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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 695, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040184

RESUMO

In the present paper, land use/land cover (LULC) change was predicted in the Greater Isfahan area (GIA), central Iran. The GIA has been growing rapidly in recent years, and attempts to simulate its spatial expansion would be essential to make appropriate decisions in LULC management plans and achieve sustainable development. Several modeling tools were employed to outline sustainable scenarios for future dynamics of LULCs in the region. Specifically, we explored past LULC changes in the study area from 1996 to 2018 and predicted its future changes for 2030 and 2050. For this purpose, we performed object-oriented and decision tree techniques on Landsat and Sentinel-2 satellite images. The CA-Markov hybrid model was utilized to analyze past trends and predict future LULC changes. LULC changes were quantitatively measured using landscape metrics. According to the results, the majority of changes were related to increasing residential areas and decreasing irrigated lands. The results indicated that residential lands would grow from 27,886.87 ha to 67,093.62 ha over1996-2050 while irrigated lands decrease from 99,799.4 ha to 50,082.16 ha during the same period of time. The confusion matrix of the 2018 LULC map was built using a total of 525 ground truth points and yielded a Kappa coefficient and overall accuracy of 78% and 82%, respectively. Moreover, the confusion matrix constructed base on the Sentinel-2 map, as a reference, to judge the predicted 2018 LULC map with a Kappa coefficient of 88%. The results of this study provide useful insights for sustainable land management. The results of this research also proved the promising capability of remote sensing algorithms, CA-Markov model and landscape metrics future LULC planning in the study area.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Benchmarking , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico)
2.
Science ; 370(6512): 38-39, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004504
3.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 613-627, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016388

RESUMO

Regulatory watershed mitigation programs typically emphasize widespread adoption of best management practices (BMPs) to meet total maximum daily load (TMDL) goals. To comply with the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, jurisdictions must develop watershed implementation plans (WIPs) to determine the number and type of BMPs to implement. However, the spatial resolution of the bay-level model used to determine these load reduction goals is so coarse that the regulatory plan cannot consider heterogeneity in local conditions, which affects BMP effectiveness. Using the Topo-SWAT modification of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), we simulated two BMP adoption scenarios in the Spring Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania to determine if leveraging fine-scale spatial heterogeneity to place BMPs could achieve the same (or better) nutrient and sediment reduction at a lower cost than the state-level WIP BMP adoption recommendations. Topo-SWAT was initialized with detailed land use and management practice information, systematically calibrated, and validated against 12 yr of observed data. After determining individual BMP cost effectiveness, results were ranked to design a cost-effective BMP adoption scenario that achieved equal or greater load reduction as the WIP scenario for 74% of the cost using eight management-based BMPs: no-till, manure injection, cover cropping, riparian buffers, land retirement, manure application timing, wetland restoration, and nitrogen management (15% less N input). Because watersheds of this size typically represent the smallest modeling unit in the Chesapeake Bay Model, results demonstrate the potential to use watershed models with finer inference scales to improve recommendations for BMP implementation under the Chesapeake Bay TMDL.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pennsylvania , Áreas Alagadas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036176

RESUMO

The strict quarantine measures employed as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic have led the global tourism industry to a complete halt, disrupting the livelihoods of millions. The economic importance of beach tourism for many destinations has led many governments to reopen tourist beaches, as soon as the number of infection cases decreased. The objective of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for understanding the key issues for beach tourism management in these circumstances. These issues include risk perception, environmental considerations directly related to beaches and COVID-19, and management strategies designed to limit the risk of contagion on the beach. The contribution of this paper lies in its interdisciplinary approach to delivering the findings from the latest studies, highly relevant for beach tourism, in psychology, health science, and environmental science (often in preprint and in press format). Particular attention was given to identifying the knowledge gaps evident in the areas of COVID-19 risk perception, with the drivers explaining the risk-taking behavior and the protective strategies employed by beachgoers. Gaps were also found in areas such as the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in bathing waters and the sand, the potential of contaminated sand being a viable route of transmission, and the impact of the use of chemical disinfectants on the marine environment and on bathers. The paper identifies research prospects in these areas, additionally pointing out other questions such as new carrying capacity methods, the opportunity given by COVID-19 in estimation of the impacts of visitation and beach-litter.


Assuntos
Praias , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
J Environ Qual ; 49(3): 569-581, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016400

RESUMO

Urbanization alters the delivery of water and sediment to receiving streams, often leading to channel erosion and enlargement, which increases loading of sediment and nutrients, degrades habitat, and harms sensitive biota. Stormwater control measures (SCMs) are constructed in an attempt to mitigate some of these effects. In addition, stream restoration practices such as bank stabilization are increasingly promoted as a means of improving water quality by reducing downstream sediment and pollutant loading. Each unique combination of SCMs and stream restoration practices results in a novel hydrologic regime and set of geomorphic characteristics that interact to determine stream condition, but in practice, implementation is rarely coordinated due to funding and other constraints. In this study, we examine links between watershed-scale implementation of SCMs and stream restoration in Big Dry Creek, a suburban watershed in the Front Range of northern Colorado. We combine continuous hydrologic model simulations of watershed-scale response to SCM design scenarios with channel evolution modeling to examine interactions between stormwater management and stream restoration strategies for reducing loading of sediment and adsorbed phosphorus from channel erosion. Modeling results indicate that integrated design of SCMs and stream restoration interventions can result in synergistic reductions in pollutant loading. Not only do piecemeal and disunited approaches to stormwater management and stream restoration miss these synergistic benefits, they make restoration projects more prone to failure, wasting valuable resources for pollutant reduction. We conclude with a set of recommendations for integrated planning of SCMs and stream restoration to simultaneously achieve water quality and channel protection goals.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Qualidade da Água , Colorado , Ecossistema , Chuva
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007942

RESUMO

Human consumption and activity are damaging the global ecosystem and the resources on which we rely for health, well-being and survival. The COVID-19 crisis is yet another manifestation of the urgent need to transition to more sustainable societies, further exposing the weaknesses in health systems and the injustice in our societies. It also underlines that many of the factors leading to environmental degradation, ill health and social and health inequities are interlinked. The current situation provides an unprecedented opportunity to invest in initiatives that address these common factors and encourage people to live more healthily and sustainably. Such initiatives can generate the positive feedback loops needed to change the systems and structures that shape our lives. INHERIT (January 2016-December 2019), an ambitious, multisectoral and transnational research project that involved 18 organisations across Europe, funded by the European Commission, explored such solutions. It identified, defined and analysed promising inter-sectoral policies, practices and approaches to simultaneously promote environmental sustainability, protect and promote health and contribute to health equity (the INHERIT "triple-win") and that can encourage and enable people to live, move and consume more healthfully and sustainably. It also explored the facilitators and barriers to working across sectors and in public private cooperation. The insights were brought together in guidelines setting out how policy makers can help instigate and support local "triple-win" initiatives that influence behaviours as an approach to contributing to the change that is so urgently needed to stem environmental degradation and the interlinked threats to health and wellbeing. This article sets out this guidance, providing timely insights on how to "build back better" in the post pandemic era.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estilo de Vida , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4978, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020475

RESUMO

Tropical forests modify the conditions they depend on through feedbacks at different spatial scales. These feedbacks shape the hysteresis (history-dependence) of tropical forests, thus controlling their resilience to deforestation and response to climate change. Here, we determine the emergent hysteresis from local-scale tipping points and regional-scale forest-rainfall feedbacks across the tropics under the recent climate and a severe climate-change scenario. By integrating remote sensing, a global hydrological model, and detailed atmospheric moisture tracking simulations, we find that forest-rainfall feedback expands the geographic range of possible forest distributions, especially in the Amazon. The Amazon forest could partially recover from complete deforestation, but may lose that resilience later this century. The Congo forest currently lacks resilience, but is predicted to gain it under climate change, whereas forests in Australasia are resilient under both current and future climates. Our results show how tropical forests shape their own distributions and create the climatic conditions that enable them.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , África , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Retroalimentação , Chuva , América do Sul
8.
10.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(4): 45, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030629

RESUMO

Many experts have warned that environmental degradation is increasing the likelihood of future pandemics like COVID-19, as habitat loss and poaching increase close contact between wildlife and people. This fact has been framed as a reason to increase wildlife conservation efforts. We have many good reasons to step up conservation efforts, but arguments for doing so on the basis of pandemic prevention are rhetorically, ethically, and empricially flawed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens
11.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 111132, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002703

RESUMO

Local regulations on residential landscapes (yards and gardens) can facilitate or constrain ecosystem services and disservices in cities. To our knowledge, no studies have undertaken a comprehensive look at how municipalities regulate residential landscapes to achieve particular goals and to control management practices. Across six U.S. cities, we analyzed 156 municipal ordinances to examine regional patterns in local landscape regulations and their implications for sustainability. Specifically, we conducted content analysis to capture regulations aimed at: 1) goals pertaining to conservation and environmental management, aesthetics and nuisance avoidance, and health and wellbeing, and 2) management actions including vegetation maintenance, water and waste management, food production, and chemical inputs. Our results reveal significant variation in local and regional regulations. While regulatory goals stress stormwater management and nuisance avoidance, relatively few municipalities explicitly regulate residential yards to maintain property values, mitigate heat, or avoid allergens. Meanwhile, biological conservation and water quality protection are common goals, yet regulations on yard management practices (e.g., non-native plants or chemical inputs) sometimes contradict these purposes. In addition, regulations emphasizing aesthetics and the maintenance of vegetation, mowing of grass and weeds, as well as the removal of dead wood, may inhibit wildlife-friendly yards. As a whole, landscaping ordinances largely ignore tradeoffs between interacting goals and outcomes, thereby limiting their potential to support landscape sustainability. Recommendations therefore include coordinated, multiobjective planning through partnerships among planners, developers, researchers, and non-government entities at multiple scales.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Cidades , Jardinagem , Plantas
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5071, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033235

RESUMO

Identifying species that are both geographically restricted and functionally distinct, i.e. supporting rare traits and functions, is of prime importance given their risk of extinction and their potential contribution to ecosystem functioning. We use global species distributions and functional traits for birds and mammals to identify the ecologically rare species, understand their characteristics, and identify hotspots. We find that ecologically rare species are disproportionately represented in IUCN threatened categories, insufficiently covered by protected areas, and for some of them sensitive to current and future threats. While they are more abundant overall in countries with a low human development index, some countries with high human development index are also hotspots of ecological rarity, suggesting transboundary responsibility for their conservation. Altogether, these results state that more conservation emphasis should be given to ecological rarity given future environmental conditions and the need to sustain multiple ecosystem processes in the long-term.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Internacionalidade , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Geografia , Humanos , Camada de Gelo , Filogenia , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 701, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051711

RESUMO

Investigating the spatiotemporal trends and trade-off/synergy relationships among ecosystem services can provide effective support for urban planning and decision making toward sustainable development. With Nanjing city in China as a case study, this study assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of six key ecosystem services from 2005 to 2030. Integration of Markov-cellular automata and ecosystem services models was realized to analyze the potential impacts of future urbanization on ecosystem services by simulating business-as-usual (BAU), cropland protection (CP), and ecological restoration (ER) scenarios. Furthermore, an innovative trade-off/synergy degree was developed to quantify the magnitude of the complex relationship among the multiple ecosystem services under the different scenarios. Due to the rapid expansion of built-up land, carbon storage, habitat quality, and air purification decreased 2.92%, 5.80%, and 7.91%, respectively. The CP scenario exhibited the highest crop production values, and the ER scenario was a better urban development strategy that enhanced the regulating ecosystem services at the expense of crop production. To promote urban ecosystem services and minimize trade-offs, we proposed certain future urban development strategies, including ecological corridor construction and compact development. The study could provide a scientific reference for the effective ecosystem management of Nanjing and other rapidly urbanized regions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental
15.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1736-1746, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918718

RESUMO

While the role of forestry in mitigating climate change is increasingly subject to political commitment, other areas, such as water protection, may be at risk. In this study, we ask whether surface waters are sufficiently safeguarded in relation to the 2015 launch of a series of measures to intensify forest management for mitigation of climate change in Norway. First, we assess how impacts on water are accounted for in existing regulations for sustainable forestry. Secondly, we provide an overview of the impacts of forestry on water quality relevant to three support schemes: afforestation on new areas, increased stocking density in existing forests, and forest fertilisation. Lastly, we assess the uncertainties that exist with regard to surface waters in the implementation of these measures. We find that the safeguards in place are adequate to protect water resources at the point of initiation, but there is a large degree of uncertainty as to the long-term effect of these mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Noruega , Incerteza
16.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1747-1758, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918719

RESUMO

Land use and climate change can impact water quality in agricultural catchments. The objectives were to assess long-term monitoring data to quantify changes to the thermal growing season length, investigate farmer adaptations to this and examine these and other factors in relation to total nitrogen and nitrate water concentrations. Data (1991-2017) from seven small Norwegian agricultural catchments were analysed using Mann-Kendall Trend Tests, Pearson correlation and a linear mixed model. The growing season length increased significantly in four of seven catchments. In catchments with cereal production, the increased growing season length corresponded to a reduction in nitrogen concentrations, but there was no such relationship in grassland catchments. In one cereal catchment, a significant correlation was found between the start of sowing and start of the thermal growing season. Understanding the role of the growing season and other factors can provide additional insight into processes and land use choices taking place in agricultural catchments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Nitrogênio/análise , Noruega
17.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1710-1721, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920768

RESUMO

Further development of the bioeconomy, the substitution of bioresources for fossil resources, will lead to an increased pressure on land and water resources in both agriculture and forestry. It is important to study whether resultant changes in land management may in turn lead to impairment of water services. This paper describes the Nordic Bioeconomy Pathways (NBPs), a set of regional sectoral storylines nested within the global Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) framework developed to provide the BIOWATER research program with land management scenarios for projecting future developments to explore possible conflicts between land management changes and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The NBPs are a set of narrative storylines capturing a range of plausible future trajectories for the Nordic bioeconomy until 2050 and that are fit for use within hydrological catchment modelling, ecosystem service studies and stakeholder dialogue about possible changes in agricultural and forestry management practices.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas
18.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1697-1709, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929619

RESUMO

In the future, the world is expected to rely increasingly on renewable biomass resources for food, fodder, fibre and fuel. The sustainability of this transition to bioeconomy for our water systems depends to a large extent on how we manage our land resources. Changes in land use together with climate change will affect water quantity and quality, which again will have implications for the ecosystem services provided by water resources. These are the main topics of this Ambio special issue on "Environmental effects of a green bio-economy". This paper offers a summary of the eleven papers included in this issue and, at the same time, outlines an approach to quantify and mitigate the impacts of bioeconomy on water resources and their ecosystem services, with indications of useful tools and knowledge needs.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Recursos Hídricos , Biomassa , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866206

RESUMO

The conservation status of several pelagic shark species is considered vulnerable with declining populations, yet data on shark fishing mortality remain limited for large ocean regions. Pelagic sharks are increasingly retained by mixed-species fisheries, or are discarded and not reported by selective fisheries for tunas (Thunnus spp.) or swordfish (Xiphias gladius). We estimated the fishing mortality of sharks (landings plus discard mortalities) in a South African-flagged pelagic longline fishery with diverse targeting and discard behaviour. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to stratify the fleet according to the relative proportions of tunas, swordfish, blue sharks (Prionace glauca) and shortfin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus) landed by individual vessels between 2013 and 2015. A spatial analysis of logbook data indicated that subfleets operated in distinct fishing areas, with overlap. Approximately 5% of all commercial longlines set during 2015 were sampled by a fisheries-independent observer, and the species, discard ratios and physical condition at discard of 6 019 captured sharks were recorded. Blue sharks and shortfin makos dominated observed shark catches, which were comprised of nine species and two species groups. Some 47% of observed sharks were retained and 20% were discarded in good physical condition. Only 4% of shortfin makos were discarded, compared to 68% of blue sharks. Blue shark discard mortality rates were twice as high as published at-vessel mortality rates, suggesting that onboard handling, among other factors, contributed to discard mortalities. Extrapolation to total fishing effort indicated a near 10-fold increase in blue shark and shortfin mako fishing mortality compared to an earlier study (1998-2005). Escalating shortfin mako fishing mortality was attributed to increased targeting to supply higher market demand. Discarding of blue sharks by selective fishing for tunas and swordfish had a greater impact on their fishing mortality than retention by shark-directed fleets. Higher levels of observer sampling are required to increase confidence in discard ratio estimates.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Alimentos Marinhos , Tubarões , Atum
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