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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 704, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673801

RESUMO

In light of ongoing changes in how humans interact with the environment, it is of great importance to quantitatively assess the impact of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystems. Using a variety of methods, we analyzed land-use patterns and ecosystem service values (ESV) in 1990, 2000, and 2010; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1982 to 2010 in the arid region of Northwest China; and quantitatively assessed the effects of LUCC on changes in NDVI and ESV. The results indicate the following: (1) From 1990 to 2010, the rate of increase in the amount of cropland and urban land was highest at 19.13% and 18.25%, respectively, followed by the rate for water cover (5.10%) and forest land (3.55%), while grassland experienced a reduction of 2.25%. (2) From 1990 to 2010, the total ESV increased by 1.82%. Changes in the amount of water cover and cropland were responsible for an increase in ESV of 1.42% and 1.10%, respectively, while the change in the amount of grassland was responsible for a decrease of 1.09%. Based on this, it seems likely that climate variability is a substantial cause of change in ESV. (3) From 1982 to 2010, NDVI showed an overall increase, first increasing significantly between 1982 and 2002 and then decreasing somewhat from 2002 to 2010. From 1990 to 2010, the contribution rate of LUCC to change in total NDVI was 26.74%, indicating that the contribution rate of climate variability to NDVI change was up to 73.26%. Therefore, over those 20 years, climate warming and humidification had an important impact on the development of ecosystems in the arid region of Northwest China.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urbanização/tendências , China , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
4.
Adv Mar Biol ; 83: 115-157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606069

RESUMO

One of the most critical threats to biodiversity is the high extinction rate driven by human activities. Reducing extinction rates requires the implementation of conservation programmes based on robust scientific data. Elasmobranchs are important ecological components of the ocean, and several species sustain substantial economic activities. Unfortunately, elasmobranchs are one of the most threatened and understudied animal taxa. The Mexican Pacific Coast (MPC) is a region with high elasmobranch diversity and is the seat of major elasmobranch fisheries. But it is also a developing region with several conservation and management challenges which require national and international attention. Here, we review the conservation genetics literature of elasmobranchs from the MPC. We present a synthesis of the works using samples from the region and emphasize the main gaps and biases in these data. In addition, we discuss the benefits and challenges of generating genomic information to improve the management and conservation of an elasmobranch biodiversity hotspot in a developing country. We found 47 elasmobranch genetic articles that cover <30% of the elasmobranch diversity in the region. These studies mainly used mitochondrial DNA sequences to analyse the genetic structure of commercially important and abundant species of the order Carcharhiniformes. Some of these papers also assessed mating systems, demographic parameters, and taxonomic uncertainties, all of which are important topics for efficient management decisions. In terms of conservation genetics, elasmobranchs from the MPC remain understudied. However, high-throughput sequencing technologies have increased the power and accessibility of genomic tools, even in developing countries such as Mexico. The tools described here provide information relevant for biodiversity conservation. Therefore, we strongly suggest that investment in genomic research will assist implementation of efficient management strategies. In time, this will reduce the extinction risk of the unique elasmobranch biodiversity from the MPC.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Elasmobrânquios/genética , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , México , Oceano Pacífico
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 91-102, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564738

RESUMO

Climate change, habitat fragmentation and pollution, and subsequent loss of biodiversity and degradation of natural environments, threaten the range of ecosystem services that support all life on this planet. These changes, among others, are also driving the emergence of infectious diseases, with negative health outcomes for humans, animals, and our shared environment. Historically, interventions aimed at human and agricultural health issues did not always integrate wildlife or environmental health as part of the solution, which has resulted in unintended consequences. One Health recognises the interdependence of humans, animals and their shared environment, and provides a conceptual framework for developing interventions that optimise outcomes for human, animal and environmental health. However, there is a need to clearly articulate the core values, goals, and objectives of One Health for all relevant sectors in order to maximise synergies for communication, coordination, collaboration and, ultimately, for joint actions on disease control and prevention. The application of systems and harm reduction approaches, focusing on the socio-economic and environmental determinants of health, and ensuring good governance and effective leadership will also maximise the opportunities to develop 'win-win-win' solutions to global health and environmental challenges. These solutions would help propel One Health forward to reach its full potential and truly optimise health outcomes for all.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Saúde Única , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4409, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562327

RESUMO

Coral reefs are under increasing stress from local and global factors. Long-term perspectives are becoming increasingly important for understanding ecosystem responses. Here, we provide insights from a 91-year study of the Low Isles on the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) that begins with the pioneering Great Barrier Reef Expedition (1928-29). We show that intertidal communities have experienced major phase-shifts since 1928, with few signs of a return to the initial state. Coral communities demolished by cyclones 50 years ago and exposed to multiple stressors have yet to recover. Richness and diversity of these communities systematically declined for corals and other invertebrates. Specifically, massive corals have replaced branching corals, and soft corals have become much more numerous. The long-term perspective of this study illustrates the importance of considering multiple factors in reef decline, and potential recovery, of coral reefs, and the importance of tracking changes in community structure as well as coral abundance over long periods.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Ecologia , Invertebrados/classificação , Oceano Pacífico
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(9): 567, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418090

RESUMO

Assessing land degradation is essentially needed for decision-makers to monitor and mitigate degradation and implement sustainable land management practices. More specifically, monitoring land degradation on a regular basis enables decision-makers to analyze impact of degradation and effects of sustainable land management practices. This requires adopting a precise methodology for assessing land degradation. With information form assessments, decision-makers can establish achievable management goals to attain land degradation neutrality as addressed by the Sustainable Development Goal 15 (i.e., SDG 15). Accordingly, this work aimed at developing a systematic approach for assessing land degradation at the subnational level with the combined use of geo-spatial information and field data. The specific objectives were to (1) assess trends in land degradation and the impact of historical land uses on the current landscape characters, (2) investigate and characterize principal criteria of land degradation, and (3) identify sustainable land management practices. Multi-source and multi-resolution spatial data were employed for assessing the three indicators of land degradation neutrality (i.e., changes in vegetation cover, land productivity, and soil organic carbon). Prioritizing lands prone to degradation was investigated using a set of spatial attributes of different weights. Field data collection involved the use of pre-defined set of questions for assessing the principal criteria of land degradation including type, extent, rate, degree, and causes of land degradation. Sustainable land management practices were identified and categorized accordingly. This assessment provided a means for prioritization of interventions (i.e., prevention, mitigation, and/or rehabilitation) in an area characterized by a climate varying from semi-arid to moist subhumid.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo/química , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Líbano , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
9.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374858

RESUMO

Fish and seafood consumption in Australia has been growing, yet the implications of this trend across the food system, from both a health and sustainability perspective have not been fully explored. This paper aims to map out the fish and seafood food system in Australia, linking production and consumption, to articulate challenges and opportunities for enhancing the sector's contribution to future healthy and sustainable diets. We conducted a secondary analysis of publicly available datasets on fish and seafood production and consumption, triangulated and supplemented with peer-reviewed and grey literature on environmental, economic and social sustainability issues throughout the food system. A key challenge for health is the high proportion of fish and seafood consumed as discretionary food, particularly among children. Key challenges for sustainability include the narrow focus on environmental sustainability (with little consideration of the other domains), and the focus on production with little consideration for sustainability throughout post-harvest handling, processing, retail, distribution and consumption. Key opportunities for health and sustainability include the innovative use of processing and packaging technology to maximise nutritional quality; creation of markets and supply chains for a greater diversity of underutilised fish and seafood species and processing by-products; and reductions in waste and loss throughout the entire supply chain.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Peixes , Manipulação de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/tendências , Alimentos Marinhos/provisão & distribução , Animais , Austrália , Comportamento do Consumidor , Bases de Dados Factuais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26449-26471, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363977

RESUMO

The biosphere is polluted with metals due to burning of fossil fuels, pesticides, fertilizers, and mining. The metals interfere with soil conservations such as contaminating aqueous waste streams and groundwater, and the evidence of this has been recorded since 1900. Heavy metals also impact human health; therefore, the emancipation of the environment from these environmental pollutants is critical. Traditionally, techniques to remove these metals include soil washing, removal, and excavation. Metal-accumulating plants could be utilized to remove these metal pollutants which would be an alternative option that would simultaneously benefit commercially and at the same time clean the environment from these pollutants. Commercial application of pollutant metals includes biofortification, phytomining, phytoremediation, and intercropping. This review discusses about the metal-accumulating plants, mechanism of metal accumulation, enhancement of metal accumulation, potential commercial applications, research trends, and research progress to enhance the metal accumulation, benefits, and limitations of metal accumulators. The review identified that the metal accumulator plants only survive in low or medium polluted environments with heavy metals. Also, more research is required about metal accumulators in terms of genetics, breeding potential, agronomics, and the disease spectrum. Moreover, metal accumulators' ability to uptake metals need to be optimized by enhancing metal transportation, transformation, tolerance to toxicity, and volatilization in the plant. This review would benefit the industries and environment management authorities as it provides up-to-date research information about the metal accumulators, limitation of the technology, and what could be done to improve the metal enhancement in the future.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Biodegradação Ambiental , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Solo/química
12.
Chemosphere ; 232: 387-395, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158633

RESUMO

Different countries produce varying amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have distinct patterns of use, and regulations for treatment and disposal. Therefore, long-term countermeasures require an understanding of historical and future emission trends at the national scale. In this study, we estimate historical PCB emissions from products containing PCBs, unintentional production related thermal processes, and disposal processes for products containing PCBs from 1950 to 2030 in Japan. In addition, in order to validate the results, we estimated PCB concentrations in environmental media using an environmental fate model and a sensitivity analysis was conducted. Our results show that total PCB emissions were approximately 2.6 tons in 2017, which was a dramatic decrease from peak emissions of 68.9 tons in 1970. We suggest that PCB emissions may continue to decrease, reaching 0.707 tons in 2030. This trend might be due to a change in the emission source; it was estimated that the main emission source in past and recent years was volatilization from large products containing PCBs. However, it is predicted that the main emission sources in the future will be unintentional PCB production from thermal processes and volatilization from small untreated products containing PCBs, although the estimation of environmental PCB levels suggested that there might be unknown emission sources. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis indicated that some parameters greatly influenced the estimation of recent and future emissions. In particular, there was no detailed information concerning the applications for PCBs, which potentially had a large influence on the estimation of future emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Monitoramento Ambiental/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Japão , Modelos Teóricos , Volatilização
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 729-736, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150893

RESUMO

Individual low-carbon behavior plays an important role in reducing carbon emissions and improving the ecological health of the environment. This study explored the factors that influence individuals' low-carbon behavior and the variations between different groups. A questionnaire measuring seven dimensions (including low-carbon awareness, low-carbon knowledge, personal norms, social norms, situational factors, private low-carbon behavior, and public low-carbon behavior) was distributed to the residents of Tianjin, yielding 418 valid responses. The results indicated that low-carbon awareness, low-carbon knowledge, personal norms, social norms, and situational factors had an impact on residents' low-carbon behavior. In particular, the level of public low-carbon behavior was higher than private low-carbon behavior. Second, by exploring the effects of situational factors on residents' low-carbon behaviors, we found that situational factors inhibited both private and public low-carbon behaviors. Third, in different groups based on age, gender, income, education, and other variables there were differences in impact effects. This research has significant potential for guiding residents' low-carbon behavior and improving low-carbon management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecologia , Política Ambiental/tendências , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 422, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177407

RESUMO

Modeling spatial-temporal dynamic of land use change is of great necessity for understanding the status of the past, causes of the change, and prediction of the future. This study aims to objectify three topics which include identifying the past land use changes, modeling the future changes, and subsequently considering their driving forces. The change detection analysis has shown that about 12,081.8 ha of the study area has changed since 1984 to 2014. Moreover, the models of cellular automata (CA) and Markov chain were applied in order to predict the land use changes of 2024 and 2034. The simulated transition matrix showed that about 6780 ha and 10,835 ha would change during the periods of 2014-2024 and 2014-2034, respectively. Furthermore, the results of the logistic regression model showed that the human driving forces of distance to roads, distance to wells, distance to streams, and distance to residential areas have had a negative effect on the process land use changes. Additionally, a questionnaire was used to obtain information considering the management factors of preventing land use changes, the perception of the natural resources' experts and in turn finding some socioeconomic and policy forces on land use changes. The Friedman's test analysis indicates that the factors of the official rules of government, economy, weakness of regulatory systems, and development activities, e.g., infrastructure and industrial projects, were identified as the leading causes of converting natural ecosystems to other land uses, particularly to cropland. Therefore, the decision-makers and managers should be assigned comprehensive planning for the protection, restoration, and development of natural resources, especially in this region.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Política Ambiental/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Cadeias de Markov , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19389-19402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073834

RESUMO

The study investigates the long-run impact of tourism development on ecological footprint by employing the time-varying coefficient cointegration approach (TVC), in addition to the conventional cointegration techniques in the case of Azerbaijan for the period of 1996-2014. Based on the TVC estimation results, the coefficient of tourism development, which is the income elasticity of environmental degradation, was found to be time invariant. The paper uses energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and institutional quality indicators as control explanatory variables. The estimation results revealed that trade and energy consumption have statistically significant and positive impact on ecological footprint, while the coefficients of the other explanatory variables were found to be insignificant. Both the conventional estimation methods and the TVC concluded that, for the relationship between ecological footprint and tourism development, the EKC hypothesis is not present in Azerbaijan. Policy implications for the resource-rich economies have been discussed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Atividades de Lazer/economia , Azerbaijão , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecologia , Renda , Indústrias , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083656

RESUMO

The highly interactive nature of predator-prey relationship is essential for ecosystem conservation; predators have been extirpated, however, from entire ecosystems all over the Earth. Reintroductions comprise a management technique to reverse this trend. Species Distribution Models (SDM) are preemptive tools for release-site selection, and can define levels of habitat quality over the species distribution. The Atlantic Forest of South America has lost most of its apex predators, and Harpy Eagles Harpia harpyja-Earth's largest eagle-are now limited to few forest pockets in this domain. Harpy Eagles are supposedly widespread in the Amazon Forest, however, where habitat loss and degradation is advancing at a rapid pace. We aim to describe the suitability of threatened Amazonian landscapes for this eagle. We also aim to assess the suitability of remaining Atlantic Forest sites for Harpy Eagle reintroductions. Here we show that that considerable eagle habitat has already been lost in Amazonia due to the expansion of the "Arc of Deforestation", and that Amazonian forests currently represent 93% of the current distribution of the species. We also show that the Serra do Mar protected areas in southeastern Brazil is the most promising region for Harpy Eagle reintroductions in the Atlantic Forest. Reintroduction and captive breeding programs have been undertaken for Harpy Eagles, building the technical and biological basis for a successful restoration framework. Our distribution range for this species represents a 41% reduction of what is currently proposed by IUCN. Furthermore, habitat loss in Amazonia, combined with industrial logging and hunting suggest that the conservation status of this species should be reassessed. We suggest researchers and conservation practitioners can use this work to help expand efforts to conserve Harpy Eagles and their natural habitats.


Assuntos
Águias , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Brasil , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Florestas , Comportamento Predatório
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20669-20688, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104240

RESUMO

The construction of The Three Gorges Reservoir has changed land use structure and reconstituted landscape pattern as imparts significant influence upon the land use structure and ecological environment of Three Gorges Reservoir Regions. The ecological safety of reservoir area is extremely dependent on unique location and special geological conditions of Zhongxian County, the center of Three Gorges Reservoir Regions in Chongqing, and therefore, ecological environment of reservoir area will be changed with the transition of land use in Zhongxian County. Based on land use data in 2000, 2005, 2010, this paper chooses influencing factors from aspects of natural topographic and geomorphological conditions, accessibility to economic development and land use expansion, and then establishes Logistic-CA-Markov (Logistic-Cellular Automata-Markov) and WLC-CA-Markov (Weighted Linear Combination- Cellular Automata- Markov) models so as to simulate spatial pattern of land use of Zhongxian County. The results demonstrate that WLC-CA-Markov model established here has better controllability and higher simulation precision (the kappa coefficient is 0.9295). In the future development of Zhongxian County, the area of grassland and plow land will be reduced continuously, the area of construction land will be expanded obviously mostly because of the added area both near the water and in the north of Zhongxian county, the area of woodland will be increased to a little extent, the area of water area and unused land has gentle change. In the sustainable scenario, the area of grassland will be reduced slightly, the area of water area keeps steady, the area of plow land is reduced but higher than red line of plow land, the area of construction land is increased with significantly smaller increase amplitude than that in the natural development scenario, and the woodland is increased. This scenario coordinates ecological environment with economic development of regional society and turns out to be the best development scenario of land use.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Ecossistema , Modelos Estatísticos , China , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Cadeias de Markov , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Rios , Urbanização
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