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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148075, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465033

RESUMO

Polychaetes are one of the most diverse groups of marine organisms, characterized by high species richness, diversity of feeding guilds, life styles, and mobility types. Marine annelids are useful indicators of ecosystem responses to changes in environmental conditions. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on functional diversity of polychaete communities in the Gulf of Guinea, a large marine ecosystem (LME) located in West Africa. This area can be considered as a model marine ecosystem affected by various human influences, such as pollution associated with the oil industry. Material was collected in 2012 across the coast of Ghana. Samples were gathered along four transects, each with six sampling stations (25-1000 m depth range). Analyses of functional richness and evenness, based on generalized linear mixed-effect models and hierarchical partitioning, allowed for complex assessments of the interactions between polychaete communities and environmental factors (e.g., sediments, total organic matter, salinity, fluorescence, oxygen, concentration of toxic metals, total hydrocarbons). Overall species richness of polychaetes was outstandingly high, with 253 species recorded. Functional richness decreased along a depth gradient, while functional evenness increased with depth, and was positively correlated with Ba content, which reached the highest values in the upper bathyal. Gravel content was an important factor in shaping functional composition of shallow water communities. High values of functional richness observed in the shallows may be an expression of high stability of this ecosystem, at the same time indicating its high resilience. Elevated concentrations of lead also influenced community structure at a local scale. Our study demonstrated how a complex set of factors operating along a depth gradient can influence the functional composition of communities. These results are crucial for future management of industrial and environmental protection activities in this region.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Gana , Humanos
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 614, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468858

RESUMO

Habitat quality is an important indicator for measuring regional biodiversity and ecosystem service value. A change in habitat quality is the direct result of the interaction between human activities and the natural environment. In this study, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model was used to evaluate the habitat quality of the Yellow River Basin (YRB) from 1980 to 2018. We further analyzed the quantity and spatial transfer status of habitat quality quantitatively using the Geo-informatic Tupu method. The results show that the habitat degradation degree under human disturbance showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, with values of 0.0196 in 1980, 0.0200 in 2000, and 0.0199 in 2018. In addition, it presents two ring structures: light-severe-high-moderate and light-moderate-high-severe in space. The overall level of habitat quality in the basin is relatively good, but there is a trend of decline, which are 0.6091, 0.6069, and 0.6049 in the three stages respectively. The spatial distribution of habitat quality showed a pattern of high in the middle and low on both sides. The habitat quality has been restored in some areas. The transition between good and medium and good and excellent in the Tupu change units of the habitat quality grade is the most intense. Both stages are mainly the transformation from high-grade to low-grade habitat quality, but there is a trend of gradual improvement. The findings could have theoretical support and policy implications for the maintenance of biodiversity and the protection of the natural environment in the Yellow River Basin.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
3.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243666, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495145

RESUMO

Brazil is the world's richest country in biodiversity, including mammal species. In the Brazilian Cerrado biome, mammalian diversity is vast, with about 251 species, 32 of them are endemic and 22 listed as threatened species. In this work, we investigated species diversity of medium- and large-sized mammals in the private protected area RPPN Pontal do Jaburu (RPPN-PJ) and its surroundings, which is a flooded area located in an important biological corridor in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone zone, a priority area for biodiversity conservation in Brazil. We used camera-trapping, active search (night and day), and track survey during dry season (Apr - Aug 2016). We recorded 29 mammal species, being the Carnivora order the most representative with 11 species. Regarding threat status, 35.7% of the recorded species were listed as threatened in Brazil and 32.1% worldwide. We highlight the high relative frequency of threatened species records such as Tapirus terrestris, Panthera onca, Blastocerus dichotomus, Pteronura brasiliensis, Priodontes maximus, and other, as well as the presence of the newly described aquatic mammal species Inia araguaiaensis. We stress the importance of RPPN-PJ and its surroundings for mammal conservation, which include complex habitats (wetlands) located in an important ecotone zone.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 624, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477980

RESUMO

Monitoring and Assessment (M&A) of environmental resources aims to support the formulation of policies and follow up on outcomes of their implementation. In this study, the state of M&A is explored for Ethiopia with a focus on forests and water resources. The study is intended to serve as recommendations for future M&A applications in Ethiopia, as well as fulfillment of SDGs and other national and international commitments. Expert meetings, key informant interviews, and selected document analysis served as sources of information. The findings were summarized using qualitative grading and institutional mapping. Basic results of the study are that monitoring data on climate and streamflow are standardized in forms that can be communicated to policymakers. Scantier and less standardized are environmental data on soils, sediment transport, forests, biodiversity, and air quality. Water quality, soil moisture, groundwater level, forest biomass, and soil carbon are rarely monitored and can only be found in reports or studies for the fulfillment of academic degree requirements. Resources like nutrient fluxes have rarely been documented, not at all in some cases. There is considerable scope for tapping both technological advances and experiences of citizen science and local participation in environmental governance to rapidly expand and improve monitoring from local to regional and national scales. The study showed that there is a need for establishing a coordinated national system for monitoring and assessing the status of the environment, including the use of natural resources. Communicating such data to the scientific and wider public will support evidence-based planning and policy-making towards national development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental , Etiópia , Florestas
5.
Nature ; 597(7874): 7-8, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465911
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 563, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379209

RESUMO

Restoring degraded forest is essential if we are to reduce human pressure on natural ecosystems and their biodiversity. Forests were nationalized in 1957 in Nepal and as a consequence, forest cover declined from 45% in 1964 to just 29% in 1994. However, as its response, sectoral plans and policies, particularly introduction of community-based forest management programs since the 1980s and conservation activities resulted in large scale forest cover restoration. Here, we examined the forest cover change in the Gandaki River Basin (GRB), the catchment with the largest altitudinal variation (ranging from ± 93 to 8167 m) and environmental and ecological significance. To see how forests have changed since then, we analyzed snapshots of spatiotemporal, ecological and physiographic changes in forest cover, and forest type at decadal intervals from 1996 to 2016 using Landsat 5 and 8 satellite images. We observed an overall gain in forest cover of 207 km2, from 7571 km2 (34.4% of the total area) in 1996 to 7778 km2 (35.3%) in 2016. Of the 21 forest cover types identified, the greatest forest coverage during 2016 was of Schima-Castanopsis forest (25.9%) and hill sal forests (16.4%). In terms of physiographic zones, land below 500 m (Tarai) where most people live, witnessed gradual declines in forest cover, in contrast to large increases in forests above 500 m. Historical examination of forest cover at ecological and physiographic scales helps to identify the elevation-wise distribution of forest resources, vegetation composition, ecosystem characteristics, anthropogenic pressure upon vegetation, and hence the overall influence of LULC upon the environment. These outputs will assist planners, policy makers, and researchers in their formulation of effective basin wide plans and policies to ensure the protection of basin level biodiversity and ecosystem function.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Humanos , Nepal
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148102, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380237

RESUMO

The productive sector must incorporate waste into traditional materials in order to grow sustainably. In Galicia (Spain) alone, the canning industry produces over 150,000 metric tons of seashell waste per year. Most of this waste is still disposed of in landfills or open fields due to the lack of a technically feasible, environmentally sustainable, and economically profitable recycling alternative. This paper aims to study the feasibility of a new recycling alternative for seashell waste from industrial canning, based on the production of fireproof material suitable for construction use. The waste was pre-treated in order to remove salts and remaining organic matter and reduce particle size. According to international standards, physical, mechanical, and insulating properties were assessed for four compositions: 0, 40, 60 and 80% of gypsum substituted with pre-treated seashell waste. Results showed that substitution of up 60% gypsum was technically feasible. A Life-Cycle Assessment and a preliminary production cost analysis were performed by analysing a recycling case in Galicia. The case study found that 40-60% gypsum substitution obtained an environmental impact reduction of 0.4%-59% for 13 of the 18 impact categories considered compared with 0% substitution. Increases in the other 5 categories were analysed due to aquatic emissions released in the waste pre-treatment washing process. The locations of the fireproof material production facility and the waste source were a key factor. Production costs could be reduced by 20-31% by using 40-60% gypsum substituted with seashell wastes.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Exoesqueleto/química , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Reciclagem , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 148234, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380278

RESUMO

Designating and managing marine protected areas (MPAs) can mitigate many ocean threats. Banning fishing activities within MPAs enhances the robustness of food-web dynamics and thus increases trophic resilience. Ecosystem function indicators, such as mean trophic level, are increasingly applied in conservation management. Stable isotope analysis is a common tool in trophodynamic studies as it provides information about food sources and trophic level within food webs. In contrast to the traditional top-down approaches in conservation management (mainly for fisheries), this study focuses on bottom-up responses to protection according to the target species in regional small-scale fisheries. The present study aimed to examine how MPA status affects trophodynamics in the rocky reefs of the Illas Atlánticas Marine-Terrestrial National Park (Galicia, NW Spain). Results showed no differences between inside and outside the MPA in species stable isotopic signatures or trophic level. However, these results should be considered with caution due to some limitations in the study design (small number of sites per location, biogeographic differences associated with the island nature of the MPA, or seasonal variability). Nevertheless, the lax fishing management, the lack of proper implementation (the MPA was established in 2002 without a management plan until 2019), and the small size of the studied MPA may result in ineffective conservation outcomes that could have been reflected in the stable isotopic content of the food web. The large number of "paper park" MPAs existing worldwide are not only detrimental to the perception of marine protection, but also provide poor protection of marine ecosystems. Subject to further studies accounting for both environmental and management factors on stable isotope signatures, trophic interactions can form a cost-effective tool for monitoring MPA effectiveness.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Animais , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos
10.
Zool Res ; 42(5): 626-632, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410047

RESUMO

Viruses can be transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) and across animal species. As such, host-virus interactions and transmission have attracted considerable attention. Non-human primates (NHPs), our closest evolutionary relatives, are susceptible to human viruses and certain pathogens are known to circulate between humans and NHPs. Here, we generated global statistics on VI-NHPs based on a literature search and public data mining. In total, 140 NHP species from 12 families are reported to be infected by 186 DNA and RNA virus species, 68.8% of which are also found in humans, indicating high potential for crossing species boundaries. The top 10 NHP species with high centrality in the NHP-virus network include two great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and eight Old World monkeys (Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, M. leonina, Papio cynocephalus, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. erythrotis, Chlorocebus aethiops, and Allochrocebus lhoesti). Given the wide distribution of Old World monkeys and their frequent contact with humans, there is a high risk of virus circulation between humans and such species. Thus, we suggest recurring epidemiological surveillance of NHPs, specifically Old World monkeys that are in frequent contact with humans, and other effective measures to prevent potential circulation and transmission of viruses. Avoidance of false positives and sampling bias should also be a focus in future work.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Primatas/virologia , Saúde Pública , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/classificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Saúde Global , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444073

RESUMO

Governments have designated national parks to protect the natural environment against ecosystem destruction and improve individuals' emotional and recreational life. National parks enhance environment-friendly awareness by conducting ecotourism activities and individuals with environment-friendly awareness are inclined to continue to visit national parks as ecotourism destinations. The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) is a widely used measure of environmental concern, suitable for measuring the environment-friendly attitude and revisit intention of visitors of national parks. Therefore, the study carried out structural equation modeling (SEM) to investigate the relationship between the NEP, national park conservation consciousness and environment-friendly behavioral intention. Based on the results, an implication is presented to induce national parks to cultivate individual environment-friendly awareness and for visitors to pursue sustainable, environment-friendly tourism behavior. The findings indicate that national parks are to expand educational programs and facilities for eco-tourists visiting national parks to maintain a balanced relationship between themselves and nature and have a strong environmental awareness to preserve the natural environment.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , Atitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Turismo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444106

RESUMO

Spatio-temporal variations of recreation service not only could help to understand the impact of cultural services on human well-being but also provides theoretical and technical support for regional landscape management. However, previous studies have avoided deeply quantifying and analyzing it or have simply focused on assessing recreational service at a single period in time. In this study, we used the InVEST model to evaluate the spatio-temporal variations of recreation service in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and demonstrated the impact of recreation service on landscape dynamics. The results demonstrated that recreation service increased significantly and presented a significant spatial heterogeneity. Although afforestation and urban expansion both could significantly increase recreation service, the recreation service proxy of the non-vegetation landscape is far higher than that of the vegetation landscape. This finding indicated that human landscape is more attractive to tourists than the natural landscape, so we recommend to strengthen the infrastructure construction for enhancing the accessibility of natural landscapes. Moreover, we propose other constructive suggestions and landscape-design solutions for promoting recreation service. This study shifted the static environmental health assessment to the analysis of recreation service dynamics, bridging the regulatory mechanisms of ecosystem services involved in cultural services.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Humanos , Recreação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444133

RESUMO

Researchers and managers of natural resource conservation have increasingly emphasized the importance of maintaining a connected network of important ecological patches to mitigate landscape fragmentation, reduce the decline of biodiversity, and sustain ecological services. This research aimed to guide landscape management and decision-making by developing an evaluation framework to construct ecological security patterns. Taking the Jianghan Plain as the study area, we identified key ecological sources by overlaying the spatial patterns of ecological quality (biodiversity, carbon storage, and water yield) and ecological sensitivity (habitat sensitivity, soil erosion sensitivity, and water sensitivity) using the Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and the Chinese Soil Loss Equation Function. Ecological corridors were obtained by the least-cost path analysis method and circuit theory. A total of 48 ecological sources (3812.95 km2), primarily consisting of water area, forestland, and cropland, were identified. Ninety-one ecological corridors were derived, with a total length of 2036.28 km. Forty barriers and 40 pinch points with the highest improvement coefficient scores or priority scores were selected. There were 11 priority corridors with very high levels of connectivity improvement potential and conservation priority, occupying 16.15% of the total length of corridors. The overall potential for ecological connectivity is high on the Jianghan Plain. Our framework offers a valuable reference for constructing ecological security patterns and identifying sites for ecological restoration at the regional scale.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , China , Ecossistema , Florestas
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444135

RESUMO

Wildfires represent a natural phenomenon with detrimental effects on natural resources and human health. A better knowledge, perception, and awareness of wildfire risk may help communities at risk of exposure to prevent future events and safeguard their own lives. The aim of this study is to explore differences between individuals with and without previous wildfire experience, in terms of (1) subjective and advanced wildfire knowledge, (2) self-reported perceptions, (3) level of information, (4) self-protection measures, and (5) importance of community involvement. As a second step, we investigated differences in the same variables, focusing more deeply on a group of individuals with previous wildfire experience, classifying them according to fire-related employment (fire-related workers vs. non-workers) and wildland-urban interface (WUI) proximity (WUI residents vs. non-WUI residents). The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to establish differences between the pairs of subsamples. Our results partially confirmed our hypothesis, that direct experience leads individuals to have a greater preparedness on the topic of wildfires. Perception of knowledge is reflected only at a shallow level of expertise, and, therefore, no relevant within-group differences related to fire-related employment or to WUI proximity were detected. Moreover, available information was perceived to be insufficient, thus we report a strong need for developing effective communication to high-risk groups, such as homeowners and fire-related workers.


Assuntos
Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Participação da Comunidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Percepção
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444194

RESUMO

This paper applied landscape indexes to evaluate the size, form, and structure of green spaces in the mountainous city of Chongqing and found that green spaces benefit from certain advantages in size, but the network suffered from low heterogeneity and limited interconnectivity. To ensure the integrity and continuity of ecological processes and improve the efficiency of ecosystem services (ES), the authors used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to conduct adaptability evaluation and adjacent buffer analysis for the existing green spaces, wetlands, rivers, and other landscapes with relatively high capacity for ES. We designed a comprehensive map of potential areas for UGS expansion by superimposing the maps obtained from adaptability evaluation and buffer analysis. We also proposed some strategies that respect, consider, and evaluate aspects and special features of urban environment to optimize green space planning and improve ES efficiency, such as protection of important areas, development of green corridors, and careful consideration of ecological processes and complex functions in urban areas. Based on these strategies, the paper put forth suggestions for green space planning to improve ES efficiency that can function as foundation for subsequent green space planning.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Parques Recreativos , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Áreas Alagadas
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4500-4509, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414750

RESUMO

Loess is widely distributed in northwestern China. Due to the arid climate and rainstorm erosion, lack of nutrients and microorganisms, as well as severe salinization limits the ecosystem carrying capacity of loess soil, which has become one of the major causes of regional land desertification. The fermentation broth derived from food waste usually contains substantial organic acids and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and it has the advantages of being easily produced industrially and applied as fertilizer. Hence, this broth has the potential to become a soil amendment for loess soils. This work studied the Lanzhou loess, which is a typical soil of the Loess Plateau of China, fertilized with fermentation broth for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and microbial analyses. After the application of the broth amendment, the total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium, and organic matter content increased by 363%, 577%, 308%, and 204%, respectively. After planting grass, including Halogeton arachnoideus Moq. and Medicago sativa L., the comprehensive soil fertility level was further improved and the total salt content of the soil was decreased by 2.3 g·kg-1 and 1.2 g·kg-1, respectively. Meanwhile, the fermentation broth promoted the growth of microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea, which increased by 22 times, and fungi by 8.3 times. Therefore, food waste fermentation broth is conducive to further forming plant-microorganisms symbiosis, improving the ecological environment quality of loess soils.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Solo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Fermentação , Alimentos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444628

RESUMO

Coastal blue carbon storage (CBCS) plays a key role in addressing global climate change and realizing regional carbon neutrality. Although blue carbon has been studied for some years, there is little understanding of the influence of a megacity's complex natural and human-driven processes on CBCS. Taking the Shanghai coastal area as an example, this study investigated the spatiotemporal change in CBCS using the InVEST (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs) model during 1990-2015, and analyzed the response of the CBCS to a megacity's complex natural- and human-driven processes through a land use/land cover transition matrix and hierarchical clustering. The results were as follows: (1) Thirty-three driving processes were identified in the study area, including four natural processes (e.g., accretion, succession, erosion, etc.), two human processes (reclamation and restoration) and twenty-seven natural-human coupled processes; they were further combined into single and multiple processes with positive and negative influences on the CBCS into four types (Mono+, Mono-, Multiple+ and Multiple- driving processes). (2) Shanghai's CBCS increased from 1659.44 × 104 Mg to 1789.78 ×104 Mg, though the amount of Shanghai's coastal carbon sequestration showed a decreasing trend in three periods: 51.28 × 104 Mg in 1990-2000, 42.90 × 104 Mg in 2000-2009 and 36.15 × 104 Mg in 2009-2015, respectively. (3) There were three kinds of spatiotemporal patterns in the CBCS of this study area: high adjacent to the territorial land, low adjacent to the offshore waters in 1990; high in the central part, low in the peripheral areas in 2009 and 2015; and a mixed pattern in 2000. These patterns resulted from the different driving processes present in the different years. This study could serve as a blueprint for restoring and maintaining the CBCS of a megacity, to help mitigate the conflicts between socioeconomic development and the conservation of the CBCS, especially in the Shanghai coastal area.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , China , Humanos
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