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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 616, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493130

RESUMO

This study is the first meta-regression analysis of the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at the global level. Most of the regulating ecosystem services have not been properly estimated in terms of economic value and are also ignored in the everyday decision-making process. This study has reviewed 100 publications and included 275 economic value estimates. This study includes explanatory variables in the meta-analysis to account for these influences on the estimated economic value of regulating ecosystem services. This study has estimated the economic value of regulating ecosystem services at US$29.085 trillion for 2015. This study also has found that the values of climate and water regulations are the highest contributors to the total value of regulating ecosystem services. This study indicates that the results of meta-analysis might be helpful to decision-making with respect to three aspects: first, planning and management of urban green cover for sustainable cities; second, integration of the economic value of all the regulating ecosystem services; third, budget allocation for conservation and improvement of regulating ecosystem services for the present and future generations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Planejamento de Cidades/economia , Clima , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Recursos Hídricos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 574, 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422465

RESUMO

Historic management actions authorized or allowed by federal land management agencies have had a profound negative effect on salmon, trout, and char populations and their habitats. To rectify past failings, in the 1990s, federal agencies in the Interior Columbia River Basin modified how they conducted land management activities to foster the conservation of aquatic species. The primary policy changes were to provide additional protection and restoration of lands near streams, lakes, and wetlands. What remains uncertain was whether these changes have altered the trajectory of stream habitat conditions. To address this question, we evaluate the status and trends of ten stream habitat attributes; wood frequency, wood volume, residual pool depth, percent pool, pool frequency, pool tail fines (< 6 mm), median particle size, percent undercut banks, bank angle, and streambank stability in managed and reference catchments following changes in management policies. Our review of these data support the hypothesis that changes made in management standards and guidelines in the 1990s are related to improved stream conditions. Determining the precise magnitude of changes in stream conditions that resulted from the modification of land management policies is difficult due to the shifting environmental baseline. By understanding and accounting for how changes in stream conditions reflect improved land management policies and broader environmental trends, federal agencies will be better situated to make project level decisions that benefit aquatic resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Salmonidae , Animais , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Parques Recreativos , Rios
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 502, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327078

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of state ownership in forest governance in Turkey. It seeks to explore how property rights are affected by the complex, dynamic interplay of policies, economic influences, and the law. The historical development of state ownership, including its legal aspects, has been investigated in order to better understand the roots of current issues. An institutional approach has been followed. It is hypothesized that as the state exercises its property rights, it has both positive and negative effects on forest governance. This analysis confirms that state ownership may exceed its implementation capacity under the pressure of economic development objectives and that in areas where economic development is a priority, the loss of forests is inevitable. There is a need for a more adaptive approach to making policies related to property rights. The concept of the overriding public interest could be vital in achieving purposeful governance.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Propriedade , Formulação de Políticas , Turquia
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 2): e20180861, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241651

RESUMO

We describe the first occurrence of biogenic traces made by mammals within an iron formation cave located in the Serra da Ferrugem Ridge, in Southeastern Brazil. These bioerosions are tooth traces produced in boulders, walls and floor within the cave. The traces occur as sets of two or more grooves, which are highly variable in size. The grooves were compared to tooth traces artificially produced by imprinting the incisors of different mammal species collected in the cave region on soft clay. Among those, the following taxa are potential tracemakers: Akodon sp., Oligoryzomys sp., Necromys lasiurus, Rhipidomys mastacalis, Oecomys gr. concolor, Trinomys moojeni, and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris. The age of the traces is unknown; therefore, any discussion on its fossil nature is circumstantial. Regardless of its relevance to paleontology, the presence of ichnological features should be considered as an additional cave value, according to the current Brazilian legislation regarding cave protection.


Assuntos
Cavernas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Mamíferos/classificação , Paleontologia , Animais
9.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(6): 1603-1621, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150128

RESUMO

Wildlife forensics has recently been recognized among the wide variety of forensic science disciplines. This review compares human and wildlife DNA forensics, which use the same genetic tools, but often for far different purposes. Human forensic genetics almost invariably attempts to identify individual perpetrators involved in a given crime. Wildlife forensics often determines whether a crime has occurred. In addition to techniques familiar in human laboratories, like individual matching with STRs, wildlife analysts may be asked to determine the taxonomic identity, geographic source, or sex of evidence items, or the familial relationships or minimum number of individuals among a group of samples. This review highlights the common questions, legal framework, databases, and similar validation requirements to foster understanding between disciplines. Based on this understanding, human and wildlife DNA practitioners may work together and learn from each other in order to elevate the discipline of forensic genetics.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA , Genética Forense , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Geografia , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise para Determinação do Sexo , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18001-18002, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093914

RESUMO

In this paper, we discussed some major issues that hinder giant panda protection, such as diverse and mixed threats, habitat fragmentation, as well as the survey method to be improved, and some new protection actions appeared, such as the pilot program for the giant panda national park system and the administration of the giant panda national park was established. These information could provide important information for giant panda protection.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Parques Recreativos , Ursidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Regulamentação Governamental , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1681, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975997

RESUMO

Early warning signals (EWSs) offer the hope that patterns observed in data can predict the future states of ecological systems. While a large body of research identifies such signals prior to the collapse of populations, the prediction that such signals should also be present before a system's recovery has thus far been overlooked. We assess whether EWSs are present prior to the recovery of overexploited marine systems using a trait-based ecological model and analysis of real-world fisheries data. We show that both abundance and trait-based signals are independently detectable prior to the recovery of stocks, but that combining these two signals provides the best predictions of recovery. This work suggests that the efficacy of conservation interventions aimed at restoring systems which have collapsed may be predicted prior to the recovery of the system, with direct relevance for conservation planning and policy.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Pesqueiros/tendências , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Previsões , Gadus morhua , Mar do Norte , Formulação de Políticas , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1094, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890695

RESUMO

Identifying patterns of wildlife crime is a major conservation challenge. Here, we test whether deaths or disappearances of a protected species, the hen harrier, are associated with grouse moors, which are areas managed for the production of red grouse for recreational shooting. Using data from 58 satellite tracked hen harriers, we show high rates of unexpected tag failure and low first year survival compared to other harrier populations. The likelihood of harriers dying or disappearing increased as their use of grouse moors increased. Similarly, at the landscape scale, satellite fixes from the last week of life were distributed disproportionately on grouse moors in comparison to the overall use of such areas. This pattern was also apparent in protected areas in northern England. We conclude that hen harriers in Britain suffer elevated levels of mortality on grouse moors, which is most likely the result of illegal killing.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Inglaterra , Feminino , Masculino , Parques Recreativos/legislação & jurisprudência , Dinâmica Populacional , Comunicações Via Satélite
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0207973, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908477

RESUMO

Natural resource rules exist to control resources and the people that interact with them. These rules often fail because people do not comply with them. Decisions to comply with natural resource rules often are based on attitudes about legitimacy of rules and the perceived risks of breaking rules. Trust in agencies promulgating rules in part may determine perceptions of legitimacy of the rule, and in turn depends on individuals' trust in different agency actors. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between fishing rule noncompliance and trust in scientists, a key group within management agencies. We interviewed 41 individuals in one rural fishing community in the Brazilian Pantanal from April to August, 2016, to assess (1) noncompliance rates, (2) noncompliance-related attitudes, and (3) the relationship between trust in scientists and noncompliance decisions in the region. We found that among study participants, noncompliance was common and overt. Trust in scientists performing research in the region was the best predictor of noncompliance rate with a fishing rule (nonparametric rank correlation ρ = -0.717; Probit model pseudo-R2 = 0.241). Baseline data from this research may help inform future interventions to minimize IUU fishing and protect the Pantanal fishery. Although our results are specific to one community in the Pantanal, trust in scientists is potentially an important factor for compliance decisions in similar situations around the world. These results build not only on compliance theory but also speak to the important role that many scientists play in rural areas where they conduct their research.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Comportamento Cooperativo , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , População Rural , Confiança
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