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3.
Curr Biol ; 31(4): R168-R172, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621498

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an alarm call to all on the risks of zoonotic diseases and the delicate relationship between nature and human health. In response, China has taken a proactive step by issuing a legal decision to ban consumption of terrestrial wildlife. However, concerns have been raised and opponents of bans argue that well-regulated trade should be promoted instead. By analyzing China's legal framework and management system regulating wildlife trade, together with state and provincial-level wildlife-trade licenses and wildlife criminal cases, we argue that current wildlife trade regulations do not function as expected. This is due to outdated protected species lists, insufficient cross-sector collaboration, and weak restrictions and law enforcement on farming and trading of species. The lack of quarantine standards for wildlife and increased wildlife farming in recent years pose great risks for food safety and public health. In addition, wildlife consumption is neither required for subsistence nor an essential part of Chinese diets. All these facts make the ban necessary to provoke improvement in wildlife management, such as updating protected species lists, revising laws and changing consumption behaviors. Nonetheless, the ban is not sufficient to address all the problems. To sustain the efficacy of the change, we propose that a long-term mechanism to reduce the demand and improve effective management is needed.


Assuntos
Legislação sobre Alimentos , Carne , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Quarentena , Zoonoses
4.
Nature ; 589(7843): 567-571, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505035

RESUMO

Overfishing is the primary cause of marine defaunation, yet declines in and increasing extinction risks of individual species are difficult to measure, particularly for the largest predators found in the high seas1-3. Here we calculate two well-established indicators to track progress towards Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Sustainable Development Goals4,5: the Living Planet Index (a measure of changes in abundance aggregated from 57 abundance time-series datasets for 18 oceanic shark and ray species) and the Red List Index (a measure of change in extinction risk calculated for all 31 oceanic species of sharks and rays). We find that, since 1970, the global abundance of oceanic sharks and rays has declined by 71% owing to an 18-fold increase in relative fishing pressure. This depletion has increased the global extinction risk to the point at which three-quarters of the species comprising this functionally important assemblage are threatened with extinction. Strict prohibitions and precautionary science-based catch limits are urgently needed to avert population collapse6,7, avoid the disruption of ecological functions and promote species recovery8,9.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Oceanos e Mares , Tubarões , Rajidae , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Extinção Biológica , Feminino , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Objetivos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Predatório , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370255

RESUMO

Cooperation is thought to be a necessary condition to solve collective action dilemmas such as climate change or the sustainable use of common pool resources. Yet, it is poorly understood how situations pervaded by thresholds shape the behaviour of people facing collective dilemmas. Here we provide empirical evidence that resource users facing thresholds maintain on average cooperative behaviours in the sense of maximising their individual earnings while ensuring future group opportunities. A framed field experiment in the form of a dynamic game with 256 Colombian fishers helped us investigate individual behavioural responses to the existence of thresholds, risk and uncertainty. Thresholds made fishers extract less fish compared to situation without thresholds, but risk had a stronger effect on reducing individual fishing effort. Contrary to previous expectations, cooperation did not break down. If cooperation can be maintained in the face of thresholds, then communicating uncertainty is more policy-relevant than estimating precisely where tipping points lay in social-ecological systems.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Colômbia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The answer to this article lies in: Does the financial activities of physical enterprises have an adverse impact on their main business? Is it conducive to the sustainable development of the national economy? However, when most scholars study the impact of environmental regulations on companies performance, they have not classified companies performance. This article will study the relationship between environmental regulations and performance levels based on the classification of companies performance, and then divide the nature of industry pollution, companies location and nature of property for in-depth research. METHODS: First, this article uses a random effect variable-intercept model to measure companies financial performance and non-financial performance. Then, the variables are divided into two variable groups: light pollution and heavy pollution according to the nature of industry pollution. Next, the companies are divided into three variable groups: the eastern region, the central region, and the western region. Finally, the company is divided into two variable groups: state-owned and non-state-owned according to the nature of property. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that: (1) Environmental regulations have inhibited companies financial activities. And the inhibitory effect of environmental regulations on the financial performance of enterprises is more obvious in the heavily polluting industries and enterprises in central and eastern regions. (2) Environmental regulations and companies non-financial performance are also negatively related, environmental regulations have also inhibited the non-financial performance of companies, this effect is more pronounced in heavily polluting industries and enterprises in western regions. (3) Income crowding effect brought by China's environmental regulations is greater than the income compensation effect brought by stimulating technological innovation.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Comércio/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Humanos , Invenções/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321901

RESUMO

Awareness of the influence of environmental regulations and financial development on green technological progress by Chinese enterprises will help to promote the green transformation of China's economy, thereby comprehensively enhancing the quality and competitiveness of its economic development. This paper constructs a theoretical framework to analyze environmental regulation, financial development, and green technological progress and studies the relationship among these three indicators using 2004-2018 data from Shandong province. The results show that environmental regulations and financial development both play roles in promoting green technological progress, but as environmental regulation becomes stronger, the effects of finance on green technological progress begin to differ across regions. The results partially verify the applicability of the Porter hypothesis in China, providing a reference for all levels of government to formulate scientific and reasonable environmental rules and policies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Tecnologia , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo , Tecnologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia/tendências
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002076

RESUMO

From the discourse analysis perspective, ecopolitics has experienced a discourse change from authoritarianism to democracy. This study uses theory of authoritarianism and democracy in ecopolitics to explore the impact of authoritarian ecopolitical discourse (AED) and democratic ecopolitical discourse (DED) on environmental quality in China. After analysis using panel data and comparison of three main regions, results suggest a negative relationship between AED of the central government and environmental quality. By contrast, a positive relationship exists between AED of local governments and environmental quality. A positive relationship exists between DED, which measures the proposals of People's Congress deputies and Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), and environmental quality. Nevertheless, the positive effect of DED is weaker than that of AED. The impact is also different among the regions. Our interpretations are as follows. China's current governance mechanism is a top-down decision-making mechanism, rather than a bottom-up information transmission mechanism. The concentration of power keeps decision-making power and resources away from levels with considerably accurate information and capabilities in problem solving. Therefore, we suggest that governments should change their decision-making process and exert effort to be transparent to the entire society. A bottom-up mechanism of information collection and transmission should be established, such as environmental inspection mechanism and checking on cadres' achievements with green GDP.


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Democracia , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Modelos Estatísticos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822346

RESUMO

Illegal hunting is a persistent problem in many protected areas, but an overview of the extent of this problem and its impact on wildlife is lacking. We reviewed 40 years (1980-2020) of global research to examine the spatial distribution of research and socio-ecological factors influencing population decline within protected areas under illegal hunting pressure. From 81 papers reporting 988 species/site combinations, 294 mammal species were reported to have been illegally hunted from 155 protected areas across 48 countries. Research in illegal hunting has increased substantially during the review period and showed biases towards strictly protected areas and the African continent. Population declines were most frequent in countries with a low human development index, particularly in strict protected areas and for species with a body mass over 100 kg. Our results provide evidence that illegal hunting is most likely to cause declines of large-bodied species in protected areas of resource-poor countries regardless of protected area conservation status. Given the growing pressures of illegal hunting, increased investments in people's development and additional conservation efforts such as improving anti-poaching strategies and conservation resources in terms of improving funding and personnel directed at this problem are a growing priority.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade , Mamíferos , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
10.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127729, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763646

RESUMO

The effect of emission control measures on ozone (O3) concentrations in Hangzhou during G20 (The Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) meeting during 24 August to 6 September of 2016 was evaluated using the nested version of a global chemical transport model. During G20, observed concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, and CO were all below national air quality standards, whereas those of MDA8 O3 were above national standard (with an averaged value of 160.2 µg m-3) but had a decreasing trend. Model sensitivity studies show that, MDA8 O3 concentrations in Hangzhou during G20 were reduced by 11.3 µg m-3 (6.8%), 14.8 µg m-3 (8.9%), and 19.5 µg m-3 (11.7%) with emission control measures in the core area, Zhejiang province, and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, respectively, indicating that control measures were the most effective when carried out jointly in YRD. Considering the ratios of NOx to VOCs during G20, Hangzhou and most areas of Zhejiang province were in transitional regime; reductions in either NOx or VOCs could reduce O3 concentrations. We also quantified how sensitive O3 concentrations respond to emission reductions in sectors of industry, power, residential and transportation in the whole of YRD during G20. The removal of emissions in industry and transportation sectors would lead to the largest reductions of 17.6 µg m-3 (10.5%) and 12.3 µg m-3 (7.4%) in MDA8 O3 concentrations in Hangzhou during G20, respectively. This study has important implications for the control of high O3 levels in eastern China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Regulamentação Governamental , Ozônio/análise , Emissões de Veículos/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Rios/química , Estações do Ano
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(7): 420, 2020 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506328

RESUMO

The problem created by invasive non-native species through ships' ballast water has caused the International Maritime Organization (IMO), through the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention and many countries to develop their own laws to prevent their introduction. One of the most important non-native species in Argentina, the golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), causes a significant economic impact on the Plata Basin. Argentina has a great amount of maritime and fluvial ports that receive ships from different regions of the world. Particularly, the San Lorenzo-San Martín Port Complex (here termed SLOR), placed in the terminal portion of the Paraná Basin, receives ocean ships with great loading capacity, which increases the possibility of invasions and the need of an adequate environmental management. This work proposes to estimate the potential vulnerability of SLOR port, in relation with the origin of the ballast water and its volume. For this purpose, an adaptation of the risk assessment model of the GloBallast Program was used. The results suggest that SLOR has important similarities with different fluvial ports of the world, especially in Brazil and China. However the amount of ships coming from the nearest estuary waters, where the diversity of invasive species has major effects, is also important. This article provides the necessary information to conduct the efforts through surveys and enforcement regulations, and could be the foundation for future research using global data that could provide basic information for other fluvial ports with similar features.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies Introduzidas , Navios , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Navios/legislação & jurisprudência
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 898-909, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451478

RESUMO

Non-state actors play an increasingly important role in environmental policy. Lobbying by interest groups has been associated with policy stagnation and environmental degradation as well as with sustainable governance. However, little is known about how competition between economic and environmental interests influences the ability of governance systems to avoid undesirable outcomes. We investigate how competing interest group behaviour affects sustainable resource management by tracing the policy change process in a case study of the European Union fisheries policy and analysing its dynamics with an agent-based model. We find that formation of interest group coalitions in response to a perceived crisis can delay or prevent collapses, even when the competing interests have unequal resources. We attribute such outcomes to the emergence and timing of a 'tug of war' mechanism between competing interest group coalitions. We argue that attempts to improve sustainable resource management must account for feedbacks from environmental change to behaviours of political actors.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Processos Grupais , Formulação de Políticas , Opinião Pública , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
17.
Nature ; 580(7802): 232-234, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269340

RESUMO

Environmental change is rapidly accelerating, and many species will need to adapt to survive1. Ensuring that protected areas cover populations across a broad range of environmental conditions could safeguard the processes that lead to such adaptations1-3. However, international conservation policies have largely neglected these considerations when setting targets for the expansion of protected areas4. Here we show that-of 19,937 vertebrate species globally5-8-the representation of environmental conditions across their habitats in protected areas (hereafter, niche representation) is inadequate for 4,836 (93.1%) amphibian, 8,653 (89.5%) bird and 4,608 (90.9%) terrestrial mammal species. Expanding existing protected areas to cover these gaps would encompass 33.8% of the total land surface-exceeding the current target of 17% that has been adopted by governments. Priority locations for expanding the system of protected areas to improve niche representation occur in global biodiversity hotspots9, including Colombia, Papua New Guinea, South Africa and southwest China, as well as across most of the major land masses of the Earth. Conversely, we also show that planning for the expansion of protected areas without explicitly considering environmental conditions would marginally reduce the land area required to 30.7%, but that this would lead to inadequate niche representation for 7,798 (39.1%) species. As the governments of the world prepare to renegotiate global conservation targets, policymakers have the opportunity to help to maintain the adaptive potential of species by considering niche representation within protected areas1,2.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade , Animais , Biodiversidade , Governo Federal , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231115

RESUMO

Many developing countries including China are implementing increasingly stringent environmental regulations to achieve sustainable development. However, we have limited understanding about whether environmental regulations promote enterprise green innovation. To address this research gap, this study empirically analyzes the impact of environmental regulations, which is represented by the China Environmental Protection Law (2015), on enterprise green innovation, and it explores the moderating effects of official tenure on environmental regulations and corporate green innovation. The Super-Slacks-based Measure (Super-SBM) model and multiple nonlinear regression model are employed to analyze sample data of 3557 firms in China's A-share market during the 2014-2017 period. Our results show that, in general, a higher intensity of environmental regulations is more beneficial to incentivize enterprises to implement green innovation. Meanwhile, there is an inverted U-type relationship between the tenure length of officials and green innovation of enterprises. Furthermore, the tenure length of officials plays an inverted U-shaped role in regulating the impact of environmental regulations on enterprise green innovation. Overall, this study can help us better understand the politics behind enterprises green innovation in countries like China.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229614, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126070

RESUMO

The forests of Borneo-the third largest island on the planet-sustain some of the highest biodiversity and carbon storage in the world. The forests also provide vital ecosystem services and livelihood support for millions of people in the region, including many indigenous communities. The Pan-Borneo Highway and several hydroelectric dams are planned or already under construction in Sarawak, a Malaysian state comprising part of the Borneo. This development seeks to enhance economic growth and regional connectivity, support community access to services, and promote industrial development. However, the implications of the development of highway and dams for forest integrity, biodiversity and ecosystem services remained largely unreported. We assessed these development projects using fine-scale biophysical and environmental data and found several environmental and socioeconomic risks associated with the projects. The highway and hydroelectric dam projects will impact 32 protected areas including numerous key habitats of threatened species such as the proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), Sarawak surili (Presbytis chrysomelas), Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and tufted ground squirrel (Rheithrosciurus macrotis). Under its slated development trajectory, the local and trans-national forest connectivity between Malaysian Borneo and Indonesian Borneo would also be substantially diminished. Nearly ~161 km of the Pan-Borneo Highway in Sarawak will traverse forested landscapes and ~55 km will traverse carbon-rich peatlands. The 13 hydroelectric dam projects will collectively impact ~1.7 million ha of forest in Sarawak. The consequences of planned highway and hydroelectric dams construction will increase the carbon footprint of development in the region. Moreover, many new road segments and hydroelectric dams would be built on steep slopes in high-rainfall zones and forested areas, increasing both construction and ongoing maintenance costs. The projects would also alter livelihood activities of downstream communities, risking their long-term sustainability. Overall, our findings identify major economic, social and environmental risks for several planned road segments in Sarawak-such as those between Telok Melano and Kuching; Sibu and Bintulu; and in the Lambir, Limbang and Lawas regions-and dam projects-such as Tutoh, Limbang, Lawas, Baram, Linau, Ulu Air and Baleh dams. Such projects need to be reviewed to ensure they reflect Borneo's unique environmental and forest ecosystem values, the aspirations of local communities and long-term sustainability of the projects rather than being assessed solely on their short-term economic returns.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Florestas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Animais , Biodiversidade , Bornéu , Sequestro de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Indonésia , Malásia , Centrais Elétricas/tendências , Política Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168909

RESUMO

Local water governance is challenging given the significance to public health and the difficulties to manage it in a fragmented administrative system. A collaboration network is a popular governance tool in local governance to cope with functional fragmentation problems and institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas. Empirical works are needed to examine the outcomes of such governance networks, especially in the context of environmental governance. With fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this article seeks to evaluate the outcomes of collaboration networks by investigating the influence of network structures on local water governance performance in China. Based on empirical analyses on a dataset of twenty local water governance networks implementing the Water Ecological Civilization Pilot Project in China, the findings suggest that a high overall bridging and bonding of social capital and a low network density are important determinants of effective collaboration networks. This study has policy implications for the design of local collaboration networks in facilitating effective environmental governance.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Água , China , Governo , Projetos Piloto , Capital Social
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