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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 502, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327078

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of state ownership in forest governance in Turkey. It seeks to explore how property rights are affected by the complex, dynamic interplay of policies, economic influences, and the law. The historical development of state ownership, including its legal aspects, has been investigated in order to better understand the roots of current issues. An institutional approach has been followed. It is hypothesized that as the state exercises its property rights, it has both positive and negative effects on forest governance. This analysis confirms that state ownership may exceed its implementation capacity under the pressure of economic development objectives and that in areas where economic development is a priority, the loss of forests is inevitable. There is a need for a more adaptive approach to making policies related to property rights. The concept of the overriding public interest could be vital in achieving purposeful governance.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Propriedade , Formulação de Políticas , Turquia
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 25247-25261, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256403

RESUMO

The growing appreciation of distance decay as an important parameter necessary for estimating willingness to pay (WTP) is hugely recognized in the literature. In this paper, we estimated the extent to which distance decay and individual's socioeconomic characteristics influence the WTP for restoration of environmental quality attributes in the Heihe River Basin. A choice experiment technique was used to evaluate the household's WTP for the improvements in local environmental attributes. The results of mixed logit model significant impact of distance on the individual's WTP for the improvements in environmental attributes. Findings of the study revealed that people living within 25 km from the river are willing to pay more for an increase in the river water quality level, a reduction in sandstorm days, and an increase in the area of the east Juyan Lake than the people living within the range of 50 km and much more compared to 50 km away from the river. Based on the socioeconomic characteristics, it is concluded that the level of education, age, household's annual income, and household size have a significant effect on the WTP. Results of the implicit prices for each attribute showed the preferences of the inhabitants for every attribute, where the highest WTP in pooled data was recorded for river water quality level (i.e., RMB 124.81/year) and the lowest for leisure and entertainment (i.e., RMB 0.40/year). The highest WTP for water quality suggests that water quality level was the most favored attribute compared to others, subject to the given conditions of water quality and the river basin.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Características da Família , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Rios , Qualidade da Água
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23689-23695, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203539

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the validity of pollution haven hypothesis for the period from 1982 to 2013 in ten newly industrialized countries. For this purpose, we examine the relationship between real income, foreign direct investment, energy consumption, and ecological footprint using second-generation panel data methodology to take into account the cross-sectional dependence among newly industrialized countries. In doing so, the possible nonlinear relationship between foreign direct investment and environmental degradation is also searched. The results show that increased energy consumption and economic growth lead to increase in ecological footprint. Moreover, the U-shaped relationship between foreign direct investment and ecological footprint is confirmed in newly industrialized countries.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Estudos Transversais , Ecologia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 189-195, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232294

RESUMO

This research takes a holistic approach to considering the consequences of marine plastic pollution. A semi-systematic literature review of 1191 data points provides the basis to determine the global ecological, social and economic impacts. An ecosystem impact analysis demonstrates that there is global evidence of impact with medium to high frequency on all subjects, with a medium to high degree of irreversibility. A novel translation of these ecological impacts into ecosystem service impacts provides evidence that all ecosystem services are impacted to some extent by the presence of marine plastic, with a reduction in provision predicted for all except one. This reduction in ecosystem service provision is evidenced to have implications for human health and wellbeing, linked particularly to fisheries, heritage and charismatic species, and recreation.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pesqueiros , Plásticos , Poluição Química da Água/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19389-19402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073834

RESUMO

The study investigates the long-run impact of tourism development on ecological footprint by employing the time-varying coefficient cointegration approach (TVC), in addition to the conventional cointegration techniques in the case of Azerbaijan for the period of 1996-2014. Based on the TVC estimation results, the coefficient of tourism development, which is the income elasticity of environmental degradation, was found to be time invariant. The paper uses energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and institutional quality indicators as control explanatory variables. The estimation results revealed that trade and energy consumption have statistically significant and positive impact on ecological footprint, while the coefficients of the other explanatory variables were found to be insignificant. Both the conventional estimation methods and the TVC concluded that, for the relationship between ecological footprint and tourism development, the EKC hypothesis is not present in Azerbaijan. Policy implications for the resource-rich economies have been discussed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Atividades de Lazer/economia , Azerbaijão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecologia , Renda , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20219-20231, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098911

RESUMO

This paper aims to explore the impact of real interest rates (RIN), income, trade, foreign direct investment (FDI), and energy consumption on Turkey's carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) over the period from 1980 to 2014. This study differs from the existing literature by introducing a new discussion in the determination of environmental degradation, namely real interest rate. Hatemi-J (HJ) cointegration with two structural breaks and the newly developed Bayer-Hanck (BH) combined cointegration tests are used to enhance and support the robustness of the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test. The Granger causality test within the vector error correction model (VECM) is employed to examine the causality direction among the variables in both the short and long run. The empirical results demonstrate that RIN negatively effects CO2 emissions. This impact is also supported through energy, income, and FDI channels. It is suggested that policy makers should promote the stability of the real interest rates channel to reduce CO2 emissions and encourage the renewable energy investment through the production of electricity using renewable sources.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Modelos Teóricos , Energia Renovável/economia , Política Ambiental , Renda , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Turquia
12.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 676-685, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933765

RESUMO

Economic development puts pressure on environment through air, water and land degradation, which in turn brings real costs to the economy. Actual economy growth should therefore consider the environmental degradation cost resulted from economic activities. Pearl River Delta (PRD) region as a typical delta area with rapid development in China, is with great significance to understand the loses resulted from environmental pollution. This study conducts an environmental economic accounting within the PRD region from 2011 to 2015 using the environmental degradation cost accounting approach. We identified and calculated the economic, agricultural, industrial and social losses resulting from air, water and waste pollution with different valuation methods, which includes shadow price, replacement costs, market value method, etc. The results showed the total environmental degradation cost ranged from 18.1 to 19.8 billion US$ and the environmental degradation index declined slightly over the years, with significant differences among cities. It implied that the environmental condition of PRD region has been continuously improved over the years, but the capacity of environment control between cities had large differences. Cities in PRD region should therefore take measures tailored to their current situation to optimize their resource endowment and industrial structure, to overcome the conflicts between economic development and environmental protection. For cities with relatively high degradation cost, it is urgent to accelerate the efforts in improving the quality of the environment and ecosystem. For cities with lower degradation cost, it is important to take actions to keep on a sustainable and ecological efficient developing path. MAIN FINDINGS: The total environmental degradation cost of the PRD region is firstly calculated with insights on environmental management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Rios/química , Agricultura , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Indústrias
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 141: 603-610, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955773

RESUMO

Although coastal dunes exhibit typical vegetation which involves species adapted to extreme environmental conditions, the mobilization and colonization by non-native species represents a challenge in its conservation and management. In this work, eight dune systems located along the Atlantico Department, Caribbean coast of Colombia were surveyed, finding within them the presence of two plant species recognized as invasive: Calotropis procera and Cryptostegia madagascariensis. The impacts of these two invasive plant species can be significant at all ecological levels in the dune systems. The above demands the implementation of urgent management actions. Eradication seems the optimal control alternative, however preventing invasive plant species from infesting new areas is more cost-effective and efficient than trying to restore the system after it is infested. Data presented in this paper is the first step in the future development of an early detection program in the study area.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Calotropis , Espécies Introduzidas , Colômbia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027282

RESUMO

Natural ecosystems benefit human lives via providing fundamental life-support services and goods upon which human civilization depends. However, as nature provides those for free, many people believe that they are of little or no value and they exploit the land greedily and unreasonably, which makes serious ecological degradation. Concerning this issue, we present the ecological services valuation model (ESVM) to measure the cost of environmental degradation of land use cost, which is an evaluation model of environmental degradation cost. Environmental degradation cost refer to the cost of deterioration or compromise of natural environment through natural processes or human activities, which consists of opportunity cost and environmental damage cost. Land area is an important variable in the ESVM. Based on Osmotic system, we put forward the effective land area, which combines the scale factor and the impact of external environment. What is more, the Cobb-Douglas production function is modified to establish the model. Finally, we propose the calculation formula of the economic cost of land use projects. Analysis of effectiveness and sensitivity prove that ESVM was a relatively stable model.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Planejamento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , China , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos , Modelos Teóricos
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 16652-16661, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989607

RESUMO

Present study contributes to the existing literature by introducing the role of urban income and urban expenditure to control the carbon emission, especially produced by urbanization. Additionally, investment in industrial treatment plant is used to study its impact in carbon reduction. By using the data of 30 Chinese provinces over the period of 2005-2015, we have reported that urbanization and industrialization are main culprits of the carbon emission, whereas the higher urban income leads to decrease the carbon emission that has been caused by urbanization, as mentioned by the negative coefficient of urban income. Moreover, the investment in industrial treatment plants help to reduce the industrial carbon emission. Post-policy estimations have confirmed that forest management can be a useful measure to eradicate the carbon emission. Overall, the findings confirm that higher urban income, industrial carbon treatment plants, and forest investment activities are useful to control the precipitous increase in carbon emission. Given results enhance the existing literature as well as deliver the policy implications to curtail the environmental degradation process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Florestas , Urbanização , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Política Ambiental , Renda , Indústrias , Investimentos em Saúde , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1641, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967539

RESUMO

We characterize the ecological, economic, and community performance of 21 major tuna fisheries, accounting for at least 77% of global tuna production, using the Fishery Performance Indicators. Our analysis reveals that the biggest variations in performance among tuna fisheries are driven by the final markets that they target: international sashimi market tuna fisheries considerably outperform a comparison set of 62 non-tuna fisheries in the Fishery Performance Indicator database, international canned tuna market fisheries perform similarly to the comparison set, and tuna fisheries supplying local markets in coastal states considerably underperform the comparison set. Differences among regional fishery management organizations primarily reflect regional species composition and market access, despite stark variation in governance, management, and other enabling conditions. With a legacy of open access, tuna's harvest sector performance is similar across all fisheries, reflecting only a normal return on the capital and skill invested: industrial vessels slightly outperform semi-industrial and artisanal vessels. Differences emerge in the post-harvest sector however, as value chains able to preserve quality and transport fish to high value markets outperform others.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros/organização & administração , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gestão da Qualidade Total/estatística & dados numéricos , Atum , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/economia , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Gestão da Qualidade Total/economia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14287-14299, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864039

RESUMO

The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Migração Humana , Desastres Naturais/economia , Recursos Hídricos/provisão & distribução , Agricultura/economia , Ásia , Migração Humana/tendências , Pobreza , Abastecimento de Água/economia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6737-6742, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877257

RESUMO

A new generation of poverty programs around the globe provides cash payments to poor and vulnerable households. Studies show that these social cash transfer programs create income and welfare benefits for poor households and the local economies where they live. However, this may come at the cost of damaging local environments if cash payments stimulate food production that conflicts with natural resource conservation. Evaluations of the economic impacts of poverty programs do not account for the welfare consequences of environmental impacts, which are potentially large for poor communities closely tied to natural resources. We use an ex-ante policy simulation tool, a bioeconomic local computable general equilibrium model parameterized with microsurvey data, to analyze the expected welfare consequences of environmental degradation caused by a cash transfer program. For a Philippine fishing community that is a net importer of fish, we show that a government cash transfer program initially increases real incomes for all households. However, increased demand for fish leads to a decline in the local fish stock that reduces program benefits. Household groups experience declines in real income benefits of 2-63%, with fishing households suffering the largest declines. Impacts on local fish stocks depend on the extent to which markets link fishing communities to outside regions through trade. Greater market integration can mitigate the fish stock decline, but this reduces the local income benefits of cash transfers.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Meio Ambiente , Pesqueiros/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Pobreza , Filipinas , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/prevenção & controle
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11503-11507, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887453

RESUMO

Combined heat and power (CHP), which produces both heat and electricity at the same time, is so efficient that it can reduce energy use and emit less carbon dioxide (CO2) than conventional fossil fuel use. This article attempts to look empirically into the impact of CHP share in total electricity generation on CO2 emissions in a cross-country context. Data from 35 countries during the period 2009-2015 are used. For this purpose, the variable of CO2 emissions is regressed on three variables of constant, gross domestic product, and CHP share using two robust estimators. The results show that the level of CHP share of a country affects the level of its CO2 emissions negatively. That is, CHP leads to less CO2 emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Centrais Elétricas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Eletricidade , Combustíveis Fósseis , Temperatura Alta , Centrais Elétricas/economia
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