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1.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0227085, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044970

RESUMO

Coastally distributed dolphin species are vulnerable to a variety of anthropogenic pressures, yet a lack of abundance data often prevents data-driven conservation management strategies from being implemented. We investigated the abundance of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) along the south coast of South Africa, from the Goukamma Marine Protected Area (MPA) to the Tsitsikamma MPA, between 2014 and 2016. During this period, 662.3h of boat-based photo-identification survey effort was carried out during 189 surveys. The sighting histories of 817 identified individuals were used to estimate abundance using capture-recapture modelling. Using open population (POPAN) models, we estimated that 2,155 individuals (95% CI: 1,873-2,479) occurred in the study area, although many individuals appeared to be transients. We recorded smaller group sizes and an apparent decline in abundance in a subset of the study area (Plettenberg Bay) compared to estimates obtained in 2002-2003 at this location. We recorded declines of more than 70% in both abundance and group size for a subset of the study area (Plettenberg Bay), in relation to estimates obtained in 2002-2003 at this location. We discuss plausible hypotheses for causes of the declines, including anthropogenic pressure, ecosystem change, and methodological inconsistencies. Our study highlights the importance of assessing trends in abundance at other locations to inform data-driven conservation management strategies of T. aduncus in South Africa.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Animais , Fotografação , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , África do Sul
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0232993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052917

RESUMO

In pre-colonial and colonial times Côte d'Ivoire probably hosted one of the largest elephant populations in West Africa, resulting in the country's name Côte d'Ivoire (in English Ivory Coast) by French settlers. Numbers declined and by the early 90s it was estimated that the total number of both savannah and forest elephants had reached 63 to 360 elephants in the entire country. Here we present updated information on the distribution and conservation status of forest elephant in Côte d'Ivoire based on multiple sources-dung counts on line transects, records of human-elephant conflict, media reports, sign and interview surveys-obtained during the period 2011-2017. We used Pearson correlation to determine the correlation between the presence of forest elephant and site variables (size of the forest, percentage of area converted into plantation, size of the forest left, size of human population inside the PA, poaching index, distance to the nearest road, population density in the Department, level of protection of the PA). To examine the effect of ecological traits on elephant extirpation, we used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to check for multicollinearity among variables. Based on dung count elephant presence was confirmed in only 4 of the 25 protected areas surveyed. PAs with higher level of protection have higher probability to be home of elephant population. The viability of these populations is uncertain, since they have a small size and are isolated. Aggressive conservation actions including law enforcement for the protection of their remaining habitat and ranger patrolling are needed to protect the remaining forest elephant populations.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Elefantes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Costa do Marfim , Extinção Biológica , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Análise de Componente Principal , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0221833, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095780

RESUMO

Romania and Ukraine share the Black Sea coastline, the Danube Delta and associated habitats, which harbor the endemic, aquatic Pontocaspian biota. Currently, this biota is diminishing both in numbers of species and their abundance because of human activities, and its future persistence strongly depends on the adequacy of conservation measures. Romania and Ukraine have a common responsibility to address the conservation of Pontocaspian biodiversity. The two countries, however have different socio-political and legal conservation frameworks, which may result in differences in the social network structure of stakeholder institutions with different implications for Pontocaspian biodiversity conservation. Here, we study the social network structure of stakeholder organizations involved in conservation of Pontocaspian biodiversity in Romania and the implications of network structure for conservation outcomes. Then we compare the findings from Romania to an earlier similar study from Ukraine. We apply a mix of qualitative and quantitative social network analysis methods to combine the content and context of the interactions with relational measures. We show that Pontocaspian biodiversity plays a minor and mostly incidental role in the inter-organizational interactions in Romania. Furthermore, there is room for improvement in the network structure through e.g. more involvement of governmental and nongovernmental organizations and increased motivation of central stakeholders to initiate conservation actions. Social variables, such as lack of funding, hierarchical, non-inclusive system of conservation governance and continuous institutional reforms in the public sector are consequential for the network relations and structure. Social network of stakeholders in Ukraine is more connected and central stakeholders utilize their favorable positions. However, neither in Ukraine is the Pontocaspian biodiversity a driver of organizational interactions. Consequently, both networks translate into sub-optimal conservation actions and the roads to optimal conservation are different. We end with sketching out conservation implications and recommendations for improved national and cross-border conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Rede Social , Ecossistema , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Romênia , Ucrânia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0230760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095793

RESUMO

The impact of a range of different threats has resulted in the listing of six out of seven sea turtle species on the IUCN Red List of endangered species. Disease risk analysis (DRA) tools are designed to provide objective, repeatable and documented assessment of the disease risks for a population and measures to reduce these risks through management options. To the best of our knowledge, DRAs have not previously been published for sea turtles, although disease is reported to contribute to sea turtle population decline. Here, a comprehensive list of health hazards is provided for all seven species of sea turtles. The possible risk these hazards pose to the health of sea turtles were assessed and "One Health" aspects of interacting with sea turtles were also investigated. The risk assessment was undertaken in collaboration with more than 30 experts in the field including veterinarians, microbiologists, social scientists, epidemiologists and stakeholders, in the form of two international workshops and one local workshop. The general finding of the DRA was the distinct lack of knowledge regarding a link between the presence of pathogens and diseases manifestation in sea turtles. A higher rate of disease in immunocompromised individuals was repeatedly reported and a possible link between immunosuppression and environmental contaminants as a result of anthropogenic influences was suggested. Society based conservation initiatives and as a result the cultural and social aspect of interacting with sea turtles appeared to need more attention and research. A risk management workshop was carried out to acquire the insights of local policy makers about management options for the risks relevant to Queensland and the options were evaluated considering their feasibility and effectiveness. The sea turtle DRA presented here, is a structured guide for future risk assessments to be used in specific scenarios such as translocation and head-starting programs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Coleta de Dados , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Imunossupressão , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052951

RESUMO

Knowledge of the recruitment of dominant forest species is a key aspect for forest conservation and the ecosystem services they provide. In this paper, we address how the simultaneous action of climate change and the intensity of land use in the past influence the recruitment of a forest species that depends on the provision of nurse plants to recruit. We compared the number of saplings (up to 15 years old) and juveniles (16 to 50 years old) of Quercus ilex in 17, 5.3 ha plots in the Iberian System (eastern Spain). We used a gradient of past deforestation intensity crossed with two levels of average annual precipitation, one of them at the lower limit of the species' precipitation niche (semi-arid) and the other at the optimum (sub-humid). We also examined the association between recruits and nurse plants and the effect on this association of plot-scale factors, such as seed abundance (reproductive Q. ilex), microsites (nurse species and soil availability), and large herbivores. The increase in aridity in the last decades has drastically reduced the recruitment of new individuals in the forests of Q. ilex located in the lower limit of their precipitation niche, regardless of the intensity of past deforestation that they suffered. Recruitment in these climatic conditions depends almost exclusively on large trees and shrubs whose abundance may also be limited by aridity. The lack of regeneration questions the future of these populations, as the number of individuals will decrease over time despite the strong resistance of adult trees to disturbance and drought.


Assuntos
Secas , Ecossistema , Quercus/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Solo , Espanha , Árvores/fisiologia , Água
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104691

RESUMO

Many studies have demonstrated that moral philosophies, such as idealism and relativism, could be used as robust predictors of judgements and behaviours related to common moral issues, such as business ethics, unethical beliefs, workplace deviance, marketing practices, gambling, etc. However, little consideration has been given to using moral philosophies to predict environmentally (un)friendly attitudes and behaviours, which could also be classified as moral. In this study, we have assessed the impact of idealism and relativism using the Ethics Position Theory. We have tested its capacity to predict moral identity, moral judgement of social vs. environmental issues, and self-reported pro-environmental behaviours. The results from an online MTurk study of 432 US participants revealed that idealism had a significant impact on all the tested variables, but the case was different with relativism. Consistently with the findings of previous studies, we found relativism to be a strong predictor of moral identity and moral judgement of social issues. In contrast, relativism only weakly interacted with making moral judgements of environmental issues, and had no effects in predicting pro-environmental behaviours. These findings suggest that Ethics Position Theory could have a strong potential for defining moral differences between environmental attitudes and behaviours, capturing the moral drivers of an attitude-behaviour gap, which continuously stands as a barrier in motivating people to become more pro-environmental.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/ética , Julgamento/ética , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239525, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970736

RESUMO

Rapid changes in climate and land use threaten the persistence of wildlife species. Understanding where species are likely to occur now and in the future can help identify areas that are resistant to change over time and guide conservation planning. We estimated changes in species distribution patterns and spatial resistance in five future scenarios for the New England region of the northeastern United States. We present scenario-specific distribution change maps for nine harvested wildlife species, identifying regions of increasing, decreasing, or stable habitat suitability within each scenario. Next, we isolated areas where species occurrence probability is high (p > 0.7) and resistant to change across all future scenarios. Resistance was also evaluated relative to current land protection to identify patterns in and out of Protected Areas (PAs). Generally, species distributions declined in area over the 50-year assessment period (2010-2060), with the greatest average declines occurring for moose (-40.9%) and wild turkey (-22.1%). Species resistance varied considerably across the region, with coyote demonstrating the highest average regional resistance (91.81% of the region) and moose demonstrating the lowest (0.76% of the region). At the state level, average focal species resistance was highest in Maine (the largest state) and lowest in Massachusetts. Many of the focal species showed high overlap in resistance and land protection. Coyote, white-tailed deer, and black bear had the highest probability of resistance, given protection, while moose and wild turkey had the highest probability of protection, given resistance. Overall, relatively small portions of New England-ranging between 0.25% and 21.12%-were both protected and resistant for the focal species. Our results provide estimates of resistance that can inform conservation planning for commonly harvested species that are important ecologically, economically, and culturally to the region. Expanding protected area coverage to include resistant areas may provide longer term benefits to these species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Coleta de Dados , Demografia/métodos , Ecologia , Ecossistema , New England
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997673

RESUMO

Land-use change and climate change are recognized as two main drivers of the current biodiversity decline. Protected areas help safeguard the landscape from additional anthropogenic disturbances and, when properly designed, can help species cope with climate change impacts. When designed to protect the regional biodiversity rather than to conserve focal species or landscape elements, protected areas need to cover a representative sample of the regional biodiversity and be functionally connected, facilitating individual movements among protected areas in a network to maximize their effectiveness. We developed a methodology to define effective protected areas to implement in a regional network using ecological representativeness and functional connectivity as criteria. We illustrated this methodology in the Gaspésie region of Québec, Canada. We simulated movements for the endangered Atlantic-Gaspésie caribou population (Rangifer tarandus caribou), using an individual-based model, to determine functional connectivity based on this large mammal. We created multiple protected areas network scenarios and evaluated their ecological representativeness and functional connectivity for the current and future conditions. We selected a subset of the most effective network scenarios and extracted the protected areas included in them. There was a tradeoff between ecological representativeness and functional connectivity for the created networks. Only a few protected areas among those available were repeatedly chosen in the most effective networks. Protected areas maximizing both ecological representativeness and functional connectivity represented suitable areas to implement in an effective protected areas network. These areas ensured that a representative sample of the regional biodiversity was covered by the network, as well as maximizing the movement over time between and inside the protected areas for the focal population.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Rena , Migração Animal , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Mamíferos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238982, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931518

RESUMO

Over the past decade, pastoralists in Kunene Region, Namibia, have endured recurrent drought and flood events that have culminated in the loss of their primary form of livelihood-pastoralism. Most pastoralists are finding it difficult to sustain their livelihoods, and their communities have fallen into extreme poverty. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) approaches are increasingly acknowledged as having the potential to enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities. The first step is to develop an understanding of how affected communities live, their perceptions of and how they respond to climate change and the biophysical impacts of climate change in their communities. This study aims to collect this information in order to explore the use of EbA to help pastoralists adapt to climate change. We examined an isolated pastoral Himba community, to understand their perceptions, experiences and understanding of climate change and its related impacts on their livelihoods. A nested mixed-methods approach using structured interviews was employed to address the study objectives. Interview results revealed that pastoralists lack scientific knowledge of climate change, and they have no access to climate change information. Though pastoralists have coping and adaptation approaches at the community level (such as making gardens, fishing, etc.), these have become ineffective as climatic uncertainty and change persist. Furthermore, pastoralists no longer get benefits from the environment, such as food and fodder. Despite this, there are currently no biodiversity interventions at the community level to address the impacts of climate change. Pastoralists have indicated their adaptation needs, particularly the provision of water supply to grow food. This is an open avenue to explore EbA approaches, specifically ecological restoration, while still addressing the need of the pastoralists. There is an urgent need to develop new practical adaptation strategies, including restoration options that will strengthen their adaptive capacity.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Aclimatação , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Secas , Ecossistema , Inundações , Humanos , Conhecimento , Namíbia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960903

RESUMO

To prevent and control non-point source pollution, many policies have been carried out by government in China. However, the effectiveness of these policies has rarely been evaluated. In this study, the potential and spatial distribution of agricultural non-point source pollution in the Baiyangdian Basin are reported. This investigation considers multiple parameters under various policies with county as a basic unit. The results for the potential pollution from chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) are 60.89×104, 3.93×104, 87.05×104 and 15.10×104 Mg, with corresponding intensities of 190, 12, 272 and 47 kg ha-1 for the Baiyangdian Basin in 2016. The highest pollution from COD is attributed to livestock and poultry breeding, whereas TN and TP are dominantly produced by rural domestic sources, and NH3-N is mostly derived from planting. Spatially, distribution of the counties producing larger non-point source pollution presented a northeast to southwest direction, consistent with the Taihang mountain alignment in the basin. The counties with high pollution intensities are mostly in the south and east of the basin. Agricultural non-point source pollution control and prevention policies contributed in pollution reduction. Compared with 2016, the total potential pollution of COD, NH3-N, TN and TP in 2020 decrease by 45.1%, 14.7%, 37.9% and 37.4%, respectively, whereas for an assumed future time (F2), the decreases are 59%, 51.4%, 56.2% and 55.7%, respectively. Prevention measures should focus on reducing pollution from livestock and poultry breeding as well as planting.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Difusa/análise , Poluição Difusa/economia , Agricultura , Amônia/análise , Animais , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio/métodos , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Gado , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Aves Domésticas , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238914, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946472

RESUMO

The Atlantic Forest is considered the fourth most important biodiversity hotspot. Although almost 96% of its original area has been devastated, a large part of its remaining conserved area is inhabited by traditional communities. This research focused on two Quilombola communities who reside within the Núcleo Picinguaba of the Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective was to use a combination of ethnoecological and ecological approaches to select priority species for which to develop participatory conservation and sustainable management plans in protected areas in Brazil. We collaborated with community members to collect ethnobotanical and ethnoecological data and then measured the abundance of native species in local forests through phytosociological sampling. We used this information to assess the degree of threat to useful species using the Conservation Priority Index, adding an additional layer of analysis based on habitat successional categories. We then overlayed those useful species identified as highest risk locally with those federally listed as threatened or endangered. Based on this, we identified three species as priority for the development of sustainable management plans: Virola bicuhyba, Cedrella fissilis and Plinia edulis.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil/etnologia , Ecossistema , Etnobotânica , Florestas , Humanos , Magnoliopsida/classificação
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946480

RESUMO

Wild boar and feral swine number and range are increasing worldwide in parallel with their impact on biodiversity and human activities. The ecological and economic impact of this species include spread of diseases, vehicle collisions, damage to crops, amenities and infrastructures and reduction in plant and animal abundance and richness. As traditional methods such as culling have not contained the growth and spread of wild boar and feral pigs, alternative methods such as fertility control are now advocated. We used empirical data on two isolated wild boar populations to model and compare the effects of different regimes of culling and fertility control on population trends. We built a Bayesian population model and applied it to explore the implications for population control of various management options combining culling and/or contraception. The results showed that, whilst fertility control on its own was not sufficient to achieve the target reduction in wild boar number, adding fertility control to culling was more effective than culling alone. In particular, using contraceptives on 40% of the population to complement the culling of 60% of the animals, halved the time to achieve our target reduction compared with culling only. We conclude that, assuming the effort of adding fertility control to culling was found to be cost-effective in terms of population reduction, these two methods should be used simultaneously if a rapid decrease in wild boar number is required for a closed population.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Anticoncepção/métodos , Controle da População/métodos , Abate de Animais/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sus scrofa , Suínos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966298

RESUMO

Knowledge mobilisation is required to "bridge the gap" between research, policy and practice. This activity is dependent on the amount, richness and quality of the data published. To understand the impact of a changing climate on commercial species, stakeholder communities require better knowledge of their past and current situations. The common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is an excellent model species for this type of analysis, as it is well-studied due to its cultural, commercial and ecological significance in west Europe. Recently, C. edule harvests have decreased, coinciding with frequent mass mortalities, due to factors such as a changing climate and diseases. In this study, macro and micro level marine historical ecology techniques were used to create datasets on topics including: cockle abundance, spawning duration and harvest levels, as well as the ecological factors impacting those cockle populations. These data were correlated with changing climate and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index to assess if they are drivers of cockle abundance and harvesting. The analyses identified the key stakeholder communities involved in cockle research and data acquisition. It highlighted that data collection was sporadic and lacking in cross-national/stakeholder community coordination. A major finding was that local variability in cockle populations is influenced by biotic (parasites) and abiotic (temperature, legislation and harvesting) factors, and at a global scale by climate (AMO Index). This comprehensive study provided an insight into the European cockle fishery but also highlights the need to identify the type of data required, the importance of standardised monitoring, and dissemination efforts, taking into account the knowledge, source, and audience. These factors are key elements that will be highly beneficial not only to the cockle stakeholder communities but to other commercial species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Animais , Cardiidae , Europa (Continente) , Pesqueiros , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar
16.
Nature ; 585(7826): 551-556, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908312

RESUMO

Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it  provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether-and how-humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042-2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34-50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats-such as climate change-must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966345

RESUMO

Despite a growing body of evidence concerning accelerated organic degradation at archaeological sites, there have been few follow-up investigations to examine the status of the remaining archaeological materials in the ground. To address the question of archaeo-organic preservation, we revisited the Swedish, Mesolithic key-site Ageröd and could show that the bone material had been subjected to an accelerated deterioration during the last 75 years, which had destroyed the bones in the areas where they had previously been best preserved. To understand why this has happened and to quantify and qualify the extent of the organic degradation, we here analyse the soil chemistry, bone histology, collagen preservation and palaeobotany at the site. Our results show that the soil at Ageröd is losing, or has already lost, its preservative and buffering qualities, and that pH-values in the still wet areas of the site have dropped to levels where no bone preservation is possible. Our results suggest that this acidification process is enhanced by the release of sulphuric acid as pyrite in the bones oxidizes. While we are still able to find well-preserved palaeobotanical remains, they are also starting to corrode through re-introduced oxygen into the archaeological layers. While some areas of the site have been more protected through redeposited soil on top of the archaeological layers, all areas of Ageröd are rapidly deteriorating. Lastly, while it is still possible to perform molecular analyses on the best-preserved bones from the most protected areas, this opportunity will likely be lost within a few decades. In conclusion, we find that if we, as a society, wish to keep this valuable climatic, environmental and cultural archive, both at Ageröd and elsewhere, the time to act is now and if we wait we will soon be in a situation where this record will be irretrievably lost forever.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/métodos , Fósseis/história , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Botânica , Colágeno/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Características Culturais/história , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , História Antiga , Paleontologia , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Preservação Biológica/história , Datação Radiométrica , Solo/química , Suécia , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4762, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958767

RESUMO

Forests are increasingly affected by natural disturbances. Subsequent salvage logging, a widespread management practice conducted predominantly to recover economic capital, produces further disturbance and impacts biodiversity worldwide. Hence, naturally disturbed forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world, with consequences for their associated biodiversity. However, there are no evidence-based benchmarks for the proportion of area of naturally disturbed forests to be excluded from salvage logging to conserve biodiversity. We apply a mixed rarefaction/extrapolation approach to a global multi-taxa dataset from disturbed forests, including birds, plants, insects and fungi, to close this gap. We find that 75 ± 7% (mean ± SD) of a naturally disturbed area of a forest needs to be left unlogged to maintain 90% richness of its unique species, whereas retaining 50% of a naturally disturbed forest unlogged maintains 73 ± 12% of its unique species richness. These values do not change with the time elapsed since disturbance but vary considerably among taxonomic groups.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal/normas , Florestas , Animais , Benchmarking , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898181

RESUMO

Nowadays, citizen science has become increasingly popular, especially in Western countries. In Hong Kong, citizen science projects are mostly used for public education, while utilizing citizen scientists in published scientific research is very rare. On the other hand, with the increasing threats to global water security, Hong Kong requires new adaptation and strategy in facing the impairment of local freshwater systems. However, unfortunately, the number of full-scale urban river research appears to be declining. In this regard, citizen science can offer an alternative option as one of the new integrated water management strategies in Hong Kong. In this study, the water quality of seven rivers and streams in Hong Kong was studied monthly for two years by a group of citizen scientists. The main goal is to examine the reliability of data collected by citizen scientists by comparing it with the official data from the Environmental Protection Department of Hong Kong (EPD). Results show that the water temperature and conductivity data acquired by the citizen scientists were highly comparable to the official data. Also, moderate to strong correlations in water pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen levels were found between citizen scientists and official data. Since the citizen science data remained as high as 70% of relevance to the official data, we believe that this may serve as a supplement to the lacking official or professional water quality monitoring data in Hong Kong. Even though the use of volunteer data in water quality monitoring unavoidably exists with errors and bias, this study demonstrates a successful outcome of utilizing citizen science programme in urban river monitoring in Hong Kong.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água/normas , Participação da Comunidade , Hong Kong , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936803

RESUMO

The expansion of agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide, through changes generated in the landscape. Despite this, very little is still known about the complex relationships between landscape composition and heterogeneity and plant taxonomical and functional diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems that have been extensively managed during millennia. Although according to the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) plant richness might peak at intermediate disturbance levels, functional diversity might increase with landscape heterogeneity and decrease with the intensity of disturbance. Here, we evaluated the associations of landscape composition (percentage of crops) and heterogeneity (diversity of land-cover classes) with plant taxonomical diversity (richness, diversity, evenness), local contribution to beta diversity, and functional diversity (functional richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) in 20 wild Olea europaea communities appearing within agricultural landscapes of Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean Basin). In accordance with the IDH, we found that overall plant richness peaked at intermediate levels of crops in the landscape, whereas plant evenness showed the opposite pattern, because richness peak was mainly related to an increase in scarce ruderal species. Plant communities surrounded by very heterogeneous landscapes were those contributing the most to beta diversity and showing the highest functional richness and evenness, likely because diverse landscapes favour the colonization of new species and traits into the communities. In addition, landscape heterogeneity decreased functional divergence (i.e., increased trait overlap of dominant species) which may enhance community resilience against disturbances through a higher functional redundancy. However, a large extent of agriculture in the landscape might reduce such resilience, as this disturbance acted as an environmental filter that decreased functional dispersion (i.e, remaining species shared similar traits). Overall, our study highlights the importance of considering several indices of taxonomical and functional diversity to deeply understand the complex relationships between ecosystems functions and landscape context.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plantas/classificação , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
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