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4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 104-112, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957386

RESUMO

To clarify the effects of desertification reversal on soil respiration rate (Rs) and its temperature sensitivity (Q10), five different reversal stages were selected: mobile dune, semi-fixed sandland, algae crust fixed sandland, lichen crust fixed sandland, and moss crust fixed sandland in the eastern Hobq Desert. Rs at different stages were measured by static chamber-gas chromatography and the Q10 was calculated. We analyzed the effects of environmental factors on Rs. The results showed that Rs gradually increased with sand fixation and vegetation succession: moss crust fixed sandland (0.78 µmol·m-2·s-1)> lichen crust fixed sandland (0.67 µmol·m-2·s-1)> algae crust fixed sandland (0.46 µmol·m-2·s-1)> semi-fixed sandland (0.42 µmol·m-2·s-1)> mobile dune (0.29 µmol·m-2·s-1). The Rs of growing season was higher than that of non-growing season. Q10 of Rs at different reversal stages followed the order: mobile dune (3.28)> semi-fixed sandland (2.93)> algae crust fixed sandland (2.54)> lichen crust fixed sandland (1.91)> moss crust fixed sandland (1.84). The Q10 of non-growing season was higher than that of growing season. There was positive correlation between Rs and soil temperature. Rs of mobile and semi-fixed sand was positively correlated with soil water content, but not in other three fixed sandlands. Rs was correlated with soil total nitrogen, organic carbon, bulk density, porosity, quantity of bacteria, quantity of actinomycetes and quantity of fungi. Our results indicated that in the process of desertification reversal, the increases of soil organic carbon and nitrogen content and the abundance of microbes, the improvement of soil texture and the accumulation of plant biomass could dramatically enhance soil respiration and reduce its temperature sensitivity, which were the main driving forces to change carbon cycle of desert soil, and mediate the effects of soil water on soil respiration.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 208-218, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957398

RESUMO

The rational delimitation of urban development boundary plays an important role in guiding the orderly growth of urban space and ensure proper environment health of urban space. In this study, we evaluated the ecological sensitivity of Nanchang City from four aspects (soil erosion, habitat, geological disaster and water resource) and simulated urban expansion in 2020 based on CA-Markov and land use data in 2000, 2010 and 2015. Spatial decision-making analysis of the two aspects was carried out in combination to the future development of the study area. We proposed a new method of delimitating urban development boundary integrating environmental protection and urban development through the dynamic coordination of both aspects. The results showed that ecological sensitivity of Nanchang City was moderate. The scale of urban construction land based on CA Markov simulation was 1239.67 km2, which slightly exceeded the planned construction land target (1201.65 km2). When the dynamic adjustment was done by superimposing the ecological sensitivity evaluation results with the expansion simulation results, the adjusted construction land scale of Nanchang City was 1193.15 km2, which met the planned requirement. Consideration of the coordination of protection and development could not only protect the ecological space, but also help to guide the orderly growth of urban space and ensure the healthy development of urban space, and thus was an important way to achieve a win-win situation between rational urban development and ecological protection.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Reforma Urbana , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema
6.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 340-348, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957413

RESUMO

The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem services is one of the hot topics in ecological research. The ways that the relationship is applied to the development of ecosystem management and policy have gradually gained attention after the Millennium Ecosystem Services Assessment in 2005. However, applying theoretical understanding of the relationship into practical management still faces challenges. Examining recent progresses may help to guide practices and po-licies. We summarized recent progress in researches on the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem services in terms of the impacts of biodiversity on single ecosystem service, ecosystem multifunctionality and trade-offs of ecosystem services, as well as how environmental changes affected these relationships. Moreover, we outlined the application of these relationships in nature reserve management, forest management, degraded ecosystem restoration, and agro-ecosystem improvement. We further analyzed the shortcomings in relationship studies and then emphasized that future research and practice trends are the interaction of different biodiversity components and multiple trophic levels on ecosystem services, the coupling effects of environmental changes on the relationships, and practical approaches to biodiversity for improving ecosystem services.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Florestas
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134154, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505342

RESUMO

Water scarcity, nutrient-depleted soils and pollution continue to be a major challenge worldwide and these are likely to worsen with increasing global populations particularly, in urban areas. As a result, environmental and public health problems may arise from the insufficient provision of sanitation and wastewater disposal facilities. Because of this, a paradigm shifts with regard to the sustainable management of waste disposal in a manner that could protect the environment at the same time benefits society by allowing nutrient recovery and reuse for food production is required. Hence, the use of urban wastewater for agricultural irrigation has more potential, especially when incorporating the reuse of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous, which are essential for crop production. Among the current treatment technologies applied in urban wastewater reuse for agriculture, hydroponic system is identified as one of the alternative technology that can be integrated with wastewater treatment. The integration of hydroponic system with municipal wastewater treatment has the advantage of reducing costs in terms of pollutants removal while reducing maintenance and energy costs required for conventional wastewater treatment. The efficiency of a hydroponic system with regard to municipal wastewater reuse is mainly linked to its capacity to allow continuous use of wastewater through the production of agricultural crops and the removal of pollutants/nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), resulting to increased food security and environmental protection. Moreover, the suitability of hydroponic system for wastewater treatment is derived from its capacity to minimize associated health risks to farmers, harvested crop and consumers, that may arise through contact with wastewater.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Hidroponia , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Irrigação Agrícola , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas , Fazendeiros , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Saneamento , Tecnologia , Águas Residuárias , Água , Purificação da Água
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 71-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791519

RESUMO

Microtopography affects hydrological processes and forms different microhabitats. Our previous study uncovered that riparian zone microtopography created various microhabitats with different soil environments and runoff-infiltration patterns. However, how riparian microtopography and microtopography within the water area (waterfall and tributary) affects downstream water quality remains unclear. Therefore, water samples were taken almost monthly in both the main stream and the tributary, before and after waterfalls, and near the bottom of three microtopographic types from June 2016 to March 2017. Compared with the dry season, the fact that water quality worsened in the wet season and that there were positive correlations for nitrate (NO3-) between water and the corresponding soil samples suggested that the riparian-soil environment affected the adjacent water quality mainly in the wet season. Nevertheless, riparian microtopography did not influence water quality downstream because of the low rainfall frequency and the weak leaching process due to plant interception. In the wet season, both the tributary and the waterfall increased the dissolved oxygen in the water body and, therefore, lowered the risk of eutrophication. The tributary has two pathways for improving the water quality, by increased disturbance and flow velocity, while the waterfall only has the former. However, such effects were not significant in the dry season. We conclude that the application of microtopographic modification is useful in maintaining urban wetland water quality in wet seasons.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Oxigênio , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
11.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109750, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726279

RESUMO

Decision-making associated with the promotion of water sustainability is subjected to uncertainties arising, on the one hand, from the current capacity of understanding socio-environmental systems and their temporality, complexity and multidimensionality; and, on the other hand, from the need to represent key aspects of these systems through data and information. Such a representation is often supported by indicators, indices and systems of indicators for relevant aspects of the problem and for a scenario under analysis. In this context, the main aim of this study was to develop a novel system of indicators for water sustainability assessment in river basins. Literature review and content analysis were used to define an analytical structure for the problem from the perspective of the natural, social and built capitals of related sustainable development assessment. Each capital has been hierarchically subdivided into categories, subcategories and attributes, leading to 54 aspects for water sustainability assessment. A list of indicators was compiled from the scientific and technical literature, linked to attributes, and associated with valuation ranges. This led to the proposition of the River Basin Water Sustainability Index (RBWSI) and sub-indices associated with categories and subcategories of the model. The timeframe and territorial scale relevant for assessment were defined as five-to-ten year periods and areas under the jurisdiction of river basin management committees, respectively. The new model and index thus proposed may be useful in water sustainability diagnostic and prognostic studies, such as required to assess the effectiveness of river basin management actions aimed at promoting sustainable development.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Água , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
12.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109820, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733471

RESUMO

Co-management is widely seen as a way of improving environmental governance and empowering communities. When successful, co-management enhances the validity and legitimacy of decision-making, while providing stakeholders with influence over processes and outcomes that directly impact them. However, our research with participants in co-management across several cases leads us to argue that many of the individuals who contribute to co-management are subject to significant personal stress arising from both the logistical and social/emotional demands of participation in these processes. We argue that the literature on co-management has touched on this only indirectly, and that personal stress is a major challenge for participants that ought to be integrated into research agendas and addressed by policy-makers. In this article, we review the contours of the personal stress issue as it has appeared in our observations of co-management events and interviews with participants. While these findings are partial and preliminary, we argue that personal stress has theoretical and practical significance to the broader literature and process design. We conclude the article with recommendations for participants, researchers and policy-makers about how to consider and respond to problems of personal stress.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
13.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109777, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733476

RESUMO

Psychosocial factors determine individual and collective behaviours, and there is growing evidence of their influence on land management behaviours. Native vegetation management encompasses biophysical, economic, political, and cultural dimensions that are immensely complex, and a more thorough understanding of the personal and cultural dimensions of deforestation activity is required. We emphasise this interdisciplinary imperative using Queensland, Australia, as an exemplar case study, where the controversial Vegetation Management Act1999 has been met with significant scrutiny over its effects on private landholders and its ability to curb deforestation behaviours. We surveyed landholders across Queensland in order to identify different landholder typologies based upon (1) their recent tree clearing behaviours and (2) their psychosocial characteristics, mapped their distribution in the landscape, and determined the unique demographic and psychosocial factors associated with typology membership. We identified a heterogeneous mosaic of landholders in the clearing landscape, composed of four clearing typologies and five psychosocial typologies. Social norms, identity, trust, and security played crucial roles in distinguishing different types of landholders. The two most contrasting clearing typologies-active and inactive clearers-were primarily located in hot- and cold-spots of deforestation, respectively; in contrast, most psychosocial typologies could be found throughout the landscape, highlighting the potential benefit of complementing generalised state-wide psychosocial targets with localised behavioural targets. We discuss how conservation policy instruments can be regionally tailored, and relevant strategies for effective communication and engagement can be developed to create behaviour change by understanding the characteristics and distribution of these types of landholders. If modified top-down efforts (e.g. strategic messages, community-based communication) can be supplemented with more bottom-up approaches (e.g. collective learning, building network support), sustainable land management in deforestation hotspots around the world may be achievable.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mudança Social , Austrália , Queensland , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109808, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739093

RESUMO

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are effective resource management and conservation measures, but their success is often hindered by non-compliant activities such as poaching. Understanding the risk factors and spatial patterns of poaching is therefore crucial for efficient law enforcement. Here, we conducted explanatory and predictive modelling of poaching from recreational fishers within no-take zones of Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) using Boosted Regression Trees (BRT). Combining patrol effort data, observed distribution of reported incidents, and spatially-explicit environmental and human risk factors, we modeled the occurrence probability of poaching incidents and mapped poaching risk at fine-scale. Our results: (i) show that fishing attractiveness, accessibility and fishing capacity play a major role in shaping the spatial patterns of poaching; (ii) revealed key interactions among these factors as well as tipping points beyond which poaching risk increased or decreased markedly; and (iii) highlight gaps in patrol effort that could be filled for improved resource allocation. The approach developed through this study provide a novel way to quantify the relative influence of multiple interacting factors in shaping poaching risk, and hold promises for replication across a broad range of marine or terrestrial settings.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Austrália , Humanos
15.
Ambio ; 49(1): 74-84, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666613

RESUMO

Forest transitions occur when net reforestation replaces net deforestation in places. Because forest transitions can increase biodiversity and augment carbon sequestration, they appeal to policymakers contending with the degrading effects of forest loss and climate change. What then can policymakers do to trigger forest transitions? The historical record over the last two centuries provides insights into the precipitating conditions. The early transitions often occurred passively, through the spontaneous regeneration of trees on abandoned agricultural lands. Later forest transitions occurred more frequently after large-scale crisis narratives emerged and spurred governments to take action, often by planting trees on degraded, sloped lands. To a greater degree than their predecessors, latecomer forest transitions exhibit centralized loci of power, leaders with clearly articulated goals, and rapid changes in forest cover. These historical shifts in forest transitions reflect our growing appreciation of their utility for countering droughts, floods, land degradation, and climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Agricultura Florestal , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Árvores
16.
Ambio ; 49(1): 310-323, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771208

RESUMO

Guidance for large-scale restoration of natural or semi-natural linear vegetation elements that takes into account the need to maintain human livelihoods such as farming is often lacking. Focusing on a Chilean biodiversity hotspot, we assessed the landscape in terms of existing woody vegetation elements and proposed a buffer strip and hedgerow network. We used spatial analysis based on Google Earth imagery and QGIS, field surveys, seven guidelines linked to prioritization criteria and seedling availability in the region's nurseries, and estimated the budget for implementing the proposed network. The target landscapes require restoring 0.89 ha km-2 of woody buffer strips to meet Chilean law; 1.4 ha km-2 of new hedgerows is also proposed. The cost of restoration in this landscape is estimated in ca. USD 6900 per planted ha of buffer strips and hedgerows. Financial incentives, education, and professional training of farmers are identified as key issues to implement the suggested restoration actions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Chile , Florestas , Humanos
17.
Ambio ; 49(1): 245-257, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852776

RESUMO

The dramatic increase in anthropogenic activity severely threatens the biodiversity and life-support services that underpin human well-being. The broadened focus of protecting ecosystem services (ESs) better aligns the interests of people and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we used species richness as a surrogate for biodiversity and mapped the key ESs in East Africa with the goal to assess the spatial congruence between biodiversity and ESs, and evaluate the representation of current protected areas (PAs) network for biodiversity and ESs. The results showed that PAs well represented for species richness and regulating services but underrepresented for provisioning services. The PAs network occupies 10.96% of East Africa's land surface, and captures 20.62-26.37% of conservation priorities for vertebrate and plant species. It encompasses more than 16.23% of priority areas for three regulating services, but only 6.17% and 5.22% for crop and livestock production, respectively. Strong correlations and high overlaps exist between species richness and regulating services, particularly for carbon storage, water yield and plants. Thus, we believe that actions taken to conserve biodiversity also will protect certain ESs, which in turn will create new incentives and funding sources for the conservation of biodiversity. Overall, our results have wide-ranging policy implications and can be used to optimize conservation strategies for both biodiversity and multiple ESs in East Africa.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , África Oriental , Biodiversidade , Carbono , Humanos
18.
Ambio ; 49(1): 107-117, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852778

RESUMO

Stock enhancement activities provide an opportunity to examine density-dependent suppression of population biomass which is a fundamental issue for resource management and design of no-take-zones. We document 'catch-and-wait' fisheries enhancement where all but the largest lobsters are thrown back, recapturing them later after they have grown to a larger size. The residency, rate of return, and potential negative density-dependent effects of this activity are described using a combination of tagging and v-notching and by relating spatial growth patterns to population density defined with Catch Per Unit Effort. The results successfully demonstrated the concept of catch-and-wait practices. However, a density-dependent suppression of growth (in body size) was observed in male lobsters. This demonstrates a mechanism to explain differences in lobster sizes previously observed across EU fishing grounds with different stock densities. This negative effect of density could also affect individual biomass production in marine reserve or no-take zones.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Biomassa , Peixes , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica
19.
Ambio ; 49(1): 258-270, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859399

RESUMO

Impacts of the legal designation of protected areas (PAs) may have contrasting implications for different stakeholders, and at different spatial scales. In this study, we analysed the organisational perception on the socioeconomic effects of PA designation from all sectors of activity in Spain, accounting for PAs' legal stringency. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 68 organisations at national, regional (Andalusia) and local scales (two municipalities in the Almeria province, Andalusia) through an online survey. Local stakeholders and the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors were most concerned about the social and economic impacts of PAs designation on their organisations. By contrast, organisations at the national or regional scales together with public institutions, the quaternary sector and other miscellaneous stakeholders perceived predominantly positive effects. Only national organisations perceived an increase in local social and economic effects from the designation of legally stringent PAs with regard to multiple-use PAs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
20.
Ambio ; 49(1): 218-230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859400

RESUMO

Despite its relative adaptive capacity and its many values, indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) is rapidly eroding. Over the past decades a myriad of efforts have emerged to prevent this erosion. In this work, we reviewed and systematically coded 138 ILK conservation initiatives published in academic papers in order to explore trends in participation, digitalization, timing, location, and approach of the initiatives. We also explored factors influencing initiative inclusiveness. Our findings reveal that ILK holders are generally absent from most phases of the studied initiatives, although IT-based and in situ initiatives (i.e., education and community based conservation) appear as the exceptions. We also found that ex situ initiatives (i.e., research/documentation and policy/legislation efforts) are predominant, despite the challenges they reportedly face. These findings call for re-formulating the ways in which ex situ ILK conservation is done and for supporting in situ and IT based initiatives, as they offer the potential to lead the participatory turn.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Conhecimento
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