysis - keep up with the increasing process complexity? Are different methods for data management, data reconciliation, and fault detection mature enough for coping with such a large amount of information? Are the available calibration techniques able to cope with such complex models? This paper describes the thoughts and opinions collected during the closing session of the 6th IWA/WEF Water Resource Recovery Modelling Seminar 2018. It presents a concerted and collective effort by individuals from many different sectors of the wastewater industry to offer past and present insights, as well as an outlook into the future of wastewater modelling.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrodinâmica , Modelos Estatísticos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Águas Residuárias
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 646: 280-289, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055490

RESUMO

In the domestic segment, various appliances and processes consume great amount of water and, consequently, energy. In this context, the main aim of this study is to analyse the impact of water temperature, flow and bath duration in water and energy consumptions. The impact on CO2 emissions and a simple costs analysis were also carried out. It included a monitoring plan of 197 baths taken under different scenarios of water temperature and flow. It was concluded that increasing water consumption leads to an increase on energy consumption and that both resources consumptions increase with bath duration. Bath temperature had influence not only on energy consumption, as expected, but also in water consumption, what may be explained by the user's satisfaction during baths with higher temperatures. The use of a flow reducing valve is not a guarantee of water saving which can also be related to the user's satisfaction patterns, given that the introduction of a flow reducing valve can lead to a bath duration increase. In what concerns to the CO2 emissions, it was concluded, as expected, that higher values are obtained for baths with higher temperatures given their relation with higher energy consumptions patterns. A simple costs analysis revealed that having flow reducing valves, with a bath temperature of 75 °C, increased the costs with electricity and water in 119% and 32%, respectively, when compared with a temperature of 60 °C.


Assuntos
Banhos/economia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Banhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Ambiente , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 135: 139-149, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301023

RESUMO

The people of Oceania have long relied on the ocean for sustenance, commerce, and cultural identity, which promulgated a sophisticated understanding of the marine environment and its conservation. Global declines in ocean health now require innovative solutions that can benefit from customary knowledge and practices, which in the past led to sustainable marine resource use. The resurgence of local stewardship, which incorporates customary practices and governance, has shown promise in many locations throughout the Pacific, although a complete return to past practices is not fully implementable owing to the loss of traditional knowledge, centralized governmental structures, economic development, and globalization. Hybrid systems that incorporate elements of customary and contemporary management can overcome some of these limitations to implementation of successful local management, and lead to greater food security, social cohesion, and the creation of an adaptive system that can potentially mitigate the effects of climate change and other stressors.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Pesqueiros , Animais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/tendências , Ecossistema , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Internacionalidade , Oceania , Alimentos Marinhos
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 715-721, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454211

RESUMO

The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Participants revealed that seasonality affects water availability, water system breakdowns, resource mobilization, committee activity, and external support availability. In the rainy season, participants typically reported spending less time and money on water collection because rainwater harvesting and seasonal streams, ponds, wells and reservoirs are available. In the dry season, people used improved groundwater sources more often and spent more money and time collecting water. Although seasonal changes in household water demand and use have been examined previously, our data suggest that seasonality also influences community management through differential water system use, system breakdowns and management characteristics. We found that water committees generally have less money, time and access to external support during the rainy season, making them less able to carry out O&M. Our results suggest that community engagement should take place over a long period of time so that seasonal patterns in management can be understood and incorporated into water committee training. External support actors should make a more targeted effort to understand the cultural and economic patterns in a community in order to train committees with appropriate management strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Zâmbia
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(20): 19217-19227, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378307

RESUMO

During the last decades, achieving water efficiency in buildings has increasingly become an important challenge in the scope of sustainability. Water consumption is directly related to individual conduct. Despite the various technological improvements in fixtures and appliances, their performance will be influenced by human preferences and behavior. As a result, the potential for effective water consumption saving is influenced by behavior change as well as water-efficient fixtures and appliances. This work evaluates the impact of user preferences and behavior change on the water-efficient performance of tap aerators in a case study building: the Department of Civil Engineering building of the University of Aveiro, Portugal. Four aerators with different discharge reductions and types were installed in the toilet's washbasins and the user's preferences and behavior change measured through direct and online questionnaires. It was observed that the effective water consumption reduction (15 to 49%) was less than the discharge reduction (30 to 70%), confirming that user factors influence water savings. Water use reductions in the tested range (2.0 to 6.7 l/min) also varied according to gender, with male users using less water than their female counterparts. It was noted that an awareness of sustainability values prevailed amongst the users when confronted with the choice between comfort and water efficiency, although differences were observed in the user preferences regarding the various aerators. When confronted with the information that the lower discharge aerator would contribute to a reduction of about 70% on the water discharge, 25% of the users agreed with its use, even if it resulted in a certain degree of dissatisfaction. In comparison, only 8% of the users completely disagreed with its installation. On average, the water consumption reduction was 46% smaller than the discharge reduction achievable with the aerator alone. This further confirms the user factors inform the degree of water savings that is achievable from water-efficient fittings and fixtures.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Materiais de Construção/economia , Materiais de Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Gig Sanit ; 96(2): 148-52, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446600

RESUMO

The aim of the study was a comparative description and assessment of seasonal dynamics of organoleptic characteristics, degree of salinity and chemical composition of the water from some reservoirs in Uzbekistan. Organoleptic indices and parameters of salinity of water from Kattakurgansky reservoir in the spring and summer were established to be practically within the range of MPC. Indices of chemical composition of water of the Kattakurgan reservoir were below the upper limit of MPC. In water samples of Tuyamuyunsky reservoir organoleptic indices and parameters of water salinity in summer were higher than the MPC. Indices of the chemical composition of water in the summer time were below upper limits of the permissible level, there were noted reliable inter-seasonal differences on the content of chlorides and sulfates. Organoleptic indices and the degree of mineralization of water samples of Charvaksky reservoir were within the range of MPC. All parameters of the chemical composition of water of Charvaksky reservoir were lower than the upper MPC limit, regardless of the place of sampling and the time of year.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Água Doce , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos , Abastecimento de Água , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Água Doce/análise , Água Doce/química , Humanos , Uzbequistão/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 568: 180-188, 2016 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289397

RESUMO

Water scarcity is one of the main problems faced by many regions in the XXIst century. In this context, the need to reduce leakages from water distribution systems has gained almost universal acceptance. The concept of sustainable economic level of leakage (SELL) has been proposed to internalize the environmental and resource costs within economic level of leakage calculations. However, because these costs are not set by the market, they have not often been calculated. In this paper, the directional-distance function was used to estimate the shadow price of leakages as a proxy of their environmental and resource costs. This is a pioneering approach to the economic valuation of leakage externalities. An empirical application was carried out for the main Chilean water companies. The estimated results indicated that for 2014, the average shadow price of leakages was approximately 32% of the price of the water delivered. Moreover, as a sensitivity analysis, the shadow prices of the leakages were calculated from the perspective of the water companies' managers and the regulator. The methodology and findings of this study are essential for supporting the decision process of reducing leakage, contributing to the improvement of economic, social and environmental efficiency and sustainability of urban water supplies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Chile , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Gig Sanit ; 95(9): 861-4, 2016.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431321

RESUMO

There are considered special social and economic aspects of the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori. These aspects acquired the particular importance for the last time due to the fact that the provision of the people with pure water has been becoming the focus of the attention of geopolitical and socio-economic interests in a number of countries. The availability ofpure drinking water serves a marker of the socio-economic state of the territory and the population living there. In Russia where different climatic conditions are deposited by considerable regional differences in the conditions of communal services caused both by various level of the socio-economic development of the territory, the supplementation with pure drinking water serves as the social determinant of the ecological conditions of the population's life. This particularly has impact on the unfeasible technical state of the water distribution systems, microorganism ecology of which can substantially affect public health. The performed by authors a specialized screening ofpresented at the official web site of the joint-stock company «Mosvodokanal¼ current data concerning the quality of drinking water consumed by 2500 Moscovites, tested for the Helicobacter pylori infection revealed no deviations from the sanitary standards in the water received by the consumers. Along with that, the comparison of the map documents of the distribution of the Helicobacter pylori infection in Moscow with the distribution of citizens' complaints of the decline of the quality of tap water has revealed a territorial fastening of the high values of the population infection rate of n^ylori and the urban sites with the greatest number of complaints. In the microbial ecology of water-distribution systems there are tightly aligned problems of their epidemiological safety, technical state and economic damage caused by corrosion as a result of microbiotic activity. In contrast to acute bacterial and viral infections which are deemed of the greatest importance when assessing the sanitary condition of water sources and water-distribution systems, the consequences of infection with H. pylori may not be manifestedfor a long time but some years later they may be manifested as serious chronic diseases (from gastritis to adenocarcinoma of the stomach and a wide range of extraintestinal pathologies), which causes great social and economic losses. Thus, the socio-economic aspect of the epidemiology of helicobacteriosis includes at least two components: the technic - the maintenance of the feasible technic and sanitary state of the water distribution systems and the medico-social - expenditures for screening and treatment of infected patients. In total they are an inseparable part of the prevention of socially-important diseases in the public health system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Saúde Pública , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Helicobacter/economia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/etiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Moscou/epidemiologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tempo , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
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