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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134203, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783445

RESUMO

Human-induced land use changes like agriculture and urban development occur commonly at the cost of natural wetlands, which require immediate attention and sustained efforts from urban planners and concerned governments. In view of the East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW), India, this paper has examined the trend, causes, extent and impacts of landscape transformation during the last few decades. Hence we aim to present a review of several studies in and around EKW and suggests a sustainable model for EKW. This 'Ramsar site of International Importance' is one of the world's largest wastewater-fed aquaculture systems where the city sewage is recycled for pisciculture and agriculture, and acts as flood resistance for the city of Kolkata. Rapid encroachment in the EKW due to unplanned development has caused various environmental, social and economic impacts. The key ecological impacts found in the study included loss of faunal and floral diversity, eco-toxicological impacts, etc. In terms of biodiversity loss, while the number of bird species in the EKW decreased from 248 in 1960s to 72 in 2005, about 59% fish species are near threats, vulnerable and endangered. Reported persistent organic pollutants (POPs) around the EKW region were found to pose deleterious impact on environment and ambient biota. Several studies have evidenced that the open burning of solid waste in the dumping ground of Dhapa is a potential source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs). Further the ecological transformation of the EKW focussing on policy development and regulatory compliance issues has been studied in this paper. The aspects of encroachment and wetland shrinkage triggered by economic drivers like urban sprawl have been analyzed. The paper presents adaptive co-management as the future roadmap for action to curb further degradation of the wetlands, and adopt an integrated approach of environmental, political, physical, economic and institutional aspects. It is envisaged that the adaptive co-management model will contribute to long-term sustainable sustenance of this precious ecosystem.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas , Índia
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 71-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791519

RESUMO

Microtopography affects hydrological processes and forms different microhabitats. Our previous study uncovered that riparian zone microtopography created various microhabitats with different soil environments and runoff-infiltration patterns. However, how riparian microtopography and microtopography within the water area (waterfall and tributary) affects downstream water quality remains unclear. Therefore, water samples were taken almost monthly in both the main stream and the tributary, before and after waterfalls, and near the bottom of three microtopographic types from June 2016 to March 2017. Compared with the dry season, the fact that water quality worsened in the wet season and that there were positive correlations for nitrate (NO3-) between water and the corresponding soil samples suggested that the riparian-soil environment affected the adjacent water quality mainly in the wet season. Nevertheless, riparian microtopography did not influence water quality downstream because of the low rainfall frequency and the weak leaching process due to plant interception. In the wet season, both the tributary and the waterfall increased the dissolved oxygen in the water body and, therefore, lowered the risk of eutrophication. The tributary has two pathways for improving the water quality, by increased disturbance and flow velocity, while the waterfall only has the former. However, such effects were not significant in the dry season. We conclude that the application of microtopographic modification is useful in maintaining urban wetland water quality in wet seasons.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Oxigênio , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134709, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726348

RESUMO

Eco-labeling of products such as ivory contributes to conservation of wildlife species and is most effective when potential consumers of such products are made aware of the threats to wildlife and protections associated with the labels. This paper investigates factors affecting citizens' perceptions of China's eco-labeling system for elephant ivory, which was established in 2004, using unique datasets collected in 2015 and 2017. The results indicate that citizens in China have little understanding of the ivory-labeling system. <10% of the participants were aware of the three accreditation subsystems for ivory products regulating manufacturers, retailers, and the products and only about 20% were familiar with one subsystem. The results of Bayesian logit models show that citizens' demographic and other characteristics are significantly correlated with their knowledge of the labeling system for elephant ivory, and the effects varied for the 2015 and 2017 samples. The one consistent influence was income level, which had similar significant and positive impacts in all of the models. The temporal coefficients reflecting changes in awareness between 2015 and 2017 were not significant, indicating that knowledge of the ivory-labeling system did not increase overall during that period. Our results indicate that significantly greater outreach is needed for China's ivory-labeling system so citizens can consistently play a role in ridding the market of illegal ivory products and regulating noncommercial ivory trading. Special attention should be given to groups of citizens who have relatively little education, income, and awareness of wildlife conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Elefantes , Rotulagem de Produtos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , China , Comércio , Crime , Ecologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134704, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726353

RESUMO

The difficulty of censusing fish diversity hampers effective management and conservation in estuarine and coastal ecosystems, especially wetland ecosystems. Improved noninvasive fish diversity monitoring programs are becoming increasingly crucial for coastal ecosystems. In this study, we investigated fish diversity and its seasonal variation in the Nansha wetland ecosystem using environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding and bottom trawling, and the two approaches were compared. With the combination of the two methods, the identified fish taxa included 78 species within 60 genera and 33 families, and five nontarget taxa were only identified by eDNA metabarcoding. Compared to the two surveys, eDNA metabarcoding identified a significantly greater number of fish species per site and per season than bottom trawling (p < 0.05), with eDNA metabarcoding identifying 32.05% more fish species than bottom trawling. The overwhelming majority of the fish orders captured in the Nansha coastal wetland by bottom trawling were recovered from eDNA analysis, although certain taxa were not sampled due to limitations. Furthermore, the Whittaker index and relative abundance analysis of the two methods showed distinct differences between the sampling seasons, suggesting seasonal variations and reflecting the current or recent existence of fish species in the coastal ecosystem. Thus, our work provides more detailed seasonal data on biodiversity in the Nansha wetland of the Pearl River Estuary, which is essential for the long-term management and conservation of coastal biodiversity. Our study also adds to the evidence that the eDNA metabarcoding approach can be used in coastal environments to monitor a broad range of taxa and reflect seasonal fluctuations in fish diversity. As an emerging and transformative method, eDNA metabarcoding shows great potential for fish diversity monitoring in coastal wetland ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Animais , China , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Estuários , Áreas Alagadas
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 47, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844993

RESUMO

The present study aimed to estimate soil erosion in Machados County, Brazil. Rainfall erosivity was calculated using monthly and annual precipitation averages over a 30-year interval, soil erodibility was obtained with a granularity-based equation, and topography and land cover were obtained from DEM data and Sentinel - 2B imagery, respectively. A GIS interface was used to spatialize parameter results and for topography and land cover analysis. The achieved results allowed surmising that the soil loss for the study region risk is low, but significant, with a mean value of 8.11 t/ha year. About a quarter of the total area presented high soil loss, above 20 t/ha year. The biggest influential factors were soil erodibility, with a mean value of 0.028, and land cover, averaging 0.1409. The topographic factor averaged 3.414 and rain erosivity, found to be 2747.22 mm/year, is considered low for the region. Given a lack of conservative practices observed during field work, the soil stewarship P factor was considered 1 for the assessment. The use of orbital images to obtain C factor and the expression applied to calculate soil erodibility provided adequate results. In addition, there is a need for research to monitor and quantify erosion processes in Brazilian semiarid, as well as their erosion tolerance.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Chuva , Solo
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 51, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848780

RESUMO

With the dynamics in current industry-environment interaction, it has become essential to diagnose the impacts that one is leaving on the environment. The requirement of assessment has brought many changes in the analysis techniques and research methodologies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one such validated technique as a scientific tool in the diagnosis of environmental impacts with accuracy. Over the past few years, LCA has attracted more attention with different approaches and applications. But, there is a lack of efforts to review the LCA applications for environmental management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the trends and to address the evolution of linkages in the field of LCA modeling and environmental management. The review employs the PRISMA statement for systematic literature review amalgamated with a visualization technique using VoSviewer. The meta-analysis addressing the findings from the academic articles published until the end of May 2019 using the Scopus online database was considered. The study reveals a total of 23 eligible papers regarding LCA modeling and environmental management. Analysis of these articles and keyword visualization network depicts that most of the studies on LCA modeling application were based on waste management-related decision-making and construction sector focusing primarily on environmental impacts, environmental performance evaluations, and scenario modeling for decision support. This study not only contributes in summarizing the LCA research trends of the methods in the application areas but also attempts to identify the potential scope and research directions. LCA thus has proven to be an excellent evaluative tool for future analysis.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Meio Ambiente , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 694: 133771, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756816

RESUMO

It is well known that existing protected areas (PAs) should function as focal areas for expanding PA systems. The optimal complementary conservation areas are often identified by implementing two approaches in systematic conservation planning, i.e., unlocking or locking existing PAs. However, evidence-based studies are lacking for clarifying the efficiencies of these two planning approaches. With Sichuan in southwest China - part of a global biodiversity hotspot - as one case, this study first assessed the ecological representativeness of existing nature reserves (NRs). Using 32 natural vegetation types as the conservation features, we then implemented a systematic conservation planning process by running Marxan software with NR-unlocked and NR-locked scenarios. A human disturbance index was also included as a penalty function in Marxan for achieving cost-effective planning. We finally investigated the efficiencies of the unlocking and locking planning approaches by comparing the outcomes of the NR-unlocked and NR-locked scenarios. We found that existing NRs were geographically biased towards the western mountainous regions with high elevations and low human disturbance levels. For achieving the same quantitative conservation targets, the total area of the NR-locked priority conservation areas was 18.6% larger than that of the NR-unlocked areas, whereas the area of NR-locked complementary areas to existing NRs was 15.3% smaller than that of NR-unlocked ones. Moreover, the NR-locked priority conservation areas had higher ecological representativeness than NR-unlocked areas. The results suggest that if a completely new PA system is to be established without considering existing PAs, the unlocking approach could more efficiently achieve the full conservation targets at lower costs of land area and with better connected habitats. When existing PAs must be used as focal areas for expansion, the locking approach is more cost-effective for filling conservation gaps by requiring smaller amounts of complementary areas. Our analysis provides evidence-based support for expanding the current PA systems in a cost-effective manner.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ecologia , Ecossistema
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 694, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667631

RESUMO

This study, using remote sensing techniques and GIS, studied the land use land cover (LULC) changes of Anzali International Wetland from 1975 to 2013, and the effects of these changes on the ES (ecosystem service) values of the wetland. The benefit transfer method was used to estimate the economic value of the ecosystem goods and services. The basis for the valuations was the values provided for the ES of the world biomes. According to the results, in the period of study (1975 to 2013), the highest percentage of incremental change was attributed to urban and manmade centers (73.85 %), while the lowest was related to the wetland coverage area (0.32 %). Value changes between 1975 and 1975 for agricultural lands were positive and equal to US$ 12.85 million and for the rangelands were negative and equal to US$ - 26.84 million. These changes were positive for the coastal wetlands, equivalent to US$ 258.95 million a year. Despite the negative value changes of the rangelands, the total ES value changes in the entire wetland during the years 1975 to 2013 were evaluated to be positive (equal to US$ 244.96 million). Changes in the value of the services of pollination, biological control, genetic resources, and food production in 2013 were negative, compared to 1975. This indicates the loss of these values, which is due to the loss of rangelands in the study area. The findings of this study can inform policymakers, managers, and environmental planners about the continuation of the changing process and may lead to the formulation of policies for the sustainable exploitation of land resources, as well as future effective land use planning for achieving the goals of sustainable development in the study area. The findings can serve as a tool for raising awareness about the contribution of nature to the benefits, social welfare, and livelihood of the stakeholders.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Agricultura , Ecossistema
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 726, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701315

RESUMO

Social forestry policies grant local communities the right to access protected forest areas contingent upon certain governmental criteria. However, the adoption of social forestry is known to alter land-cover patterns and promote soil erosion. This study assessed the water quality of Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus Rivers in Lampung, Indonesia, based on their total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations. Subsequently, the extent of soil erosion in the two watersheds was determined, and best management practices (BMPs) were recommended for the study area. Water sampling was conducted in 2016 to estimate TSS levels in the two watersheds. Additionally, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was integrated with an ArcGIS model to evaluate soil erosion in the watersheds. The results indicated that TSS concentrations in the Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus Rivers ranged from 36-813 mg L-1 and 16-146 mg L-1, respectively. Further, the average soil erosion rates in the Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus watersheds were 12.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 and 5.6 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively. The results indicated that young coffee trees increased soil erosion rates, especially in areas characterized by vulnerable soil. The USLE results concurred with the TSS analysis and indicated higher erosion rates for the Sekampung Hulu watershed than the Sangharus watershed. The application of BMPs, including conversion to agroforestry coffee, cover crops, and contour systems, was effective in reducing soil erosion in both the Sekampung Hulu and Sangharus watersheds.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Fenômenos Geológicos , Solo , Produtos Agrícolas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Indonésia , Rios , Árvores
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 755, 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734745

RESUMO

The Dunhuang Mogao Grotto is a famous Buddhist monument and was inscribed in the list of world cultural heritage sites by UNESCO in 1987. Water poses a major threat to the preservation of this heritage even though it is located in an arid region. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of rainfall on rock erosion. Specifically, the formation mechanism of slope runoff and the erosion threshold of rainfall were analyzed, and erosion-prone areas of the site were identified. This was carried out using field artificial rainfall simulation testing, and the results inform methods of preventing rainfall-induced cliff erosion. In addition, the rainfall threshold and erosion-prone areas obtained from the experiment were further validated and optimized using monitoring data for natural rainfall and historic documentation. The threshold value of erosive rainfall obtained by empirical statistical analysis method was found to be similar to that obtained by the runoff generation mechanism. The areas identified as prone to erosion using field tests coincided with areas of historic erosion as recorded in site documentation. Furthermore, the forecast grade of cliff slope erosion and its erosion-prone areas are determined after comprehensive analysis of the results obtained by these two methods. The research results are critical for the monitoring, early warning, and prevention of cliff slope erosion. The research methods can also be used as reference in areas for which rainfall data are missing.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo , Movimentos da Água , China , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chuva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Água/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1286-1297, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726558

RESUMO

Enclosure fisheries have accommodated the widespread expansion of aquaculture in many lakes throughout the Yangtze Plain (YP), China, for over four decades. Such practices have increased food provision but have also triggered various detrimental environmental consequences. To restore ecosystem functions, the Chinese government recently implemented specific regulations to remove enclosure fences from lakes throughout the YP. However, little information is available on the spatial and temporal distributions of the enclosure fences, particularly in relation to the enforcement of recent policy changes. Using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images taken between 2002 and 2018, we conducted the first comprehensive assessment of the interannual changes in enclosure fences in 17 large lakes throughout the YP. Consistent decreases in fence density were found in most lakes after 2015; 15 lakes had >50% of their fences removed, while 9 lakes had >90% removed. The timing and implementation of the development and destruction of enclosure fisheries were related to government policy; before 2015, regional dynamics in enclosure fisheries were attributed to provincial policies, whereas the nearly ubiquitous fence demolition after 2015 was likely a response to national policy. This study represents remotely sensed evidence that demonstrates the importance of both local and national environmental policies and their effectiveness in mitigating ongoing human impacts on vulnerable and valuable natural resources. These findings provide valuable baseline information for future lake environmental monitoring and restoration in the YP region, and the methods used here could be applied to other lacustrine and coastal regions experiencing similar aquaculture activities.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Ecossistema , Lagos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Imagens de Satélites
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1422-1432, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726570

RESUMO

Tropical forests provide a suite of benefits including biodiversity, cultural value, and a range of ecosystem services. Globally, there is increasing interest in incentivizing native forest protection as a multi-benefit natural infrastructure strategy to secure clean and ample water supplies. In addition to conversion to agriculture and other non-forest land uses, non-native species invasion represents a major threat to these systems, particularly on islands. Whereas several recent efforts have quantified the benefits of reforestation or avoided agricultural expansion in tropical forest areas, the hydrologic and associated economic benefits of avoided invasion have received less attention. To address this gap, we quantified the benefits of protecting native forest from conversion to non-native forest in East Maui, Hawai'i in terms of groundwater recharge, a highly valued hydrologic ecosystem service that water utilities increasingly seek to co-finance. Compared with two counterfactual invasion scenarios, the groundwater recharge benefits of planned conservation activities reached 40.9 to 146.3 million cubic meters over 100 years depending on invasion rate assumptions. This translated to 2.70 to 137.6 million dollars of cost savings to the water utility in present value terms (achieved through reducing reliance on more expensive water alternatives) under a range of discount rates and water scarcity assumptions. Our results suggest that investing in native forest conservation provides an important hydrologic ecosystem service benefit that complements the range of benefits provided by these ecosystems. These findings demonstrate that co-financing native forest conservation represents an important supply side option in water resources planning.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Florestas , Hawaii , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 756, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741063

RESUMO

The physical texture of cities is comprised of built-up spaces, open-green spaces, and transportation arteries. Urbanization is a dynamic that compose of each of the factors above in a fair proportion to human beings and nature. On the other hand, due to the rapid increase in urban population, urbanization has become a concept that poses serious problems for cities in the last decades and this leads a pressure on open-green spaces in urban areas. Open-green spaces have a great importance in improving urban life conditions and balancing the destroyed relations between humans and environment. For this reason, the sustainability of urban open-green spaces cannot be ignored in the planning studies. In this study, the change in the urban texture in Nevsehir (Turkey) was evaluated in a 10-year period (2004-2014) through the integration of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). Through the use of satellite images with high ground sample distance-QuickBird (60 cm) (2004) and Worlview-2 (50 cm) (2014)-the direction of urban expansion and changes which occurred in urban open-green spaces and urban development areas were examined in detail at the whole city and district scales. Analyses consist of satellite image classification, plant index production, and GIS-based analyses methods. According to the results, it was determined that from 2004 to 2014, the 23.28% decrease in urban open-green spaces was detected in Nevsehir city. It was observed that the city expands towards the north-east, south-west, and west. It was indicated that there is a serious increase in built-up areas especially at the north-east part of the city (107.11%). Thus, a significant decrease has happened in the amount of urban open-green spaces in this area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Urbanização/tendências , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Imagens de Satélites , Turquia , População Urbana , Reforma Urbana
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 675, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654143

RESUMO

Subtropical scrub forests in Pakistan have diminished by about 75% over the last hundred years, mainly due to indiscriminate exploitation and invasion by exotics species. Lack of initiatives, awareness, and research in utilizing the techniques used for accelerating natural forest succession is resulting in further degradation of the remaining forests. To promote active restoration with local communities and governmental authorities, a restoration scheme was piloted between 2010 and 2016 to examine enrichment population effects. Over 4,000 saplings of two woody climax species, Acacia modesta and Olea ferruginea, raised from seeds of local provenance, were planted in three subjectively selected trial plots representing various stages of degradation, covering a total area of about 4 ha. The results showed an overall 46% survival rate, accompanied by natural regeneration. Comparative analyses of the trial plots have shown variations which were strongly site specific, in addition, it also helped in gauging compliance of the site coordinators in implementing restoration measures as an effective management tool. This study provided an opportunity to appreciate the differences in terms of interventions used for implementing ecological restoration across landscape in the degraded scrub forests.


Assuntos
Acacia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Florestas , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Paquistão , Plantas , Sementes , Árvores
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4757, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628336

RESUMO

Recent progress in remote sensing provides much-needed, large-scale spatio-temporal information on habitat structures important for biodiversity conservation. Here we examine the potential of a newly launched satellite-borne radar system (Sentinel-1) to map the biodiversity of twelve taxa across five temperate forest regions in central Europe. We show that the sensitivity of radar to habitat structure is similar to that of airborne laser scanning (ALS), the current gold standard in the measurement of forest structure. Our models of different facets of biodiversity reveal that radar performs as well as ALS; median R² over twelve taxa by ALS and radar are 0.51 and 0.57 respectively for the first non-metric multidimensional scaling axes representing assemblage composition. We further demonstrate the promising predictive ability of radar-derived data with external validation based on the species composition of birds and saproxylic beetles. Establishing new area-wide biodiversity monitoring by remote sensing will require the coupling of radar data to stratified and standardized collected local species data.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Florestas , Radar , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Árvores/fisiologia , Animais , Aves/classificação , Aves/fisiologia , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Árvores/classificação
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 655, 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630261

RESUMO

Mining activities are important for the country's economy, but they cause serious threats to the environment. The geology of SW Turkey comprises Southern (Çine) Submassif of Menderes Metamorphic Massif and the Lycian Nappes. These geological units are unconformably overlain by lignite-bearing Miocene deposits, Upper Miocene-Pliocene conglomerates and Quaternary alluvial deposits. The aim of this study is to determine the geospatial change of mining activities in the Mugla-Aydin provinces, SW Turkey. For this purpose, Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM, Landsat-8 OLI and Google Earth satellite image data for 1984, 1994, 2004, 2014 and 2018 have been used for change detection analysis. In 1984, only a Miocene lignite quarry was excavated. Then, in 1994, operations for the excavation of feldspar-quartz and marble quarries were started, and from 2004 to 2014, mining activities significantly accelerated. An aerial image of 2018 shows that an area of about 3800 ha has been exploited by mining at 149 quarries. Considering access roads to quarries, plants and dam reservoirs, the human impact extends over 3800 ha. The study area is home to several archaeological sites and endemic biota. Thus, there is an urgent need for the relocation and protection of archaeological heritages and endemic biota by creating special zones. Additionally, the rich geomorphologic features in the study area that require millions of years to form are at risk of totally disappearing.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Mineração , Imagens de Satélites , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Atividades Humanas , Turquia
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180578, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596389

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine how often rural farmers in a watershed use no-tillage systems combined with crop rotation, contour farming and agricultural terraces. The study area was Paraná Watershed III (PB3) in the western region of Paraná State, and data from the 2006 Agricultural Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. A frequency distribution analysis of farms as a function of the no-tillage (NT) area was conducted in combination with a cluster analysis of soil and water conservation practices (adoption of crop rotation, contour farming and agricultural terrace practices). The results showed that the farms in PB3 adopt adequate soil and water conservation practices, with 73% adopting NT combined with at least 2 other conservation practices; however, agricultural terracing was found to be the most neglected practice in the region. In addition, based on the soil and water conservation practices in the watershed, 5 groups of farms were identified, the worst of which, those located in the municipalities that mainly neglect conservation practices, live in areas with highly erodible soils.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Solo/química , Brasil , Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 647, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620901

RESUMO

It is very important for managers to plan a road network that meets all the requirements for tourism development and management. The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify an existing road network for tourism purposes in the Arasbaran protected area. First, the map layers of effective criteria were prepared in GIS and were standardized by a fuzzy logic approach and finally combined considering their relative importance weights obtained through pair-wise comparison technique. A suitability map was then acquired. After that, 14 different scenarios of road network were designed to access the recreational area using PEGGER extension in ArcView. Then, they were evaluated in terms of technical, environmental, and socio-economic criteria to achieve the optimal-designed road network. Moreover, the existing road network was modified according to the optimal-designed road scenario. Finally, a modified version of the existing road network was proposed for tourism development and management in the Arasbaran region. Regarding the results, the slope criterion with a value of 0.289 was identified as the most important factor in providing a suitability map for road planning. The seventh scenario, with a road density of 3.34 m ha-1 and accessibility (hard) of 64.68%, was chosen as the optimal option to modify the existing road network due to the best performances in terms of minimum costs and environmental impacts on the basis of the highest value per unit length (72.26). According to the assessments and chi-square test comparison, the optimal-designed road network and the proposed road network were identified as better alternatives compared to the existing road. Based on this work, it can be concluded that the combination of GIS-MCDM approaches can properly assist in tourism planning and management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Transportes , Viagem , Florestas , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190568, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576934

RESUMO

Early humans have domesticated plant and animal species based on ancient empirical concepts (Darwin 1868, 1876). In 1886, Mendel established a new paradigm of hereditary laws (Mendel 1866, 1870, 1950) based on genotypic and phenotypic traits of cross-compatible species, establishing a complex breeding technology that is currently utilized for the development of most food and livestock-derived products. Recently, studies on deciphering the double-helical structure (Watson and Crick 1953a, b) and how to restrict DNA (Arber 2012) have established the foundation of recombinant DNA technology. A new era is paving the way for genetic manipulation of important traits among all the kingdom's organisms, allowing for the development of innovative and widely utilized products for the agricultural, industrial and pharmaceutical production sectors (Mc Elroy 2003, 2004, ISAAA 2016).


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Biotecnologia
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